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Air Quality and Health

Objective

Specific Objectives:

1. Harmonisation and standardisation of air quality measurements (ERLAP sector) 1.1 Development of reference methods and measurement strategies in support to new directives and validation/standardisation of measurement methods for new pollutants in collaboration with CEN and ISO. 1.2 QA/QC programmes for a harmonised implementation of air quality directives. Particular emphasis on training of laboratories in EU and CC. Activity conducted trough networking with national air quality reference laboratories in the framework of AQUILA. 1.3 Validation and QA/QC of diffusive samplers for the assessment of air quality in urban, rural and forest areas, for indoor and personal exposure measurements. Activity conducted trough networking with air quality research laboratories and in the framework of CEN standardisation activities. 1.4 Provision of guidance to MS for the implementation of air quality directives. Particular emphasis on training of laboratories in CC and Balkan Countries. 1.5 Setting-up of Association of European Air Quality Reference Laboratories (AQUILA). Networking with national air quality reference laboratories. 1.6 Study on the development of certified low concentration reference materials for benzene, NO2, SO2, and CO in gas cylinders, and for benzene, SO2 and NO2 by diffusive samplers (CERMATAIR project). 1.7 Calibration of satellite data on formaldehyde as a tracer for photo-smog in the atmosphere. 1.8 Measurement of air pollutants deposition over different surfaces (agricultural and forest ecosystems). QA/QC protocols and harmonisation of methods of evaluation of environmental deposition in collaboration with UN/ECE in the frame of LRTAP Convention. Support to modelling and mapping of environmental deposition at European scale;

2. Air quality modelling (Modelling sector) 2.1 Direct Air Quality Modelling support to the DG-Env CAFÉ programme. Co-ordination of, organisation of and participation in the CITY- DELTA European model intercomparison activity (collaboration with EMEP, IIASA, TNO-MEP). 2.2 Initiation of CITY-DELTA-type activities in the area of urban- to-regional scale modelling in the framework of the CAFÉ Integrated Assessment Modelling. Contribution to high-resolution cost-effectiveness in relation to urban-scale emission-abatement strategies (in colaboration with IIASA, EMEP). 2.3 Further development and validation of JRC-IMSAQ (Integrated Modelling System for Air Quality).(in collaboration with EPFL-Lausanne, and Université de Toulon et du Var). 2.4 Model Intercomparison studies: Mesocom, Escompte;

3. Assessment of health effects from air pollution (Exposure and Health sector) 3.1 Contribution to the activities of the AIRNET thematic network on air pollutants and related health effects. 3.2 Contribution to the development and implementation of an Air Pollution and Health - European Information System (APHEIS - DG SANCO). Particular emphasis on networking with health organisations in EU and CC. 3.3 PEOPLE project: assessment of outdoor, indoor and exposure levels of/to benzene in European capitals in support to health impact assessment. Particular emphasis on networking with local environmental/health authorities in EU and CC. 3.4 Pilot measurement campaigns for the assessment of population exposure to emissions from traffic in urban agglomerations in the EU and CC. Networking with national and local environmental authorities. 3.5 Research and validation of new sensors for population and personal exposure assessment. 3.6 Modelling of health effects of fine and ultra-fine particles. Anticipated milestones and schedule Harmonisation and standardisation of air quality measurements (br> 1.1 Guidance document on the equivalency of measurement methods.

1.2 Intercomparisons for gaseous pollutants. 1.3 Practical training on measurement techniques. 1.4 Field comparison of PM10 measurements. 1.5 Validation of diffusive samplers for NO2, SO2, O3 and benzene measurements. 1.6 Conference in Prague 1.7 Pilot measurement campaigns in four Candidate Countries. 1.8 Practical training on measurement strategies. 1.9 Feasibility study on the preparation of certified reference materials 1.10 Report on result of measurement campaign. 1.11 New index to assess ozone damage to agriculture 1.12 New scheme to assess ozone risk to crops. Air quality modelling (Modelling sector)

2.1 For the 8 CITY-DELTA cities (Berlin, Copenhagen, Katowice, London, Marseille, Milan, Paris, Prague) emission inventories and monitoring data for validation of the models for 1999. 2.2 Model inter-comparisons to assess the performance of the available models and compare them against the observational data, impact of spatial resolution on the delta's, interpretation of the delta's for the 8 cities and aggregation of the results. 2.3 Two workshops to report on the CITY-DELTA results 2.4 Recommendations on how to include urban air-quality in a Europe-wide evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of emissions control strategies. 2.5 New modules in IMSAQ: dry deposition of aerosols, interaction radiation and aerosols, advection scheme, effects of clouds and precipitation, new version of Isorropia, 2-way nesting techniques. 2.6 Validation case based on data from SCAQS (1987) and Escompte (2001). 2.7 Long-term modelling features. 2.8 Model intercomparison studies Mesocom (meteorological models) and Escompte (meteorology and tracer transport). Assessment of health effects from air pollution

3.1 Contribution to the WHO report. 3.2 Analysis and revision of guidelines for exposure assessment. 3.3 Health impact assessment of PM10 in Candidate Countries (Budapest, Bucharest, Ljubliana, Zagreb) 3.4 Completion of pilot campaigns in Brussels and Lisbon. 3.5 Measurement campaigns in 4 EU and 4 Candidate Countries capitals. 3.6 Pilot measurement campaigns in 4 Candidate Countries cities. 3.7 Validated fast response diffusive sampler for benzene measurements.
Planned Deliverables:
Harmonisation and standardisation of air quality measurements (ERLAP sector):
1. Participation in CEN related working groups for the preparation of standard measurement methods for benzene, PM2.5, Heavy Metals, PAH's. Preparation of guidance document on the equivalency of measurement methods. To arrange a workshop and conduct an expert working group with DG ENV and MS laboratories to assess methods for the measurement of ozone VOC precursors and organise an intercomparison exercise for formaldehyde;
2. Organisation of intercomparisons for gaseous pollutants. Organisation of practical training on measurment techniques. Preparation of field comparison of PM10 measurments;
3. Validation of diffusive samplers for NO2, SO2, O3 and benzene measurements;
4. Organisation of conference in Praha. Organisation of pilot measurement campaigns with practical training on measurement strategies in two CC;
5. Organisation of Plenary Meeting and Ad-Hoc meetings. Acting secretariat and co-chair of an association of European Air Quality Reference laboratories;
6. Feasability study on the preparation of certified reference materials;
7. Report on result of measurement campaign;
8. In view of the revision of the EC Ozone Directive due 2005, and of the improvement of the UN/ECE Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone, a new index to assess ozone damage to agriculture is now being studied. It is based on time integrated ozone uptake fluxes and should replace the currently used AOT40 exposure index. It is proposed to conduct, during 2003, a general reassessment of older ozone deposition data, in parallel with new measurements, so as to obtain, by the end of the year, a new scheme to assess ozone risk to crops.

Air quality modelling (Modelling sector):
1. For the 8 CITY-DELTA cities (Berlin, Copenhagen, Katowice, London, Marseille, Milan, Paris, Prague) emission inventories and monitoring data for validation of the models for 1999. Model inter-comparisons to assess the performance of the available models and compare them against the observational data. Co-ordination and organisation of a study (performed by about 20 European modelling groups) on the impact (delta's) of NOx, VOC and PM MFR-emission-reduction on ground-level ozone and PM for the year 2010 CLR- scenario. Impact of spatial resolution on the delta's. Interpretation of the delta's for the 8 cities and aggregation of the results. These deliverables serve as input to the European cost-effectiveness modelling system (used in CAFE) to balance European-wide emission controls against local measures. Organisation of two workshops to report on the CITY-DELTA results;
2. Consolidation of the urban-air-quality CITY-DELTA modelling network for future Integrated Assessment Modelling. Recommendations and guidance on how urban air-quality could be included in a Europe-wide (including PECO) evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of emission control strategies;
3. Introduction of following new modules in IMSAQ: dry deposition of aerosols, interaction radiation and aerosols, advection scheme, effects of clouds and precipitation, new version of Isorropia, 2-way nesting techniques. Set up of validation case based on data from SCAQS (1987) and Escompte (2001). Development of long-term modelling features. Part of the work will be performed under contract with the EPFL-Lausanne;
4. Finalisation of the model intercomparison studies for Mesocom (meteorological models) and contribution to Escompte (meteorology and tracer transport).

Assessment of health effects from air pollution (Exposure and Health sector):
1. Participation in selected working groups (Interpretation of exposure findings, Interpretation of epidemiology findings, Policy/science interface, Combined analysis of results of the various working groups);
2. Analysis and revision of guidelines for exposure assessment. Health impact assessment of PM10 in CC (Budapest, Bucharest, Ljubliana, Zagreb). Development and maintenance of APHEIS web-site and data base:
3. Completion of pilot campaigns in Brussels and Lisboa. Measurement campaigns in 4 European capitals;
4. Pilot measurement campaigns in Budapest and Ljubljana;
5. Validation of fast response diffusive sampler for benzene measurements;
6. Development of a theoretical approach and initial validation of particle-lung interactions.
Summary of the Action:
In support to the EC Air Quality policy, this action will contribute to the provision, the compilation and the critical analysis of scientific evidence for the preparation of new directives or the revision of existing directives. The action will focus on the harmonisation of assessment strategies, the use of dispersion models and the impact of air pollutants on human health. It will provide guidance to the Member States and to the Candidate Countries on the correct implementation of the directives. The action will further support the Environment and Health programme of DG SANCO. Rationale This action has been elaborated in close collaboration with DG ENV in support to the EC air quality policy in the framework of the CAFÉ programme. In particular it will contribute to the development of new regulations and to the harmonised implementation of the recently adopted Air Quality directives.

Funding Scheme

JRC - Joint Research Centre research

Coordinator

Institute for Environment and Sustainability
Address
Via E. Fermi 1
21020 Ispra
Italy