The European Commission, DG XII, has published a report entitled "Assessment and evaluation of direct financial returns on ECSC steel research programmes". The ECSC has funded research into steel production, transformation and utilization over many years. Funding for ECSC steel research projects during the 1981-1990 programme amounted to ECU 220 million, not including the pilot and demonstration programme established in 1983. The aim of the report is to determine the level of direct financial return provided by the research funding. It examines the factors affecting progress as well as the technical contribution provided by ECSC research funding in the domains of blast furnaces, steelmaking, continuous casting, rolling and steel utilization.