Strengthening the international dimension of ESFRI and/or ERIC research infrastructures This topic aims at supporting the cooperation of pan-European research infrastructures with their international (non-European) counterparts, and/or at fostering the international engagement of ESFRI and ERIC research infrastructures through their involvement in global research infrastructure initiatives.Proposals should deal with shared objectives and governance, building on the criteria developed by the Group of Senior Officials on Global Research Infrastructures[[Global Research Infrastructures should address the most pressing global research challenges, i.e. those frontiers of knowledge where a global-critical-mass effort to achieve progress is required. Science, technology, innovation, and advanced research training goals should be fully integrated throughout the infrastructure plans from their early development. (http://www.gsogri.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/gso_framework_criteria.pdf)]]. Proposals will look in particular at the following:the long-term sustainability of joint activities;opportunities (access and data sharing) available to European scientists in these research infrastructures;ensuring global interoperability and reach;reaching international agreements on the reciprocal use, openness or co-financing of infrastructures;launching pilot access initiatives;exchanging good practices between user communities and managers of research infrastructures as regard for instance harmonisation of tests, standards, reference materials, interoperability and data handling. While the main target of this topic is the cooperation between an individual pan-European infrastructure and its international counterparts in one or more third countries, proposals could also involve a set of pan-European infrastructures with their international counterparts if appropriate, in particular when cooperation is necessary for addressing complex phenomena with a global dimension. Proposals should duly justify and explain the EU benefit of any EU contribution requested by non-associated third countries, to allow the assessment of their appropriateness.