Complex and value-added specialised vessels In order to meet this challenge, proposals should address one or several of the following aspects:―Develop and validate advanced ferry concepts for European waters (urban, inland waterways and short sea), covering hull designs, equipment and operations, including optimised land-side interfaces.―Explore and validate low impact cruise and passenger ship designs and operations (noise, discharges, ballast water management), in particular for all seasons operations and challenging environments.―Develop and validate modular standardised workboat concepts.―Develop and validate vessel concepts and designs for new waterborne transport and transport support operations, including low-viscous resistance frames and where appropriate novel and more efficient ice-breaking technologies.The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU of between EUR 8 to 12 million each would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. European yards and marine equipment manufacturers, often consisting of SMEs, are world leaders in the construction of complex vessels, in small and medium-sized, value-added vessels and in highly specialised vessels. In addition to making the production and use of existing vessel concepts more efficient, new waterborne business cases require more specialised and customised vessels. The specific challenge is to explore the best design concepts and construction and production principles for complex, one off and small series vessels, and for modular standardised vessels, also in terms of marketability (technology push) and future skills requirements along the value chain (especially as regards SMEs active in this area). The outcome of activities will contribute to the competitiveness of the sector by bringing forward innovative solutions that build on the current and future technological capacities and human resources of European companies: proof of concept up to the level of demonstrators including the assessment of cost-benefits (ferries/passenger vessels), development of standardisation approaches and modular production methods including demonstrators (workboats); market/marketability analysis and preliminary proof of concept (entirely new vessel concepts and ice breaking technologies). The exploitation of results for the benefit of engineering and manufacturing SMEs will be facilitated.