Encouraging innovation in nuclear safety for the benefit of European citizen The aim of this action is to support technology transfer from the research community to industry, exploiting innovative aspects of previous research funded by the Euratom Programme in the area of safety of nuclear installations, decommissioning, radiation protection and radioactive waste management. This action should focus on closer-to-the-market activities including prototyping, testing, demonstrating, piloting and scaling-up for new or improved products, processes or services. Projects may include limited research and development activities. Projects submitted under this topic should clearly demonstrate European added value. Activities are expected to focus on Technology Readiness Levels 5 to 7.The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the Euratom Programme of between EUR 2.25 and up to a maximum of EUR 4.5 million would allow this specific challenge to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. Euratom has been active in the field of nuclear safety for over 50 years. The commitment of Euratom and its Member States to a high level of nuclear safety is reflected in the existing Euratom legislative framework as well as in the relevant Council Resolutions and the Conclusions of the European Council.Since the dawn of nuclear energy in Europe, extensive in-depth research and development programmes have been implemented in EU Member States and at the Euratom level with the aim to assure the highest levels of the nuclear safety standards in Europe, targeting safety of the nuclear installations, radiation protection of EU population and societally responsible treatment of the nuclear waste produced in the EU countries.In practice, the highest safety standards in the nuclear domain can be attained by the continuous process of industrial innovation in the fields of nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, decommissioning, radiation protection and non-power applications of nuclear and radiation technology. This action is expected to bring safety and radiation protection solutions closer to the market and to address remaining technological challenges aiming at satisfying the requirements of current legislation in force[[Council Directives 2009/71/Euratom, 2011/70/Euratom and 2013/59/Euratom.]].