The overarching R&I challenges lie in the development of advanced materials enabling higher energy / power density thanks to higher capacity (voltage range 4.3-4.5V) and/or operating at higher voltage (4.7+V). Focus is on adapting the cathode materials (high-nickel NMCs for capacity, spinels / Li-rich Mn NMCs for voltage), the anode materials (graphite-containing Si(Ox)), the electrolytes (stabilised formulations) and their interplay.
- For the higher capacity approach, focusing on maximising energy and power density should address topics such as
- High-capacity cathode materials operating in 4.3-4.5 Volt range while delivering on cycle life, protective coatings for safety improvements;
- High-performance anodes with advanced graphite and silicon materials (increase Si content in Si/C anodes to achieve capacities ideally at 1000 mAh/g), - Other option is to, develop complete Si or other alloying anode solutions in nanostructured form;
- Suitable inactive materials (binders, conductive carbons, current collectors, separators);
- Electrolytes stable in 4.3-4.5 Volt (new additives and/or solvent systems), advanced processing routes for the novel materials and advanced electrode and cell/module designs.
- For the higher voltage approach, focusing on maximising energy and power density should address topics such as
- High-voltage stable electrolyte systems (new electrolytes and/or new formulations);
- High-voltage stable cathode active materials (e.g. HV spinels, Li-rich Mn NMCs, phosphates, disordered materials etc. with lowered content in critical and high price elements, protective coatings);
- Tailoring and operando monitoring of the electrochemical interplay between the cathode active material and the electrolyte formation of stable SEI interfaces;
- Advanced high performance anodes matching these high-voltage cathodes and electrolytes;
- Structuring of the cathode and anode electrodes for among others their competition and electric conductivities.
This topic implements the co-programmed European Partnership on ‘Towards a competitive European industrial battery value chain for stationary applications and e-mobility’.