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ROle and impAct of Dust and clouds in the Martian Atmosphere: from lab to space

Deliverables

Exploitation, Dissemination and EPO plan

Exploitation Dissemination and EPO plan complete plan including all aspects of dissemination papers web site press releases knowledge management etc and EPO activities foreseen within ROADMAP

Sensitivity study of the radiative model into the retrieval code

Report on the implementation of the radiative model into the retrieval code and sensitivity studyASIMUT the radiative transfer code developed at BIRAIASB has been coupled to LIDORT to include the complete treatment of the scattering effects into the radiative transfer calculations The scattering module will be updated with the model developed in Task 33 Validation tests will be run to check the implementation and the improvement in simulating the role of clouds and dust This will be done on a subset of spectra recorded by SPICAMUV and NOMADUVIS both solar occultation and nadir selected to be representative of different dustclouds loading size and shape observed on Mars see Task 42Sensitivity studies will be performed by considering different sizes and shapes solar occultation or scattering properties nadir for the dust and cloud grains use of LIDORT and VLIDORT

Initial report on the dust resuspension experiment

Report on the dust resuspension experimentLaboratory experiments of Wind induced resuspension of Mars analogues under Martian atmospheric conditions providing 1 threshold friction velocity shear stress Uth also as a function of deposition depth and structure 2 dust emissivity as a function of U and size distribution

Definition of Martian analogues

Report on the definition of Martian analogues Definition and production strategy of set of grain sizes geometric and aerodynamical and morphologyThe Martian dust analogues produced by CSIC will be aerosolized within the AU Martian environmental simulator Using Laser Doppler Velocimetry and other specialized laser based sensors measurements will be made of 1 settling velocities and suspension time 2 aerodynamic size distribution and aerodynamic drag coefficients 3 opacity related to dust concentration

Initial report on dust lifting and aggregation models

Initial report on dust lifting and aggregation modelsDust lifting depends on a number of parameters like grain size shear stress atmospheric pressure and gravity A model for lifting of sand and dust size grains will be worked out starting from an initial state of the art model modified by results of the projects Dust and sand lifted or suspended after the splash of a wind blown particle encounter other particles before the impact again or are resuspended for long time Especially dust grows to larger aggregates by hitandstick collisions The growth process is unknownThis initial report includes the description of the state of the art equations for lifting thresholds and aggregation properties

Space data sets selection

Reports on the selection of the different data setsThree different sets of data will be selected which correspond to 1 UVvisible spectra are highly sensitive to the radiative and microphysical properties of dust and clouds SPICAMUV NOMADUVIS Solarstellar occultation will be the best cases to test the sensitivity towards the size and shape impact because in such observations we can have direct access to the optical depth OD due to only dust and clouds While it is more complicated with nadir observations where the signal is a combination from surface reflection and scattering sometimes multiple by airborne aerosols that have similar spectral behaviour making them difficult to decorrelate Therefore nadir spectra are sensitive to optical depth SSA and phase function of aerosols These data will be further analysed to derive ozone Task 43 and dustclouds Task 44 The selection will be based on different criteria season latitudelongitude local solar time stormno storm conditions etc to build different subsets representative of different dustclouds conditions and characteristics 2 IR spectra of NOMAD are sensitive to water absorption which is very sensitive to temperature From this data set water vapor abundances will be retrieved Task 43 These spectra also allow the retrieval of CO2 In case of solar occultation temperature can be retrieved either from CO2 densities or directly from the spectra These quantities CO2 and temperature will help the comparison with model fields Task 54 The selection will be driven mostly by the spectral range sounded by the instrument which should contain features of H2O Another criterion which will be considered for both 1 and 2 data at least for NOMAD data is the simultaneity of the observations ie when both IR and UVIS channels are operating together This will allow us to derive a data set of ozone water dustclouds CO2 temperature obtained at the same time and same location probing the same portion of atmosphere 3 Data from other space missions will be also considered in this study They will first serve as validation for the new retrieval performed in Tasks 43 and 44 but also to increase the spacetime coverage needed to build representative climatologies Task 54 For nadir measurements recorded above Martian Rovers could be of particular interest as the aerosol optical depth could be constrained Spirit Opportunity and Curiosity Rovers perform direct measurements of the OD4 Data from groundbased observatories will be considered Members of BIRAIASB are involved in such observations through allocated time at ALMA SOFIA IRAM SUBARU for example Data obtained during previous and concurrent observation campaigns will be collected

ROADMAP Webpage and Open Access portal

ROADMAP Webpage and Open Access portal creationCreation of the website foreseeing the following aspectsCreation and maintenance of the ROADMAP webpage and Open Access portal Regular updates of the web portal by promoting conferences events high impact publications by adding new data generated or used within ROADMAPDesign and maintain the web site and its up to date contents for different audiences media educators general public etc and manage the social media presence of ROADMAP Disseminate scientific papers and general papers about the project results in relevant open access journals The peerreviewed publications will address the major science topics methods and tools including analysis of data obtained by European space missions to Mars atmospheric modelling Mars dust analogue laboratory and modellingDisseminate project results at major planetary science conferences as well as relevant laboratory remote sensing and computer conferences and workshopsCreate links to highlevel data products through PSA ESA and other public data archives like VESPA or CODULABCreate and preserve a reference archive of the Consortium publications reports deliveries and data by ensuring the followup preservation of the ROADMAP Open Access portal

Data Management Plan

Data Management Plan describing the different types of data collected and created by the project

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Publications

ExoMars TGO/NOMAD‐UVIS Vertical Profiles of Ozone: 1. Seasonal Variation and Comparison to Water

Author(s): M. R. Patel, G. Sellers, J. P. Mason, J. A. Holmes, M. A. J. Brown, S. R. Lewis, K. Rajendran, P. M. Streeter, C. Marriner, B. G. Hathi, D. J. Slade, M. R. Leese, M. J. Wolff, A. S. J. Khayat, M. D. Smith, S. Aoki, A. Piccialli, A. C. Vandaele, S. Robert, F. Daerden, I. R. Thomas, B. Ristic, Y. Willame, C. Depiesse, G. Bellucci, J.‐J. Lopez‐Moreno
Published in: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 126/11, 2021, Page(s) e2021JE006837, ISSN 2169-9097
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
DOI: 10.1029/2021je006837

Aggregation of sub-mm particles in strong electric fields under microgravity conditions

Author(s): Felix Jungmann, Maximilian Kruss, Jens Teiser, Gerhard Wurm
Published in: Icarus, 373, 2022, Page(s) 114766, ISSN 0019-1035
Publisher: Academic Press
DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2021.114766

ExoMars TGO/NOMAD‐UVIS Vertical Profiles of Ozone: 2. The High‐Altitude Layers of Atmospheric Ozone

Author(s): Alain S. J. Khayat, Michael D. Smith, Michael Wolff, Frank Daerden, Lori Neary, Manish R. Patel, Arianna Piccialli, Ann C. Vandaele, Ian Thomas, Bojan Ristic, Jon Mason, Yannick Willame, Cedric Depiesse, Giancarlo Bellucci, José Juan López‐Moreno
Published in: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 126/11, 2021, Page(s) e2021JE006834, ISSN 2169-9097
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
DOI: 10.1029/2021je006834

A Global and Seasonal Perspective of Martian Water Vapor From ExoMars/NOMAD

Author(s): M. M. J. Crismani, G. L. Villanueva, G. Liuzzi, M. D. Smith, E. W. Knutsen, F. Daerden, L. Neary, M. J. Mumma, S. Aoki, L. Trompet, I. R. Thomas, B. Ristic, G. Bellucci, A. Piccialli, S. Robert, A. Mahieux, J.‐J. Lopez Moreno, G. Sindoni, M. Giuranna, M. R. Patel, A. C. Vandaele
Published in: Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 126/11, 2021, Page(s) e2021JE006878, ISSN 2169-9097
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
DOI: 10.1029/2021je006878

First Detection and Thermal Characterization of Terminator CO 2 Ice Clouds With ExoMars/NOMAD

Author(s): Giuliano Liuzzi, Geronimo L. Villanueva, Loïc Trompet, Matteo M. J. Crismani, Arianna Piccialli, Shohei Aoki, Miguel Angel Lopez‐Valverde, Aurélien Stolzenbach, Frank Daerden, Lori Neary, Michael D. Smith, Manish R. Patel, Stephen R. Lewis, R. Todd Clancy, Ian R. Thomas, Bojan Ristic, Giancarlo Bellucci, Jose‐Juan Lopez‐Moreno, Ann Carine Vandaele
Published in: Geophysical Research Letters, 48/22, 2021, Page(s) e2021GL095895, ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
DOI: 10.1029/2021gl095895

RoadMap to Understanding Atmospheric Dust on Mars

Author(s): Vandaele A.C.
Published in: Europlanet Magazine, 1, 2021, Page(s) 24-25
Publisher: Europlanet

Spectroscopic exploration of the Solar System

Author(s): Vandaele A.C.
Published in: The Innovation Platform, 7, 2021, Page(s) 82-83, ISSN 2634-0208
Publisher: Innovation News Network