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Innovative electrodes to control trace metal ionization used to treat Legionella and other pathogens in water distribution systems

Final Report Summary - SILCO (Innovative electrodes to control trace metal ionisation used to treat Legionella and other pathogens in water distribution systems)

Executive summary:

One of the most effective methods for the abatement and prevention of Legionella and other hazardous pathogens in water is copper-silver ionisation. This method is based on channelling water through a device that applies low potential electricity to copper and silver electrodes, releasing copper and silver ions which kill the bacteria. Monitoring of the dosed copper and silver concentrations is necessary to guarantee that the amount of copper and silver remains within a certain range for efficiency, and at the same time remains well below the World Health Organisation (WHO) and other (drink)water guidelines. At the start of the SILCO project, there was no device available outside the laboratory for monitoring the copper and silver concentrations at µg/l level in the treated water.

The main aim of the SILCO project was to develop the appropriate analytical monitoring device to continuously monitor copper and silver concentrations in Legionella contaminated water treated with copper-silver ionisation. The analytical heart of the monitoring device consists of mercury-free micro-electrodes. For long-term monitoring boron doped diamond electrodes (BDDEs) are developed and used, and for short-term monitoring screen-printed electrodes. The monitoring device is linked to a self-adaptive intelligent controller to control the dosing of copper and silver. The device is equipped with a wireless communication interface which allows remote control over the internet as well as operation of a central data recording server.

Two in-line monitoring units and three handheld devices have been constructed and successfully tested in drinking water, pond water and pool water in the Netherlands, Slovakia and Italy.

Currently the first sensors are already sold and in use to control and prevent under or over dosing of copper and silver during copper-silver ionisation in Legionella contaminated water distribution systems in the Netherlands.

Project context and objectives:

2. Project summary

2.1 Introduction

The control of hazardous pathogens, such as Legionella in water distribution systems, is a priority for health authorities worldwide. An estimated 8 000 to 18 000 people get Legionnaires' disease in the United States each year (CDCP, 2008). Hospitals, hotels, old people's homes, prisons and ships are high risk environments due to the nature of the water distribution system. Treatment is essential, and one of the most effective methods is copper-silver ionisation (KWR, 2006). More than 200 copper-silver ionisation units are currently operational in the Netherlands.

The method is based on channelling the water through a device that applies low potential electricity to copper and silver electrodes. The positively charged copper and silver ions thus released, form electrostatic bonds with negatively charged sites on bacterial cell walls; this leads to cell lysis and cell death. Importantly, some authors have demonstrated that these ions are able to penetrate the biofilms in which other bacteria, algae, protozoans, and fungi cohabit with Legionella species in water pipes. The amount of copper and silver must remain within a certain range for efficiency, and at the same time remain well below the WHO and other (drink)water guidelines.

2.2 Project objectives

At the start of the SILCO project, there was no device available outside the laboratory for monitoring the copper and silver concentrations at µg / l level in the treated water. The main aim of the SILCO project was to develop the appropriate analytical monitoring device to continuously monitor copper and silver concentrations on-site in Legionella contaminated water treated with copper-silver ionisation. The SILCO project had the following verifiable objectives:

(1) To develop and construct boron-doped diamond electrodes and screen-printed electrodes to determine copper and silver concentrations in the low µg / l level (100 - 2 500 µg / l for Cu; 10 - 200 µg / l for Ag) with anodic stripping voltammetry.
(2) To determine if the analysis can be performed without the addition of an electrolyte or where needed, to determine the most suitable electrolyte.
(3) To develop a system of analysis without aeration and rotation.
(4) To simultaneously measure copper and silver, taking account of any inter-metallic complexes.
(5) To automate the process control system using an self-adaptive intelligent control-system and include a web-based wireless data transmission system which allows remote control and configuration via standard web browsers.
(6) To install a central server system for storing the measured data and for a central surveillance of the system so that good operation can be guaranteed and relevant measurement data are available even in case of a local hardware-defect.
(7) To develop and construct the entire process control system cost effectively by using standard-protocols and standard industrial PC hardware such that the cost price of the process control system may not exceed 20 % of the costs of a copper and silver ionisation system in order to be commercially attractive compared to other Legionella treatment systems (e.g. UV, anodic oxidation and filtration).
(8) To construct 5 prototypes for on-site testing and evaluation by the small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) partners.

The wider societal and policy objectives are to ensure the broad acceptance of this analytical technology as a tool for monitoring the quality of drinking water treated with copper and silver for killing Legionella and other pathogens.

Project results:

Scientific and technological (S&T) results

The S&T activities consisted of a state of the art research, hardware development, software development, analytical method development and field testing. A brief description of the results of each activity is given below.

State-of-the-art research

BDDEs

A state of the art research, in which analytical protocols to analyse trace metals with BDDEs are gathered, is conducted in the framework of the SILCO project. The following conclusions are drawn from the state of the art research:

(1) BDDEs have compared to other working electrodes in electrochemistry - very attractive features for determining (trace) metal concentrations in water samples:

- a large overpotential for hydrogen evolution,
- an overpotential for the reduction of oxygen,
- wide window against water hydrolysis (5 V), which is close to the materials electronic bandgap),
- low levels of background interferences (low background current),
- high thermal conductivity,
- insensitivity to dissolved oxygen,
- chemically inert in water based solutions (pH 1 - 14),
- a stable surface chemistry and microstructure,
- a chemically inert surface that resists fouling, and
- no metal-diamond chemical interactions.

(2) There are only a few research groups that managed to make BDD films suited for electrochemical analysis. These research groups are (to the best of our knowledge):

- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, United Kingdom (UK),
- Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty (School) of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan,
- Space Power Institute (Auburn University), United States of America (USA),
- Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Utah State University, USA,
- University of South Dakota, Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory, USA,
- Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, USA,
- Centre Suisse d’Electronique et Microtechnique, Switzerland,
- Schlumberger Cambridge Research, UK.

(3) The growth and doping of BDD films is based on chemical vapour deposition (CVD), including hot filament CVD and microwave (plasma) assisted CVD. BDD films are grown on various substrates, including graphite, silicon, silica, molybdenum, tungsten, diamond and carbon. The doping process of the diamond films is accomplished by introducing trace metals of boron from solid sources (B2O3, BN), dissolved sources (dissolved B2O3) or gaseous sources (B2H6 in H2, trimethylboron in H2). For electroanalytical purposes doping levels of BDD films must be in the order of 1019 to 1020 cm-3.

(4) In the international literature analytical methods are described for the quantification of copper and silber concentrations in aqueous media with BDDEs. The lowest achieved limits of detection (LODs) - as listed in the international literature - are 0.6 and 0.1 µg / l for copper and silver respectively. These LODs are low enough for using BDDEs to monitor the water quality of (drinking) water treated with copper- and silver ionisation.

(5) No commercial online and / or in situ sensor probes, equipped with a BDDEs, for the analysis of copper and silver in water, were found with the internet- and literature search.

Screen-printed sensors

Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in the application of simple, rapid, inexpensive and disposable sensors in fields such as clinical, environmental or industrial analysis. The most common disposable sensors are those produced by thick-film technology.

Heavy metals are highly toxic and dangerous pollutants, second only to pesticides in terms of environmental impact. Monitoring of heavy metals at trace levels is therefore an increasingly important issue. Screen-printing technology is a well-known technique for the fabrication chemical sensors for heavy metal detection.

According to the literature review there are various types of screen-printed sensors that are suitable for heavy metal detection. The most common screen-printed sensors for heavy metal detection are:

(a) mercury-coated screen-printed electrodes;
(b) bismuth-based screen-printed sensors;
(c) gold-based screen-printed sensors;
(d) graphite-based screen-printed sensors.

The most promising screen-printed sensors for the detection of copper and silver in the specified range of 100 - 2 500 µg / l for copper, 10 - 200 µg / l for silver, are unmodified graphite-based screen-printed sensors. Although little information is available about the performance characteristics of silver analysis with these sensors, they are the most promising for copper and silver detection in water treated with copper-silver ionisation.

Based on the literature and internet search is concluded that there are no sensor devices on the market that can analyse both copper and silver concentrations on-site, online and / or in-situ in water treated with copper- and silver ionisation. The SILCO tool (sensor probe) that is developed by the CRAFT project 'Innovative electrodes to control trace metal ionisation used to treat Legionella and other pathogens in water distribution systems' (SILCO) can therefore be considered unique and relevant to current market needs.

Hardware development

Two monitoring devices are developed, namely an automated in-line system and a handheld device.

Automated in-line system

The final prototype of the automated in-line system consists of a combined micro BDD sensor, a miniaturised potentiostat, an industrial PC with wireless communication interface (E-sense) and a flow-cell with 2 valves. No pumps were necessary in the final system, because the BDD measurement can be performed without the addition of electrolytes and standards.

The final prototype of the combined micro BDD sensor is visualised in photo 3 and 4. The combined sensor consists of a counter electrode, a reference electrode and a micro BDD electrode. The counter electrode functions as a housing of the entire sensor.

Handheld device

The final prototype of the automated in-line system consists of a series of screen-printed electrodes, a potentiostat, a palmtop and a sample-cell with stirrer. For calibration purposes, certified standards and pipettes are necessary.

Software development

The SILCO software is a Microsoft Windows software, which runs on a windows PC preferable with full administrative access. It was designed to run on Windows XP (32 Bit), but should also work with other windows platforms.

The software-prototype is written in C# programming language using the Microsoft .NET platform. To run the SILCO software the Microsoft .NET framework 3.5 has to be installed. If .NET 3.5 is not installed the developed installer will automatically download the current .NET version.

Furthermore a potentiostat as well as a suitable sensor are needed. The software is designed to work with an USB version of the potentiostat.

The purpose of the SILCO analyzer is to conduct measurements of copper and silver concentrations completely autonomously. For this task a procedure based concept was developed. A measurement procedure in this context consists of a series of single steps.

Every step in the procedure executes a single task. This can be everything from a very simple task like waiting up to very complex tasks like the analysis of multiple measurement results. Due to the nature of the measurement, it is usually not necessary to execute multiple steps in parallel. This methodology gives the user a high degree of freedom. For example would it also be possible to use the software just to control pumps without a measurement at all.

During the operation the graphical user interface (GUI) displays information about the current status. This means that it shows which procedure is currently carried out or if it is waiting for a trigger event. If a procedure is carried out, it will display the momentary step including some step-specific information like peak response or pumping time. If the system is waiting for the next trigger impulse, it will show the time since the last successful measurement as well as the accomplished results. During normal operations it is not necessary for a user to observe the current operation except for inspection purposes.

During the measurement process the plot windows shows always the current results. It can be used to validate that the measurement is working properly during the installation of the system or later for maintenance purposes.

The software stores all measurements in a Microsoft Access database. In normal operation it is not necessary for the user to access the database. In special cases it can be practical to edit the table by hand. For example if a user wants to add artificial measurements. In this case it is possible to edit the table directly using Microsoft Access.

The measurement results can also be transmitted wireless by SMS or email to any desired location.

Analytical method development

Analytical methods for the analysis of copper and silver concentration with BDDEs and screen-printed sensors are developed.

Boron-doped diamond electrodes

The aim of the BDDE method development was to develop analytical methods to determine copper and silver concentrations in (drinking) water, treated with copper- and silver ionisation, based on voltammetry with BDDEs. The challenge was to develop suitable method with as little as possible sample pre-treatment steps (e.g. no addition of electrolytes, no stirring, no deaeration).

Prior to (the start of) the SILCO project, several experiments with various BDDEs were performed. These experiments revealed that best results are obtained with micro BDDEs arrays (stirring not necessary) using nitric acid as an electrolyte.

The strategy of the SILCO consortium, in view of the method development, was first to developed a method that contains all the steps for a high quality analysis (containing an electrolyte and performing standard addition). This method is very suitable for handheld analyses. When this method was available, it was tried to omit several steps (a.o. electrolyte addition and standard addition) to create a method that can be automated much more easily. This method is most suitable for the automated in-line device.

Based on the determined performance characteristics is concluded that the following (relevant) verifiable objectives were achieved:

(1) A micro-BDDE is constructed to determine copper and silver concentrations in the low ?g/l level. The desired low level for copper and silver of 100 and 10 µg / l respectively is achieved. The desired upper level for copper and silver of 2 500 and 200 µg / l respectively is not achieved yet (not tested yet).
(2) An analytical method is developed that does not need the addition of an electrolyte. This is the automated in-line method using the flow-through cell.
(3) An analytical method is developed that does not need deaeration and rotation of the samples. This accounts both for the automatic and manual methods. However, better results are obtained for the copper analysis with the manual method when the samples are stirred.
(4) It is not possible to determine copper and silver concentration simultaneously. Copper and silver concentrations can only be determined quantitatively when they are measured separately. The presence of silver effects the measurement of copper significantly. This inter-metallic complex interference is solved mathematically (interference correction) or by introducing the inter-metallic complex interference in the calibration line. The effect of the presence of copper on the silver analysis is negligible.

The developed methods are tested and fine-tuned during the field experiments.

Screen-printed sensor

The aim of the carbon screen-printed sensor (CSPE) method development was to develop analytical methods to determine Cu and Ag concentrations in (drinking) water, treated with copper- and silver ionisation, based on voltammetry with CSPEs.

At the start different electrolytes have been tested. The best results were obtained with (buffered) ammonia as electrolyte. CV scans revealed that the anodic peak of copper(I) overlaps the silver(I) peak. Thus a mutual interference of copper on silver was experimentally observed. This interference was solved by adding a complexing agent.

The final analytical procedure is based on the standard addition method and is composed of the following steps:

(a) the measurement of the real sample diluted in ammonia solution;
(b) two additions of copper(II) standard and two measurements;
(c) the addition of the complexing agent with one measurement for silver(I) evaluation; and
(d) and two additions of silver(I) standard and two measurements.

With this procedure, a linearity range for copper(II) analysis of 30 : 1 000 µg / L and a calculated detection limit of 23 µg / L was obtained, whereas a linearity range of 10 : 100 µg / L and a calculated detection limit of 6 µg / L for silver(I) were obtained. Based on these results is concluded that the developed method is able to control the level of copper(II) and silver(I) in water samples treated by ionisation method. The total analysis time of real samples, using the standard addition method is less than 15 minutes

(VI) Field testing

Field experiments are both conducted with the manual and automatic methods. The field experiments with the automated BDD tool (in flow-through cell) are performed in:

(1) drinking water treated with the BIFIPRO system to abate Legionella at the HWT office in Driebergen, the Netherlands;
(2) water in a pond (ornamental lake) treated with the BIFIPRO system to prevent algae growth in The Hague, the Netherlands;
(3) water in a SPA swimming pool treated with the BIFIPRO system to prevent bacteria growth in Turcianske Teplice, Slovakia.

Field experiments with the manual BDD tool are performed with acidified samples (HNO3) from:

(1) drinking water - treated with the BIFIPRO system to abate Legionella - from a Care Center (De Batting) in Harlingen, the Netherlands;
(2) swimming pool water - treated with the BIFIPRO® system to prevent bacteria growth - from a SPA Center in Turcianske Teplice, Slovakia.

Potential impact:

The application potential of the BDD tool is considered to be substantial. In the Netherlands alone, 300 copper- and silver-ionisation systems are placed in the market (from which over 100 BIFIPRO systems). These systems can all be equipped with a BDD tool (or the so-called SILCO sensor). The entire market for copper- and silver ionisation systems in The Netherlands is estimated at 5 000 systems.

In addition, with the BDD tool, also other elements like zinc, cadmium, manganese, lead and chromium can be determined. As a spin-off project HWT and GeoConnect developed an application to measure zinc, manganese and cadmium concentration in De Tungelroyse Beek. This is a surface water stream in which waste water from a zinc factory is discharged. If this spin-off project is successful, the application potential increases significantly (surface water market).

The material costs for the BDD tool are less than EUR 1 200 (based on a first series of 100 pieces). This means that the costs of the BDD tool do not exceed 20 % of the costs of the BIFIPRO system. Based on a preliminary market price of EUR 4 000, can be calculated that the market size for copper- and silver-ionisation in the Netherlands can be EUR 1.2 million. Assuming that the surface water market in the Netherlands is comparable, than the market size is estimated to be EUR 2.4 million (short term and in The Netherlands alone).

The first in-line BDD monitor devices are already sold and in use (in the Netherlands). Quotations are also received from other European countries.

Dissemination activities in the SILCO project were based on two aspects:

(1) Initial contacts and discussions with managers in relevant facilities proved that the wider societal and policy objectives of SILCO will be to ensure the broad acceptance of this analytical technology as a tool for monitoring the quality of drinking water (and cooling water, thermal water, as well) treated with copper and silver for killing Legionella and other pathogens.
(2) The way in which the project results are transferred and disseminated is crucial to gaining acceptance by stake holders, regulators and authorities. Arguments for managers and decision-makers from the spheres of potential clients for the innovative SILCO technology started to be more realistic after SILCO prototype had been incorporated to BIFIPRO system in testing areas.

Important dissemination activities were organised as part of negotiations with commercial partners and management in the process of the preparation of testing localities. As part of the preparation of analytical materials, specific groups of experts, managers and administrative units were contacted. The main dissemination activities in the SILCO project implementation can be summarised as follows:

(a) Regarding boron-doped diamond electrodes (BDDEs) with professional sphere:
- Electronic search and contacts were presented in the delivery report 1 of the project.
- It was documented that no commercial on-line and/or in-situ sensor probes, equipped with a BDDEs, for the analysis of Cu and Ag in water, were found with the internet and literature search. Only one commercial sensor probe - equipped with a BDDE - was found. It concerns the SenSysTM system from Adamant technologies. With this sensor probe it is possible to manually perform on-site analysis. According to personnel of Adamant Technologies it is possible to perform copper and silver analysis with their sensor probe. This BDDE will also be used / tested in the SILCO project.
- Based on the professional contacts, literature and internet search and communication, it can be concluded that there are no sensors devices on the market that can analyse both copper and silver concentrations on-site, on-line and/or in-situ in water treated with copper- and silver ionisation. The SILCO tool (sensor probe) that will be developed by this SME project (SILCO) can therefore be considered unique and relevant to current market needs.

(b) Regarding the required technical specifications of the process control system:
- Details of communication were presented in the deliverable report 2.
- Before starting experimental investigation and designing the SILCO tool it was essential to establish the technical specifications and boundary conditions under which the tool would operate (boron-doped diamond electrode, counter electrode, reference electrode, potentiostat, sample cell, valves, dosing pumps, chemicals, industrial PC).
- Discussions between partners led to a decision on the components to be used in tool - these components were discussed not only internally in the SILCO project but in broader sense with all professional contacts of the most decisive partners of this technical aspects (EAE, HWT, CUAS, UNIFIL, EBSR) with relevant suppliers, e.g. Emstat-Palm Instruments B.V.

(c) Regarding methods for the design and construction of individual technologies:
- Details of communication were presented in the deliverable report 3.
- The design and construction concerned the following individual technologies: screen printed electrodes, boron-doped diamond electrodes, potentiostat, pumps, valves, and flow cells, and industrial PC.
- These methods were discussed not only internally in the SILCO project but in a broader sense with all professional contacts of the most decisive partners of these technical aspects (EAE, HWT, CUAS, UNIFIL, EBSR) with relevant suppliers, e.g. Emstat potentiostat - Palm Instruments B.V. though most components needed were commercially available (e.g. Hanna and Conrad - flow cell, pumps and valves, standard industrial PC hardware, etc.).
- The screen-printed sensors are developed and produced by the University of Florence (UNIFL) - in this case the design is based on earlier screen-printed sensors developed by UNIFL.

(d) Regarding preparation of testing localities

To be successful in the presentation of the SILCO technology there was inevitably a need to evaluate information on the current, most important Legionella disinfection methods available on the market.

Regarding the Legionella problem hotels, hospitals, old people's homes, prisons and ships are high risk environments due to the nature of the water system. In the first part of the SILCO project solution it proved that there is another specific economic sphere (sector) potentially very important for the implementation of the SILCO technology (copper - silver ionisation with a device which insures that under and over dosing of copper and silver during copper - silver ionisation can be controlled continuously): spa facilities and relaxation centres with thermal water, mainly aquaparks. The SILCO project took into account this new sphere of potential market and developed the appropriate analytical monitoring device for the SME partners, who did foresee a wider market for a device of this sort.

In the European Union (EU) countries the elimination of Legionella is achieved by several methods. The main and predominant method used primarily in central and eastern European countries, is chlorination either by chlorine, by chlorine dioxide or by sodium hypochlorite. The individual methods are as follows:

(a) Chlorine or chlorine dioxide, and sodium hypochlorite methods: This is a reliable medium for water disinfection in swimming pools and drinking water distribution systems. There is a strong influence on the liquidation of bacteria, viruses and water-grass (chlorine dioxide disinfects water but removes biofilms from piping and walls of tanks as well, more effective than chlorine). The prevailing opinion is that positive effects of this method more than balance the known negative impacts (e.g. posssible alergic reactions, sensoric properties of water). The by-products at the chlorine method are trihalogenmethanes, chloramine, halogene hydrocarbons, chlorides whereas the by-products at the chlorine dioxide method are only chlorides.

(b) Ozone: A highly valued method. It is very effective but it has short-term effect. Its negative impacts are the corrosion of metals and plastics. The by-products at the ozone method are oxidation of bromide anions to bromic acid salts. This method is used for hygienic treatment and prevention of infections in water cooling systems.

(c) Ultraviolet radiation: Highly valued as an ecological method without chemicals, suitable for hot water distribution systems as well, long-running effect, low costs. So far, it is not extensively used technology but the trend is increasing. The method disadvantage is that it does not insure disinfection in the whole volume of water but predominantly in certain profiles. The by-products of the ultraviolet radiation method are nitrites if nitrates are available in the water.

(d) Powerful ultrafiltration systems: Chemically free and safe removal of turbidity, bacteria and viruses, however this is prohibitively expensive and rarely used.
(e) Zinc electrodes: Ionisation by zinc anode. There are only a few reports that this method is used.

Self-purification effect of the zinc anode protects water conduits against corrosion and scaling. However, scaling provides ideal conditions for the development of bacteria and microbes. The presence of a zinc anode with large surface area, along with zinc oxides created on the cathode ensures a proper concentration of zinc in solution. Zinc acts as a coagulation agent and along with this as the crystallisation core. In this way the absorption of nutriments needed for growth and for the existence of bacteria is ensured and in this way there is a lower risk of occurrence.

(f) Thermal disinfection: The periodic increase of water temperature for a recommended period of time in the whole distribution system (including outlet points with flushing for the required time). The water heating reaches above 60 degrees of Celsius (very expensive and only a short-term effect). Nevertheless, this the method is often used. Thermal disinfection reduces not only Leginella but other pathogens, as well. The effect of this method rapidly decreases under water temperature of 50 degrees of Celsius.

Comparing the thermo / chemical and physical methods described above we can conclude that Legionella bacteria in systems relevant to SILCO project goals survive even 50 mg / l of chlorine or temperatures from 50 to 60 degrees of Celsius. This is the reason why thermal and chemical disinfection are less effective than many physical methods. On the other hand, in many countries there is a strong legislative barrier for the implementation of physical methods like the BIFIPRO / SILCO technology which requires a coordinated approach from the consortium to educate scientists, ecologists, water managers and representatives of governmental legislation.

The main dissemination activities in the SILCO project solution related to the preparation of testing sites can be summarised as follows:

In Slovakia:
- INGEO-Envilab laboratory in Žilina with experts on the Legionella problem – both analytical/legislative and monitoring systems in Slovakia relevant to possible application of new technology (BIFIPRO / SILCO system) in Slovakia, coordination of analytical works needed for testing locality in Slovakia.
- Presentation of SILCO project and BIFIPRO / SILCO technology in the Department of Environment Hygiene in the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic - explanation of legislative situation relevant to potential implementation of new technology of drinking water and thermal water disinfection in Slovak conditions (with conclusion that testing of method in relevant facility in Slovakia can enable introduction of new technology in the Slovak Republic - after testing a new meeting and/or workshop will be arranged focusing on implementation of BIFIPRO / SILCO technology).
- Spa of Turcianske Teplice discussions, explanations and preparatory technical works for testing locality with internal experts from department responsible for disinfection process in utilisation of thermal water.
- Testing of BIFIPRO/SILCO technology in the Spa of Turcianske Teplice in the period from July to October 2011. The process and results are presented in Hydeko's final report.
- In cooperation with Spa management there is in preparation workshop with broader audience of water managers and balneologists (representing most od Spa in Slovakia) regarding possible application of copper-silver ionisation system (BIFIPRO/SILCO technology) instead of chlorination methods used in spa facilities.

In Greece:
- Municipality of Elefsina, Attica Region, Thriasion hospitals - discussions, explanations and preparatory works with internal experts responsible for disinfection process in water distribution systems were held

In the Netherlands:
- locality Nordwijkerhout, Leeuwenhorst Conference Centre - study of installed BIFIPRO system. Technical aspects related to installation of the SILCO technologies in other testing localities.
- GGZ Noord-Holland Noord, Heiloo, Psychiatric Institution - preparatory works for testing site.

In Italy:
- Final SILCO meeting in the Department of Chemistry of the Florence University with Dissemination seminar (26 - 27 October 2011) for students and commercial companies - presentations of BIFIPRO and SILCO systems with testing results were given. Seminar was chaired by HWT.

Exploitation of results

Holand Watertechnology BV and SELOR are talking about setting up a new company called Holland Sensortechnology where they will sell the developed SILCO monitor devices. In addition Holland Watertechnology BV is writing busy to get permission to sell the copper-silver ionisation system in the entire EU.

The foreground information generated in the SILCO project consists of everything developed around the SILCO tool. This means the BDDEs, the screen printed electrodes, the analytical methodology, the hard and software related to the automation, and the flow through cell.

The manner in which this foreground is planned to be utilised is shown in the following section.

General application of the SILCO tool by project partners.

The next section lists potential use of foreground by the different partners in SILCO: Eijkelkamp bv
- (ground-)water monitoring (diver family),
- hydrological research,
- (ground-)water sampling,
- (ground-)water analysis.

EBSR
- (ground-)water monitoring,
- geochemical / hydrological research,
- (ground-)water analysis.

HYDEKO
- (ground-)water monitoring ,
– geochemical / hydrological research,
- (ground-)water sampling,
- (ground-)water analysis.

Holland Water Technology / Holland Environment Group
- (ground-)water monitoring,
- connection to BIFIPRO Legionella treatment system,
- hydrological research,
- (ground-)water sampling,
- (ground-)water analysis,
- measurement and control of (electro)remediation of soil and roundwater.

SELOR
- Development of new applications for BDDE.

TerraMentor
- (ground-)water monitoring,
- hydrological research,
- (ground-)water sampling,
- (ground-)water analysis.

University: Firenze
Production and developing screen printed electrodes to analyse different kind of heavy metals and other compounds (biological and chemical) for portable analysing kits.

University: Köln
Several application concerning measurement and control of different kind of heavy metals and other compounds (biological, chemical) in environmental process engineering.

Other companies

Future applications for:
- industrial measurement and control,
- scientific,
- medical,
- environmental.

List of websites: http://silcosensor.eu/
Eijkelkamp Agrisearch Equipment B.V
http://en.eijkelkamp.com/
http://en.eijkelkamp.com/news/news/silco-sensor-measures-heavy-metals-in-water-quickly-and-precisely.htm

Holland Water Technology
http://www.hollandenvironment.com/news.html

Eijkelkamp Agrisearch Equipment
Hans van Rheenen
Nijverheidsstraat 30
6987 EM Giesbeek
The Netherlands
tel + 31-313-880200

Holland Watertechnology BV
Leo de Zeeuw (managing director)
Nijendal 52
3972 KC Driebergen
The Netherlands
Tel: +31-034-3475090

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