The EU Green Deal underlines that the transition to climate neutrality requires smart infrastructure and defines CCUS among the innovative infrastructures whose deployment in key industrial sectors will be necessary before 2030. Integration of CCUS in high emission industrial hubs and clusters is expected to be the most cost-efficient approach. Sharing, eventually across borders, CO2 transport, use and/or storage infrastructure will help with achieving economies of scale, and improving the business case. The complexity of CCUS projects requires the inclusion of a great number of stakeholders, transparency, information and knowledge sharing, and forward looking, joint planning.
The project is expected to include the elaboration of detailed plans for the integration of CCUS in hubs and clusters linked to CO2 storage sites via hubs, pipeline networks and shipping routes, with due attention to national and border-crossing permitting and regulatory issues. Mapping and understanding the nature and longevity of emission sources, identification of transport corridors and modalities, and performing initial impact assessments, and developing local business models for delivery of CO2 capture, transport, utilisation and/or storage (including the separation of responsibilities across the CO2 value chain), within promising regions is important. Industrial clusters may include, for example, power generation, cement and steel factories, chemical plants, refineries, waste-to-energy plants, and hydrogen production facilities. In its initial phase, this topic could include the use of natural gas (for the production of low carbon hydrogen, in power plants and refineries). The assessment of cost-effective ('bankable') storage capacity in the selected regions is important. This can be sites for onshore or offshore storage capabilities. Interaction between CCUS hubs-and-clusters on the one hand, and renewables-based integrated energy systems, and/or circular production modes on the other; will need to be studied.
Close cooperation across the CCUS value chain, as well as engagement with local stakeholders, is paramount and so is knowledge exchange across CCUS projects. This includes identifying and involving relevant end users, public authorities and societal stakeholders and analysing their concerns and needs using appropriate techniques and methods from the social sciences and humanities. The exchange of knowledge and know how across CCUS projects needs to be continued and facilitated: therefore the successful project will be expected to continue the activities of the existing European CCUS project network[[https://www.ccusnetwork.eu/]].