Building Open Science platforms in transport research Proposals should address all of the following:- Identify the spectrum of stakeholders and analyse their practices and expectations in implementing various aspects of Open Science in transport research, including in particular Open Access to publications and data in transport research in Europe and internationally;- Map the landscape of existing research data infrastructures and scientific clouds in transport research as well as governance and new operational/business models being developed to provide better data access in view of their integration within the European Open Science cloud;- Create a forum for national and European stakeholders – public and private - to exchange ideas and share best practices for operationalising Open Science principles in transport research;- Identify the main Challenges and opportunities for implementing the various aspects of Open Science in the area of Transport Research, in particular taking into account the specificities of knowledge production and exploitation in the area of transport research including IPR, technology transfer and the dual dimension of data (i.e data that can be attributed both as a private resource used by companies and as a public good);- Identify and engage international partners for mutual learning and sharing of best practices;- Design a Code of Conduct for implementing Open Science principles in transport research in Europe;In line with the Union's strategy for international cooperation in research and innovation[[COM(2012)497]], international cooperation is encouraged.The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU of between EUR 1 and 2 million each would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. The rapid development of digital technologies and new collaborative tools are the basis of an on-going transformation and opening up of science and research, referred to as Open science.The idea captures a systemic change to the way science and research have been carried out for the last fifty years: shifting from the standard practices of publishing research results in scientific publications towards sharing and using all available knowledge at an earlier stage in the research process. Open Science covers a wide range of aspects, from skills, researchers' career, evaluation of research, open access to research results, and relevant data infrastructures, all aiming at making science more efficient, better reproducible and more responsive to societal and economic expectations. Two important elements for operationalising Open Science at the European level are mandating Open Access to publications and their underlying data as well as developing and using a European Open Science Cloud for storing, accessing and managing all research data. As these developments are relatively new there is a need to create a common understanding on their practical impact in the area of transport research, identify current practices and devise concrete approaches for operationalising Open Science in transport research, and to adopt them in the form of codes of conduct. Actions are expected to lead to setting up a community of transport research organisations willing to work on the basis of a commonly agreed Open Science Code of Conduct. Furthermore, actions should contribute to creating a solid knowledge base on the implementation of Open Science approaches in transport research, and in particular on current constraints and bottlenecks in this field. This should lead, amongst other, to improved efficiency, quality and integrity and, when relevant, interdisciplinarity of transport research, speed up the path from research to innovation and promote citizen’s engagement in the scientific process.