On 19 April 1993, the Council authorized the Commission to negotiate an Agreement for scientific and technological cooperation between the European Union and Canada. Following lengthy negotiations, the Agreement was finally signed by both parties on 15 June 1995. The purpose of this Agreement is to encourage and facilitate scientific and technological cooperation between the EU and Canada in fields of common interest. Cooperation under the Agreement is to be conducted on the basis of mutual benefit and in accordance with the following principles: - Timely exchange of information which may affect the actions of participants in cooperative activities; - Effective protection of intellectual property and equitable sharing of intellectual property rights (as set out in the Annex to the Agreement), within the framework of applicable laws and regulations; - Balanced realization of economic and social benefits by the Community and Canada in view of the contributions made to cooperative activities by the respective participants and/or parties. Under the agreement, cooperation may be pursued in the following areas: - Agriculture, including fisheries; - Medical and health research; - Non-nuclear energy; - Environment, including earth observation; - Information technologies; - Communication technologies; - Telematics for economic and social development; - Mineral processing. The Agreement provides for cooperation through the following activities: - Participation of persons and legal entities, including the parties themselves, universities, research institutions, and other bodies or undertakings, in research projects of the Community or Canada, in accordance with the procedures in force for each Party; - Shared use of research facilities; - Visits and exchanges of scientists, engineers or other appropriate personnel for the purposes of participating in seminars, symposia and workshops relevant to cooperation under the Agreement; - Exchange of information on practices, laws, regulations and programmes relevant to cooperation under this Agreement; - Other activities, as may be mutually determined by the Joint Science and Technology Cooperation Committee (which is responsible for administering the Agreement) in accordance with the applicable policies and programmes under the parties. Joint research projects may be conducted under the Agreement after the participants in a project have concluded a Joint Technology Management Plan (JTMP). This is a specific contract to be concluded between the participants defining their respective rights and obligations. The Agreement will enter into force following formal ratification by the Council of the European Communities and by the Canadian government.