Final Report Summary - HRBCOFUND2008 (HRB/Marie Curie Post-doctoral Mobility Fellowship Scheme) The main objectives of the Marie Curie and HRB co-funded and co-labelled HRB/Marie Curie Postdoctoral Mobility Fellowship scheme were 1) to improve the quality of post-doctoral research training, 2) to enable researchers to develop their research careers at an advanced and more independent level by undertaking health-related research in a leading research institute abroad for a period of two years followed by a one year reintegration phase in Ireland, 3) to increase the competitiveness of the Irish scientific community with the ultimate goal being to contribute to health research at a global level. Eight fellows were awarded in two different calls in open competition through international peer review, on the basis of the scientific merit of the research proposal, the research background to date of the applicant, his/her commitment to research, his/her potential to develop as an independent researcher and the value that a trans-national mobility fellowship could make to their training and career development. During the whole of the three years the salary, pension and social security contributions was paid for the fellows through the Irish host institution in addition to other practical costs, such as health insurance, travel and mobility allowances will be also offered during the mobility phase, training and developing costs, contribution to research running costs and dissemination costs. To date all fellows but one have completed successfully both phases of the fellowship, abroad in an centre of excellence of their choice and back to the Host Institution in Ireland during their reintegration phase. Their research outputs, opportunity to secure funding and/or position on temporary basis in centre of excellence abroad and/or in Ireland, presentation to international conferences, new international collaborations and networks and in some cases involvement as invited editors in journals, have showed that the main objectives of this fellowship scheme have been met by providing the opportunity to these individuals to become more independent as researchers and provide more opportunities for their future mid-senior research careers and to ultimately contribute to the knowledge in their specific research field globally.