Modelling the role of the circular economy for climate change mitigation Projects are to advance the understanding and modelling of the current and future potential contribution of the circular economy in Europe to GHG emissions reductions. The scope of the modelling activities has to go beyond the state-of-the-art, in particular in terms of sectors covered and their interrelations, be as comprehensive as possible (e.g. covering also the blue economy), and include citizen’s behaviours and engagement.This action should look beyond the specific measures needed to deliver a circular economy and propose a framework for revealing, demonstrating and quantifying the circular economy’s potential contribution to climate goals, as well as improving the coverage of basic industry value and supply chains in models (or suites of models) used to analyse mitigation pathways. While focusing on the linkages between circular economy measures and climate goals, the action can also improve the understanding of the connections between climate action and other environmental areas and issues as well as social and health issues, in line with the systemic approach that the European Green Deal promotes.Collaboration between the scientific community and policy- and decision-makers in order to integrate the circular economy into integrated assessment frameworks and other comprehensive climate policy visions is highly recommended. Actions should also ensure collaboration with industry stakeholders and civil society, including, for example, sharing best-practices, data, models and other knowledge required to analyse mitigation pathways to ensure the input of - and alignment with - the needs, values and expectations of society.When dealing with models, actions should promote the highest standards of transparency and openness, as much as possible going well beyond documentation and extending to aspects such as assumptions, code and data that is managed in compliance with the FAIR principles[[FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable). Further information: https://www.go-fair.org/fair-principles/; and Final Report and Action Plan from the European Commission Expert Group on FAIR Data, “TURNING FAIR INTO REALITY” (https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/turning_fair_into_reality_0.pdf) ]]. In particular, beneficiaries are strongly encouraged to publish results data in open access databases and/or as annexes to publications. In addition, full openness of any new modules, models or tools developed from scratch or substantially improved with the use of EU funding is expected.