The impact of spatial mobility on European demographics, society, welfare system and labour market Proposals should analyse drivers and effects of demographically declining and left behind areas in Europe. They may develop a typology of such areas that would help in developing policies best aligned with the needs of different areas. Projects should focus in particular on spatial mobility, including, but not limited to, urban-rural, inter-regional and intra-EU mobility, and the interactions of different policies affecting these flows, as well as linkages to mobility flows of non-European migrants. The proposals should assess, in an interdisciplinary way, the pros and cons of spatial mobility from an individual, economic, labour market and administrative perspective in both sending and receiving areas, in order to provide a new framework to understand these flows. Different temporal forms of mobility, such as circular, chained, short term and permanent, should be addressed, as well as differences between labour, student, life style, leisure and retirement motivated mobility. Proposals should also include considerations on the circulation of workers in the EU and on the disruption caused by the COVID-19 emergency and its impact on European borders and freedom of movement.Proposals should analyse the relation between freedom of movement within or between EU Member States and Associated Countries and the development of both sending and receiving areas, taking into account demographic and historical trends, gender, age, social and labour market characteristics. Research should focus on practices that lead to synergetic benefits for both areas concerned, going beyond a framework of mobility with winners and losers. Proposals should include a focus on the return of individuals to their place and/or country of origin, on the conditions upon which this occurs and to the benefits that this may lead to. Proposals should also consider determinants of immobility, and study patterns, drivers and effects of mobility in conjuncture to analyses of those individuals that under the same circumstances decide not to move. Projects analysing these elements should also consider the impact of such forms of mobility for the livelihoods of individuals moving and of those who stay.Proposals should help policymakers developing policies that contribute harnessing the positive elements of mobility and may limit the negative effects. They should do so by considering the different types of areas of origin, and catering for the different needs that these may have. Proposals should select cases from a wide variety of EU and Associated Countries, and comparative research across cases is highly encouraged.