A Commission proposal for a Council Decision concerning the conclusion, on behalf of the Community, of the convention on environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context (COM(92) 93, submitted on 25.3.1992) approves the Espoo (Finland) Convention on behalf of the Community. Concerning Member States' ratification, acceptance or approval of the convention signed by the Community on 25 February 1991: As certain provisions of the Convention fall within the field of competence of the Member States it is essential that they become Contracting Parties so that obligations arising from it can be fulfilled. It is proposed that Member States take the necessary steps to ensure that instruments of ratification or approval are deposited by the Community and the Member States at the same time, if possible, and no later than a date (not yet established) to be included in the text of the Decision. The Espoo Convention sets out measures to be undertaken by the Contracting Parties to prevent, reduce and control significant adverse transboundary environmental impact from proposed activities, listed in an Annex. These concern crude oil refineries, thermal power stations, installations for the production or enrichment of nuclear fuels, smelting, extraction of asbestos, chemical installations, construction of motorways or airports, waste disposal, large dams and reservoirs, groundwater abstraction activities, pulp and paper manufacturing, mining and extraction, offshore hydrocarbon production, major petrochemical and chemical storage, and deforestation of large areas. Inter alia, the Parties shall give special consideration to the setting up or intensification of research programmes aimed at improving methods for assessing the impact of proposed activities, gaining better understanding of cause-effect relationships, analysing and monitoring efficient implementation of decisions on proposed activities, and developing methods to stimulate creative approaches in the search for environmentally sound alternatives to these activities and production/consumption patterns.