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GALILEO overall architecture definition

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The Galileo system is the European-led global navigation satellite system. The system will provide position determination, navigation, timing, and communication services world-wide, to global user communities. The Galileo system will provide different levels of services for professional users, mass market, and safety of life applications. The set of services, clearly defined by their performance and availability will be provided on a global, regional, or local level. The main objectives of the GALA project were: - To provide the mission and system requirements, taking inputs from the application task, Geminus study and from past studies (ESA comparative system study), and including a focus on navigation, communication and search and rescue (derived from Sargal study outputs) requirements as well as revenue generation, international, legal and standardisation issues. To perform technical trade-offs related to Galileo navigation function and the potential communication function, as key inputs for architecture tasks. - The navigation signals are considered in a specific trade-off analysis, including the signal structure and the cryptology associated with access control. - The deployment strategy, the support to operations and the integrated logistic support (ILS) concepts are analysed and requirements are derived. - A technical baseline document is produced in order to provide an updated issue of open trade-off and scenarios to be analysed by architecture and component design activities. The implementation plan first defined the main programme phases: definition, design and development, validation, deployment and replenishment. Then three scenarios were considered: a final operational capability (FOC) with 30 satellites in 2008, a FOC with 30 satellites in 2008 with an initial operational capability (IOC) with 24 satellites before 2007, and finally a FOC with 30 satellites in 2006. The assessment of the scenarios considered a set of key parameters: in-orbit validation effectiveness, success of the deployment schedule, certification feasibility and operational capability effectiveness. As a conclusion, the third scenario is proposed to be discarded because of the various criticalities identified, and the scenario two is proposed to be the baseline due to its better certification feasibility and operational capability effectiveness. The overall Galileo requirements have been derived from these analyses and from the identification of design requirements. First, the proposed security policy identified the need for dedicated encrypted services for strategic applications to allow full availability in periods of crisis or conflicts. Second, the integration of EGNOS has been determined following a two steps approach: first an optimisation of Galileo architecture, then an optimisation of the integration of EGNOS, in terms of services and in terms of architecture. A set of objectives were fixed, e.g. no impact on EGNOS development plan, guaranty of the continuity of EGNOS service. The optimisation proposed a phased approach, based on a unique step to accommodate GPS modernisation involving the new L5 frequency as well as Galileo integrity monitoring. The cost of Galileo infrastructure up to the FOC is estimated at approximately EUR 3.2 billion. Target recurrent costs of user terminals are also provided. Concerning Galileo benefits, the analysis considered the period 2001-2020 and provided annual supplier and user net benefits, as well as social benefits. Total benefits are estimated at EUR 74 billion over the period, from which EUR 6 billion shall be subtracted for the investment costs. Annual curves are provided, showing positive net benefits after 2008 and a predominance of user benefits over producer benefits, which confirms the value of Galileo as a public good. The result is an IRR of around 75 %, and a high growth of employment resources.
Galileo is being designed to be a global civil satellite-based navigation system under European civil control. It is to be independent from, but compatible with, existing satellite systems (GPS and Glonass). It will provide a number of services to users (e.g. aviation, land and maritime) equipped with Galileo receivers by means of the Galileo signal in space (SIS). The Galileo European multimodal integrated navigation user service (Geminus) study is defining the navigation and navigation-related communications services provided by Galileo, and will therefore be the primary work from which the Galileo architecture (GALA) definition activities will flow. The operator's requirement workpackage, as an integral part of the Geminus study, describes the GVC internal organisation that is derived from business models, market sizing and market requirement analysis. The GVC defined in this report should be the company created to operate the Galileo services from the inception of the Galileo programme. It is anticipated that this operator's requirement work will also assist the EC in its decision to allow the continued development of the Galileo programme. It was recommended that the GVC provide the following services using the combined Galileo/EGNOS infrastructure: - Global open access service (OAS) - meets public requirement for basic free of charge service - matches or improves on GPSIII; - Regional safety service (RSS) - commercial safety service, unencrypted and charged for through institutional means rather than direct user charges - meets needs of aviation over Europe as a minimum, highest performance service offered by the GVC - based on EGNOS "Mission 2"; - Regional navigation related communications service (NRS) -commercial position reporting mechanism over Europe, serving users who spend some or all of time in rural areas where terrestrial means are inadequate; - Augmentation of GPS - continuation of EGNOS; - Timing service - The basic navigation and time signal dissemination services would be made available free of charge and without discrimination, although enhanced service capability may be chargeable with enhanced integrated systems; - Local area augmentation services (LAAS), including services at metric and centimetric levels and real-time kinematic services, should be provided by local value added service providers, as the markets will demand. Because of the potential for many types of such services and the potential high cost of the infrastructures, they should not be provided by the GVC; - It is important that these services are compatible with GPS to the greatest extent possible, as many applications will achieve maximum benefit from the launch of Galileo through the use of GPS-Galileo combined receivers. To satisfy further public requirements, it is also anticipated that the GVC will be asked to operate two further services;%l - Government access service (GAS) - a service to which access will be controlled by governments, anticipated to be used by emergency services personnel, but not the military. The requirement for this service is not yet fully defined; %l - Enhanced Cospas-Sarsat search and rescue (SAR) capability – a service which will involve passing emergency calls received to Cospas-Sarsat agencies. At the time of Geminus these services were not sufficiently well defined to be included in the financial analysis for the GVC on either the cost or revenue side - they were assumed to be services of "public good character" operated on a non-profit basis by the GVC as a condition of contract with costs of developing, launching and operating additional services covered by additional public funding as necessary. It is anticipated that the enhanced Cospas-Sarsat SAR capability will be well defined at the end of the Sargal study. EGNOS has evolved from an aviation to a multimodal system. The direction of EU thinking has historically been to see EGNOS and its successor, Galileo, as revenue-generating systems. In this light they must compete in the market place. The Geminus study comprehensively analysed the potential EGNOS markets to evaluate commercial prospects. One of the analyses used is the 'PARTS' analysis. 'Players, added value, rules, tactics, scope' analysis is a tool that allows business scenarios to be investigated and challenged systematically to identify opportunities to increase the overall value added and the proportion of the value captured by the EVC. PARTS analysis is supported by the value net, which is a tool that maps interdependencies on two axes: - customers and suppliers are represented on the vertical axis; - collaborators or complementors (organisations that provide complementary resources to the customer) and competitors or substitutors (competitive organisations from whom the customer can purchase) are represented on the horizontal axis. The value net framework identifies each participant that contributes to customer value (i.e. players in the game) and maps their interdependencies to understand who is adding value and how. Mapping the interdependencies also provides a baseline for understanding value creation strategies.