New regulatory frameworks to enable effective deployment of emerging technologies and business/operating models for all transport modes Proposals should address several or all of the following: Identification of new technologies, services, business and operating models and mobility solutions (including social innovations) having the potential to disrupt and overhaul the current regulatory approaches in both passenger and freight transport; Comparative evidence based analysis of different regulatory responses and governance models (both in terms of existing and forthcoming solutions) to disruptive transport technologies and business/operating models across the EU and beyond, identification of best practices and lessons learned; Analysis of the main economic, political and social (e.g demographic, cultural and historical) variables influencing the regulatory responses; Identification of the necessary characteristics of regulatory approaches/frameworks and governance models that can accommodate disruptive innovation without compromising on the adequate level of protection with regard to security (including cybersecurity), safety, data protection, social protection, and which can contribute to a sustainable model of public infrastructure use. Analysis of issues of cooperation among public and private parties, in both mandatory and non-mandatory situations as well as data exchange, governance and communication. In line with the Union's strategy for international cooperation in research and innovation[[COM(2012)497]], international cooperation is encouraged.Proposals should ensure involvement of policy-makers and business representatives and include actions to promote take up of research results by key stakeholders.The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU of between EUR 1 and 2 million each would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. New forms of shared-use mobility, automated vehicle technologies in all transport modes and innovative concepts such as Mobility as a Service (MaaS) often have to function in the regulatory frameworks that may not be adapted to these solutions and to rapid technological change.Fragmented, extensive or inadequate regulation can negatively affect businesses and citizens- consumers and could potentially impact on the international competitiveness of the European economy. In addition, protracted regulatory responses might result in belated solutions that are no more adequate to the technology and business/operating models that have in the meantime further evolved. The challenge is to devise new regulatory approaches, frameworks and governance models through evidence based research. These should be flexible enough to cope with the fast pace of technological change and foster effective deployment of emerging user-centric technologies and business models, while at the same time preserving adequate level of protection with regard to security (including cybersecurity), safety, data protection, social protection, ethics, etc. Regulatory barriers between transport modes should also be identified and analysed with a view to suggest actions which will foster a multimodal transport system. Actions in this topic should specifically contribute to the EU's better regulation agenda, which aims to design and evaluate EU policies and laws transparently, with evidence, and backed up by the views of citizens and stakeholders. Research under this topic should aid regulators and policy makers in updating and building appropriate regulatory responses to the current and future developments in the transport systems by allowing effective introduction of innovative technologies and business models, while at the same time safeguarding adequate level of security, safety, data privacy, and social protection. The impact should carefully balance the perspective of all stakeholders, economic actors, users, local and national governments.