Elaboration of detailed plans for comprehensive European CO2 gathering networks and industrial clusters linked to CO2 storage sites via hubs, pipeline networks and shipping routes, with due attention to national and border-crossing permitting and regulatory issues. Mapping and understanding the nature and longevity of emission sources, identification of transport corridors and performing initial impact assessments, and developing local business models for delivery of CO2 capture, transport, utilisation and/or storage (including the separation of capture, transport, utilisation and storage responsibilities) within promising start-up regions. Industrial clusters may include for example power producers, cement and steel factories, chemical plants, refineries and hydrogen production facilities. A hubs-and-clusters approach could also include the coupling of hydrogen production and CCS, possibly using common infrastructure. The assessment of cost-effective ('bankable') storage capacity in selected regions is a key component of strategic planning, as it will provide additional certainty that the required CO2 storage capacity will be available when needed. Due attention has to be given to regions with potential for early onshore storage development (including enhanced oil recovery). Close cooperation with industrial players, as well as engagement with local stakeholders, is paramount. This includes identifying and involving relevant end users and societal stakeholders and analysing their concerns and needs using appropriate techniques and methods from the social sciences and humanities.
The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU in the range of EUR 2 to 3 million would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts.
Establishing the necessary infrastructure for safe and cost-effective CO2 transport and storage is of high importance in Europe. Early CCS projects will most likely explore CO2 storage sinks in the vicinity of capture points, and the required infrastructure will therefore most likely be initiated at national level in CO2 hubs and industrial clusters in order to achieve economies of scale by sharing CO2 transport and storage infrastructure. A cross border transport infrastructure is ultimately necessary to efficiently connect the CO2 hubs and industrial clusters to sinks.
Timely strategic planning will enable and accelerate the roll-out of a CCS infrastructure consisting of capture points and clusters, intermediate hubs, CO2 conversion facilities, safe and cost-effective CO2 transport and storage. Projects should pave the way for the development of operational storage sites as from the early 2020's, in particular linked to carbon-intensive industry. Proposals should clearly demonstrate how their outputs will contribute to achieving these expected impacts in the short term (up to 3 years), medium term (3-10 years) and long term (more than 10 years).