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Community reference system on emissions and air quality (CORSE-AQ)

Objective

Specific Objectives

Specific Objectives in 2002:

European Reference Laboratory for Air Pollution (ERLAP)
- To provide guidance to the Member States for the development and implementation of air quality and emission directives;
- To contribute to the finalisation of new directives already under preparation in DG ENV on air quality (particle matter including PM2.5, PAH and heavy metals);
-To continue the ERLAP activities for harmonisation of air pollution measurements in collaboration the Member States and to expand it to emission measurements (WIND Laboratory) and to continue the standardisation activities on emission and air quality measurements in collaboration with CEN/ISO;
- To develop a European harmonised QA/QC programme for air quality measurements in collaboration with WHO, WMO and UN-ECE (DG ENV);
- To create an association of European National reference laboratories.

Emission laboratories (VELA, WIND)
- To contribute to the finalisation of new directives already under preparation in DG ENV and DG ENTR on emissions (motorcycles, diesel cars, non road-road vehicles, fuel quality);
-To install and start-up the new 4x4 Dynamo testing facility for light and medium duty vehicle emissions;
- To install a complete dynamic engine test cell for heavy-duty engines emissions;
- To start-up of the stationary engine test cell for medium and heavy-duty engine emissions;
- To set-up a reference industrial emission simulation plant for the harmonisation at EU level of stack emission measurements with the support of CEN and DG ENV.

Modelling
- To set-up an operational modelling system for air quality;
- To set-up emission inventories and co-ordinate an inter-comparison ozone modelling study on emission reduction scenarios for to the cities of London, Berlin, Marseilles, and Milan;
- To perform a special modelling study concerning the impact of the resolution on the quality of the model results (O3 and PM) for the city of Milan.

Health
- To assess the long-term exposure of the population to toxic pollutants;
- To organise networks in order to gather new scientific evidence on the health effects of emissions and air pollution with particular emphasis on particulate matter;
- To develop generic models of particulate transport and deposition in simplified models of the human lung and to assess predictions of commonly used inhalation dosimetry models against detailed calculations of particulate deposition in the human respiratory tract;
- To contribute to the set-up of the European Information System on Air Pollution and Health (APHEIS).
Planned Deliverables

Deliverables 2002:

Specific deliverables to DGs :

European Reference Laboratory for Air Pollution (ERLAP)
- Guidance documents on emissions, air quality assessment and management in collaboration with DG ENV;
- Provision of guidance to the Candidate Countries for the practical implementation of air quality and emission directives (AIR-PECO; EMISSION-PECO);
-Report on inter-comparison exercises on SO2, NOX, O3, CO, PM10 carried out with the national laboratories (DG ENV);
- Report on feasibility study for the preparation of Certified Reference Materials for Benzene, NO2, and SO2 (DG RTD).

Emission laboratories (VELA, WIND)
- Progress reports on the contributions to the preparation of: a new world-wide test cycle standard for non-road vehicles (DG ENV), a new non-road fuel regulation (DG ENV) and a new dynamic world harmonised test cycle for motorbikes (WMTC) (DG ENTR);
- Reports on inter-calibration, round Robin, and measurement campaigns of industrial/transport emissions and air quality in CCEC countries
(EMISSION-PECO);
- Co-ordination report of the UN-ECE Expert Panel on small/medium size power plants (DG ENV);
- Community strategy documents for dioxins and PCBs with emphasis to the application in the Accession Countries in support to DG ENV;
- Test reports on the effect of engine technology and fuel composition on emissions (DG ENV) and on the effect of modern emission reduction technologies on motorbike emission (DG ENTR).

Modelling
- Reports on NOx/VOC emission reduction scenario analysis in four European Cities and the study of the scale sensitivity of models in the Milan urban area under the CAFÉ programme on PM and O3 (DG ENV).

Health
- Guidance document on the assessment of population exposure prepared in the frame of the APHEIS project (DG SANCO).

As a result of the research:

European Reference Laboratory for Air Pollution (ERLAP)
- Validation report of new sampling techniques and primary gas calibration standards in ambient air.

Emission laboratories
- Report on first results from the stationary light and medium duty engine test bench. Specific research on particulate traps and filters regeneration;
- Report on first results of a Life Cycle Analysis study applied to alternative fuels and propulsion solutions, in term of CO2 emissions reduction (in collaboration with EUCAR/CONCAWE);
- Validation report of new sampling techniques for particulate matter emitted from vehicles and the chemical analysis of toxic compounds in for toxicological evaluation and source apportionment;
- Report on first results from the new mobile laboratory for measuring industrial emissions.

Modelling
- Report on validation of the JRC-IES IMSAQ (Integrated Modelling System for Air Quality) against data collected in major cities.

Health
- Report on the pilot campaigns in Lisbon and Brussels under the PEOPLE project: "Assessing personal exposure and raising awareness of citizens to benzene exposure levels";
- Reports on modelling studies of particulate growth/transport and deposition in the tracheobronchial and alveolar regions of the human respiratory tract.

The results of the activities will be published in special reports and peer reviewed publications and presented on international conferences in the field of emissions and air pollution such as, "Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Air Quality Laboratories, "Environment and Air Quality Symposium", "Seventh International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes", "Harmonisation of Legislation on Road Transport Emissions in the CEEC".

Summary of 2001 Deliverables: 31/12/2001

The CORSE-AQ project was established in September 2001 by fusion of laboratories and activities previously belonging to the CORSE, IAQA, and APRGC projects. Thus, the below listed deliverables derive partly from activities under the above-mentioned projects
- Validation report for a new sampling techniques (diffusing sampling) for various air contaminants;
- Validation report on an automated static dilution system for the preparation of primary gas calibration standards;
- Analytical procedure for advanced chemical analysis of particulate matter: PAH, nitro-PAH, and carboxylic acids, azaarenes, transition metals, other highly toxic species;
- Chemical mass balance (CMB) procedure for source apportionment of particulate matter in ambient air of Paris and Milan;
- Analysis of the source impact on air quality in Northern Italy;
- Engineering and start-up of construction of the new 4x4 dynamometer facility;
- Modification of the existing dynamic facility for cold start testing and for motorbike testing;
- Installation of the stationary engine test cell for heavy-duty engine emissions;
- Elaboration and adoption of new JRC world-wide test cycle for non road vehicles;
- Tests reports on new candidate cycle for motorcycles on driveability, emissions and particulate matter (both mass and chemical composition);
- Report on the start-up, first experimental campaigns and validation of regulated and FTIR measurements with the new mobile unit for the measurement of industrial sources;
- Report on the Influence of Fuel Quality and Engine Technology on Particulate Emissions of Diesel Vehicles.
- The JRC-IES Integrated Modelling System for Air Quality (IMSAQ);
-Preparation and distribution of questionnaires on dioxin emissions, legislation, policies and measures for mobile emissions and related emission inventories in the PECO countries. Collection and evaluation of initial results, which will form the basis for subsequent interviews;
-Organisation of and key-role participation to the international conferences "Measuring Air Pollutants by Diffusive Sampling", "Harmonisation of Dispersion Modelling", "CAFE - Meeting the Limit Values", "Dioxins in the Air ", "Air Quality Monitoring: an Up-Date";
-Air Quality in Europe-Challenges for the 2000s. Special Issue Supplement, Vol. 35, 2001, Venice Conference (1999);
- The AUTO-OIL- II Programme: Air Quality report (Final Version- 31 March 2001). Report of Working Group on Environmental Objectives. For the Directorate General of the Environment.

Output Indicators and Impact

EC directives, guidance documents and technical reports, CEN and ISO standards, conference proceedings, oral and peer-review publications.
Summary of the project

This CORSE-AQ project concentrates the various activities carried out in the "Emission and Health" Unit by the Vehicle Emissions Laboratory (VELA), the Industrial Emissions Laboratory (WIND), the European Reference Laboratory of Air Pollution -ERLAP (part of the former JRC-44 IAQA project) and relevant modelling activities. These activities are in support to the emission and air quality policy of the European Commission, and in particular to the Clean Air for Europe (CAFÉ) programme launched in May 2001 by DG ENV.

This project contributes to the development of new air quality and emission directives. This is achieved mainly by establishing harmonised monitoring strategies for new pollutants (validation and standardisation of measurement methods, development of criteria for network design) and by organising pilot studies (modelling and measurement campaigns) for emissions, air quality and health impact assessment in selected urban areas. Via networking the project will gather and improve knowledge on the links between emissions, air pollution, personal exposure and impacts on ecosystems and human health.

By carrying out QA/QC programmes for emission and air quality measurements
(laboratory and field inter-comparisons/inter-calibrations) in collaboration with the Member States, this project supports the implementation of emission reduction and air quality directives. The project will further validate regional and urban modelling tools for the assessment of current and future air quality as well as for the evaluation of emission reduction scenarios.

Finally, the project will develop guidance for the implementation of European emission and air quality directives, by organising training courses, workshops and conferences, and by publishing guidance documents. In this context, it is important to mention the close link between this project and the EMISSION-PECO and AIRPECO projects, carried out in the same E&H Unit, but more specifically dedicated to the Candidate Countries.

See also the related EU enlargement process pre-accession (pa) project.

Rationale

For the efficient implementation of a European policy in the field of air quality, the Commission requires:
- sound scientific knowledge on the origin, the nature, and the levels of emissions as well as of air pollutants in view of the development and formulation of new directives;
- gathering of new scientific evidence on the health effects of emissions and air pollution to permit assessment and where necessary, revision of threshold values and other risk-related guidelines;
- harmonised and validated monitoring methods and strategies to ensure valid and comparable emission inventories and air quality data over Europe;
- practical guidance to the Member States on the implementation of European directives;
- modelling tools for the analysis of data, the assessment of current and future emission levels and resulting air quality, the evaluation of emission reduction scenarios and the application of abatement measures.

Funding Scheme

JRC - Joint Research Centre research

Coordinator

Institute for Environment and Sustainability
Address

Ispra
Italy