The proposal has addressed porcine/chicken nephropathies in Bulgaria which are morphologically different in detail and much more prevalent than those seen in Denmark, where their first classical description was made. The same nephropathies can only partly be attributed to ochratoxin A (OTA) as their incidence in Bulgaria is higher, possibly by one to two orders of magnitude, than it was in Danish pigs in the 1960s and 70s, but the average concentrations of OTA in Bulgarian feeds for pigs/chickens (100-200 p pb) were substantially lower than the 1-2 ppm required to reproduce the classical Danish porcine/chicken nephropathy of a similar severity. It seems, therefore, that Bulgarian nephropathy may have a multitoxic aetiology because it cannot be explained by th e concentration of OTA alone. Hence a possible synergistic effect between OTA and other mycotoxins is anticipated.
This assumption is supported by our recent experiments, which revealed the strong synergistic effect between OTA and penicillic acid (PA), my cotoxins produced by the same fungi. The situation requires study to explain the aetiology of natural renal disease in Bulgaria and to compare with another similar nephropathy as in South Africa, which has not been studied in depth. This comparison will be made by means of toxicological and pathomorphological investigations of some tissue/serum samples taken at slaughter time from animals with marbled appearance of kidneys (Bulgaria) and biopsy material from humans (South Africa), where the mycotoxin fumoni sin B1 is thought to play a role, both originating from affected areas with known prevalence of porcine/human nephropathy.
Training activities and transfer of knowledge in the field of mycotoxicological analysis (mainly for OTA, PA, citrinin, Fusarium toxi ns, e.g fumonisins) of feed/animal samples, mycotoxins production (mainly OTA, PA and Fumonisin B1) and cytotoxicity testing will be realised or supervised by the applicant. Some experiments are also planed.
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