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Europen Nuclear Education Network Training Schemes

Final Report Summary - ENEN-III (Europen Nuclear Education Network Training Schemes)

Executive Summary:
The report covers the structuring, organization, coordination and implementation of education and training (E&T) schemes for professionals in the nuclear sector. The E&T schemes are developed and implemented in cooperation with local, national and international training organizations, to provide courses and training sessions at the required level to students and professionals in nuclear organizations and their contractors and subcontractors. The training schemes provide a portfolio of courses, training sessions, seminars and workshops, offered to the professionals for continuous learning, for updating their knowledge and developing their skills to maintain their performance at the current state-of-the-practice and to anticipate the implementation of new scientific and technological developments. The training schemes allow the participants to acquire a profile of knowledge, skills and expertise, which is documented in their personal transcript. The purpose of such “passport” is to be recognized within the EU, and possibly abroad, by the whole nuclear sector, thereby providing mobility to the individual looking for employment and an EU wide recruitment field for the nuclear employers. The E&T schemes comply to the European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET).
The E&T schemes have been developed according to the Systematic Approach for Training (SAT) model for four categories of professionals. The first category (A) concerns non-nuclear engineers employed in nuclear facilities, nuclear power plants, nuclear research centers, their contractors or subcontractors. The second category (B) concerns engineers in charge of the design of GEN III nuclear power plants. Two specific job profiles, the System and Process Engineer and the Safety Analysis Evaluation Engineer have been analyzed in detail and their E&T programme has been defined. In a similar way, E&T schemes have been developed for two job profiles for engineers (category C) in charge with the construction of GEN III nuclear power plants, the Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Engineer and the Fluid Systems Construction and Commissioning Engineer. The fourth category (D) addresses the variety of research engineers dealing with the conceptual development of GEN IV nuclear reactor types, as well as the design, construction and testing of their components and prototypes.
For each category, the several hundred learning outcomes in the field of knowledge, skills and attitudes have been described and hundreds of courses and training sessions, covering them, have been listed with provider references, contact persons and web sites. Pilot courses have been organized to test the coverage of the learning outcomes involving 36 students/young professionals totaling the attendance of 76 sessions. A specific distance-learning course covering Accelerator Driven Systems has been designed, developed and tested. Seven engineers in category A have participated to an intensive top graduate course, involving internships in different cultural company environments, according to an autonomous internship approach, developed within the project. Six employed engineers and several PhD students went through an on-the-job training as part of their training schemes.
For every phase of the project, definition of learning outcomes, course research, implementation, internships, and on-the-job training, an evaluation has been made and feedback has been collected from the providers as well as from the trainees. An extensive list of recommendations is provided in the report. Finally, the legal and other barriers to transnational mobility for nuclear professionals in the European Union have been identified and several models of a “passport of competences” have been described and evaluated with their potential to overcome those barriers.


Project Context and Objectives:
4.1.2.1 Introduction

There is a strong need for high level training of young specialists in the nuclear sector. This is due to the combination of the ageing of the actual manpower and the starting nuclear renaissance. It is critical to maintain the safety and efficiency of the existing nuclear installations and to build and prepare the development of the next generations of facilities. Well-designed training is therefore necessary, allowing the handling of the technical challenges with all safety assurances.

Major industrial organizations have the means, both in terms of expertise and finances, to hire young engineers and to train them for the specific duties, through a combination of in-house programmes, training courses available on the market, and on-the-job training. It is much more problematic for smaller organizations and in countries where recent policies with respect to nuclear energy has led to the decrease in nuclear education and research funding. Synergies would be beneficial in all cases.

The project covers the structuring, organization, coordination and implementation of training schemes in cooperation with local, national and international training organizations, to provide training courses and sessions at the required level to professionals in nuclear organizations or their contractors and subcontractors. The training schemes provide a portfolio of courses, training sessions, seminars and workshops, offered to the professionals for continuous learning, for updating their knowledge and developing their skills to maintain their performance at the current state-of-the-practice and to anticipate the implementation of new scientific and technological developments. The training schemes allow the individual professional to acquire a profile of skills and expertise, which is documented in his personal transcript. The essence of such “passport” is that it is recognized within the EU, and possibly abroad, by the whole nuclear sector, which provides mobility to the individual looking for employment and an EU wide recruitment field for employers in the nuclear sector. The recognition is subject to qualification and validation of the training courses according to a set of commonly agreed criteria, which can be ratified by law or established on a consensus basis within a network.

4.1.2.2 The Training Schemes

The assessment of the needs identified a list of generic types of training where specific training schemes had to be developed including training sessions, seminars, workshops, etc. to constitute the portfolio offered to postgraduates and professionals for training and further personal development. Training schemes for specific jobs in the following four generic categories have been developed in the project.

Type A) Basic training in selected nuclear topics for non-nuclear engineers and professionals in the nuclear industry.

The shortage of engineers with basic nuclear knowledge with respect to the demands of the industry leads to the concept of providing education and training of nuclear topics to non-nuclear engineers during graduation or as postgraduate courses. The target group consists of non- nuclear engineers supporting the operation of a Nuclear Power Plant, for example:
• Programme Engineers
• Performance/Reliability Engineers
• System/Component/Maintenance Engineers
• Design Engineers
• Safety Assessment Engineers

The experience obtained during the FP6 NEPTUNO project has been exploited to define the qualification profile with the required knowledge and skills. The NEPTUNO project aimed at a few key positions in the plant, outlining the job descriptions, the corresponding set of core qualifications and competences and a recommended training programme. The current ENEN-III project provides essential knowledge and skills to a broader target group of professionals working in the nuclear industry.

Nuclear facilities contractors are defined as any personnel working for a nuclear facility who are not directly employed by this nuclear facility. In 2001, the International Atomic Energy Agency published a technical document on assuring the competence of NPP contractor (and subcontractor) personnel. The document displays general conclusions and recommendations, followed by a diversity of contractor personnel assessment schemes and utility case studies. This compilation of the individual approaches in different countries and by different utilities is very valuable, but the variety observed shows that a common and mutually recognized training scheme for NPP contractor and subcontractor personnel would be beneficial and provide considerable added value on a European scale.
Contractor personnel provide essential services to nuclear power plants, particularly during plant outages or for projects involving major upgrades to the plants. In providing these services, contractor personnel encounter problems similar to those that challenge the nuclear power plant personnel. Accordingly, contractor personnel must be similarly competent and effectively interface with NPP personnel when performing their assigned duties. It is in this context that a well-designed training scheme would assure the competence of contractor personnel. Accreditation and recognition of the training scheme on a European level would alleviate the assessment of the contractors' competence and skills by the utilities.

Technical training for the design and construction challenges of Gen III Nuclear Power Plants.

The Generation III reactors currently in the construction and planning stages have been designed on the basis of several fundamentally different concepts with respect to Generation II reactors and their evolutionary improvements and back-fittings. Following the categorization of those concepts by T. Dominguez (FISA Luxembourg, 2006), five different fields can be identified and the challenges they represent should be addressed in the education and training programme for the engineers involved in the detailed design and in the construction of those GEN III plants.

The first field is the technology, including passive safety systems, extensive use of mixed oxide fuels, high burn-up resistant fuels, new materials, etc. The second field is the international dimension of the GEN III design, forcing and requiring the harmonization of licensing criteria and procedures, of quality standards, certification programmes and validation tests. The third field relates to the changing infrastructure and organization of the construction projects, involving the utilities, the vendors, the safety organizations and their interactions. A cost optimization strategy by reducing the construction period and exploitation of past operational experience to reduce or eliminate unnecessary margins and tolerances is the fourth category. The recovery of infrastructures and component manufacturing techniques is an additional element in this category. Finally, the extensive availability and use of innovative engineering software tools, 3D models, standardization, optimization and automation is a fifth field to be addressed in the training of the new nuclear engineer. Training schemes for GEN III design and construction should therefore address the innovative technologies, the safety requirements, the project stakeholders, interactions and logistics, the operational experience, and the design codes, standards and tools.

Type B) Technical training for the design challenges of Gen III Nuclear Power Plants.

Two specific job profiles have been selected for the development of training schemes in the category of GEN III design engineers. The first one is the System and Process design engineer in charge of the development of system and process functional specifications for the nuclear power plant systems (planning, design and operation) within specified rules and guidelines. The work essentially comprises the process engineering requirements regarding mechanical components as well as electrical and instrumentation and control.
The second job profile is the Safety Analysis Evaluation engineer in charge of the qualified implementation of safety analyses, including but not limited to transient analyses, emergency coolant analyses, probabilistic and deterministic analyses, fluid dynamics analyses, accident analyses, and analyses concerning radiation protection and neutron fluency. The main focus is on routine implementation and analyses evaluation.

Type C) Technical training for the construction challenges of Gen III Nuclear Power Plants.

Two specific job profiles have been selected for the development of training schemes in the category of GEN III construction engineers. The first one is the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning project engineer in charge of the development of system and process functional specifications for nuclear and conventional ventilation systems. The essential components are to be dimensioned and procured. The selection, installation and commissioning of components is to be supervised.

The second job profile is the System engineer in charge of the development of system and process functional specifications for primary and auxiliary systems in nuclear power plants within specified rules and guidelines. This in particular includes basic and detailed design, with the appropriate calculational analyses.

Type D) Technical training on the concepts and design of GEN IV nuclear reactors

Research centers and engineering companies are studying and developing advanced reactor concepts of the fourth generation to optimize the energy production and reduce the quantities and the long–term risks of nuclear waste. In the same way as the utilities operating nuclear power plants and their contractors, the research centers are facing the shortage of engineers with a satisfactory background in nuclear disciplines and expressed their interest in a training scheme on the concepts and design of GEN IV nuclear reactors.
The GEN IV nuclear reactors are characterized by higher operating temperatures, requiring gas or liquid metal coolants in the primary circuit, although supercritical water cooling and molten salts are possible options as well. High temperature materials, corrosion effects, liquid metal dynamics, heat exchangers are typical topics which would fit to this training scheme. GEN IV nuclear reactors are also characterized by fast neutron fluxes for both breeding fresh fuel in blanket materials and enhanced burning of long-lived waste products. In combination with the higher temperatures and the new primary coolants, those features will need the development and testing of entirely new nuclear fuels and fuel cycles, together with new fuel fabrication and fuel recycling concepts. A training scheme for the design of GEN IV nuclear reactors, including this large variety of components, will be more research oriented and will have a broader and less specialized scope than the former ones. Nevertheless it is expected to respond to the current needs of the research communities in order to design and build the prototypes of the nuclear reactors of the future.

4.1.2.3 Advantage of a Coordinated Approach

Competence is the ability to perform according to identified standards; it comprises knowledge, skills and attitudes and may be developed respectively through education, experience and training. Qualification is a formal statement of achievement, resulting from an auditable assessment; if competence is assessed, the qualification becomes a formal statement of competence and may be shown on a certificate, a diploma, a passport or any type of evidence of an assessment with a positive result.

The development and testing of training schemes in a multinational network takes into account the different approaches and cultural attitudes towards education and training across the European Union. Teachers are facing the opportunities and challenges to prepare the trainees for changing workplaces, international organizations and an increasingly interdependent environment. The international experience pays lifelong dividends to the trainees, as they became more sensitive to other cultures and policy issues in different countries. The training schemes create a supportive environment where the partners discuss and evaluate how to integrate the different perspectives as an integral part in the curriculum. Strategies to create a learning environment that encourages social interaction, active engagement and self-motivation are part of the pedagogic framework of the training schemes. Methods and activities are explored to encourage access to information sources on an international scale, and to solve problems in collaboration with trainees in other countries.

This approach significantly contributes to the coordination of the training area in the different training schemes by providing to the trainees a broader competence, enhanced flexibility and greater sensitivity to community diversity and cultural identity.

Contractor and subcontractor personnel are used to perform tasks that are of a specialized or temporary nature where it is not feasible to hire or maintain a full-time NPP employee. Accordingly, contractors may be used in a variety of situations to support NPPs, such as the delivery of supplies and services that are subject to different quality standards based on a graded approach to assuring quality, or activities dealing with plant safety systems according to different safety concepts and policies. In providing these services contractor personnel encounter similar problems to those that challenge NPP personnel. Typical examples are the assessment of risk, quality assurance, compliance with procedures, communications, teamwork, work in hazardous environments and concerns about nuclear safety.
Accordingly, contractor personnel must be competent and effectively interface with NPP personnel while performing their assigned duties. Assurance is required that contractor personnel meet the qualification criteria before undertaking any activities at a NPP site. A commonly developed training scheme incorporating the various concepts and approaches will deliver professionals with a broad field of competence and great flexibility.

In contrast to the past major wave of NPP construction in the seventies and eighties, focusing on national utility companies, national regulators and licensing, national energy policies and safety rules, the design and construction engineers are facing transnational utilities, coordinated safety authorities, international approval of concepts and design, multinational vendors. The effective functioning in this environment requires a broad approach in the training scheme, whose modules and components require acceptance and recognition of the international community. An enhanced coordination of the training area for design and construction engineers across the European Union and even beyond is the natural consequence of those developments.

4.1.2.4 Quality and Effectiveness of the Coordination Mechanism and Consortium.

Seventeen of the twenty partners of the consortium are members of the ENEN Association and most of them have been involved already in the FP5 ENEN coordination project and in the FP6 NEPTUNO and ENEN-II coordination projects. Structures and communication channels have therefore been established and formalized to a large extent within the ENEN Association and support the quality and the effectiveness of the coordination mechanisms in this project. The ENEN Association itself is a legal entity with statutory structures and meetings, including the General Assembly and the Governing Board chaired by the President. Contacts, interactions and information exchanges between the members are firmly established and facilitated by the ENEN Secretariat located in Saclay and through the ENEN web site www.enen-assoc.org. The ENEN Secretariat is in charge of the overall coordination of the project. The lessons learned from the ENEN, NEPTUNO and ENEN-II projects with respect to the design, organization and implementation of education and training modules serve as a basis for the design and development of training schemes in the current project ENEN-III.

The framework established for the European Fission Training Schemes is based on the systematic approach to training (SAT), for which experience has been shown that it is the most effective method available for preparing and producing training programmes. Through its five interrelated phases of analysis, design, development, evaluation and implementation, SAT offers significant advantages for developing and maintaining the competence of personnel.

Analysis

In cooperation with the future employers an analysis has been made of the required qualifications and skills to perform the tasks of a specific professional profile. The analysis was based on past experience, lessons learned and recommendations of the stakeholders and international organizations active in the field, e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Design

The training scheme was designed in detail to provide to the trainees the general background knowledge, the basic and specialist theoretical education, and the practical work and experience to develop the required qualifications and skills.

Development

A survey was made to identify the education and training organizations providing the necessary components of the training scheme in terms of courses, seminars, workshops, internships, etc.

Evaluation

A first evaluation was carried out by a quality assurance group together with the future employers to verify the technical content and pedagogical value of the components of the training scheme and the logical sequence of the different modules.
A second evaluation has been carried out after running the training schemes with a number of trainees and assessing the qualifications acquired and the skills developed during the training.
Implementation

After passing the first phase of the evaluation, the training schemes were carried out in a test phase with trainees supported or already employed by the future employers.

4.1.2.5 Expected Participants to the Training Scheme

The original objectives for the number of trainees participating in the training schemes were quite ambitious as shown in the table below.
The following proposals have been made for participation to the test phase:
Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie-Centre d’Etude de l’Energie Nucléaire : 2 engineers GEN IV
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique -INSTN : 2 engineers GEN IV
Josef Stefan Institute : 3 engineers
AREVA : 24 staff members GEN III
AREVA : 16 internships GEN III
AALTO University & Lappeenranta University: 2 to 4 Gen IV trainees
Institute for Safety and Reliability : 8 trainees
Consorzio Interuniversitario per la Ricerca Technologica Nuclear IRTEN : 10 trainees
Universidad Politecnica de Madrid : 2 trainees
Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia: 5 trainees
Université catholique de Louvain: 1- 2 students or engineers (depending on financial support)
Delft University of Technology : 1 trainee

Project Results:
4.1.3.1 General framework for European Fission Training Schemes

4.1.3.1.1 Introduction

The main objective was to establish the framework for European Fission training schemes to be implemented. The definition of target groups to be trained was the first step to be achieved.

Qualifications and skills will then have to be established for the following target groups:
- engineers among the nuclear facilities personnel, contractors and subcontractors to be trained in basic nuclear topics,
- engineers to be trained for addressing the design challenges of Generation III power plants and other nuclear facilities,
- engineers to be trained for addressing the construction challenges of Generation III power plants and other nuclear facilities,
- engineers to be trained for the definition and design of Generation IV nuclear power plants

Two categories of engineers have been considered: engineers with basic nuclear education (at a master degree level) and non nuclear engineers having no background in their graduate education in the nuclear engineering topics. The shortage in nuclear engineers is commonly recognized by universities, industry and regulatory authorities in Europe and worldwide. This is highly aggravated by the approach of retirement for well confirmed engineers who participated in the design, the construction and the operation of existing nuclear power plant units and the combination of what is now called the nuclear renaissance. The construction of Generation III nuclear power plants is a necessity that has to be achieved and the design of Generation IV studies must be realized by well trained engineers and researchers to meet the challenges of energy supply for the future.

In this context, non nuclear engineers are recruited and their training must be done according to identified and commonly recognized training schemes leading to the acquirement of the necessary qualifications and skills. In this framework, the design of an accreditation structure for training programmes at a European level shall be established followed by the evaluation of the potential acceptance level for mutual recognition of relevant training schemes across the European Union. In parallel to the project, a major initiative and action plan has been running by the European Commission to develop and implement a system for vocational education and training (ECVET) with the purpose to formalize learning agreements and introduce personal transcripts (equivalent to passports of competences) at the European level in order to facilitate mobility and international recruitment for specialized work forces. The concepts and tools of the ECVET system have been extensively used and applied in the project.

4.1.3.1.2 Training Framework

The purpose of this training framework is to encourage consistency in education and training across the various organizations and agencies that operate and provide support to NPPs i.e. in compliance with the ECVET approach. This education and training framework supports the commitment of organizations and agencies to train staff to design, construct and operate NPPs, and helps them meet their responsibilities in relation to safety, security, economics and environmental aspects of the nuclear sector.

At the heart of this framework is acknowledgement of the distinctive nature of skills and competences in the nuclear sector, respect for the autonomy of training, and recognition of the sector’s understanding of quality enhancement for improving professional learning. The framework approach builds on knowledge and understanding, application of such knowledge to analyze, synthesize and evaluate existing and future challenges for the nuclear industry.

The aims of the ENEN III framework are to:
- Develop a cohesive approach to education, life-long learning, mobility of personnel, with recognized accreditation of courses;
- Promote and develop the framework as a tool to support lifelong learning;
- Develop and maintain relationships with other frameworks in Europe and internationally;
- Develop the concept of a European Nuclear Competence Passport.

Nuclear Education

The ENEN III project is devoted to the training requirements of non-nuclear engineers and professionals and nuclear engineers/professionals who wish to specialise in such areas as the design and construction of GEN III NPPs and in the concepts and design of GEN IV nuclear reactors. However it is imperative that such engineers/professionals have acquired an appropriate level of education, in general at least degree level or equivalent in an appropriate subject/discipline. It is not necessary therefore to accommodate within this framework these education requirements provided that they have been attained from an internationally recognised/accredited organisation as these are already accommodated by the EC Directive 2005/36. This is equally true for engineers/professionals with higher qualifications such as Master and/or PhD. These and several other qualifications have already been assimilated into the European Qualification Framework (EQF) that relates different national qualifications systems to a common European reference framework, for example Honours degree, Masters and PhD degrees are judged Level 6, 7 and 8 respectively.

Over a lifetime, individuals can move between and across EQF levels as they undertake new learning and acquire new skills for particular contexts and circumstances. This can be achieved via the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS). The ECTS is a tool that helps to design, describe, and deliver programmes and award higher education qualifications. The use of ECTS, in conjunction with outcomes-based qualifications frameworks, makes programmes and qualifications more transparent and facilitates the recognition of qualifications. ECTS can be applied to all types of programmes, whatever their mode of delivery (school-based, work-based), the learners’ status (full-time, part-time) and to all kinds of learning (formal, non-formal and informal).

Life-long Learning

The bulk of this framework addresses life-long learning courses and other activities to qualify such courses that meet the needs of:
• Non-nuclear engineers and professionals in the nuclear industry;
• Personnel of contractors and sub-contractors of nuclear facilities;
• Engineers engaged with the design and construction challenges of Gen III Nuclear Power Plants;
• Engineers considering the concepts and design of GEN IV nuclear reactors.

The approach developed within this framework is described below and intends to:
1. Initially ascertain if appropriate job roles/profiles are available from end-users;
2. End-users involved in the ENEN III to develop appropriate job roles/profiles;
3. Develop the content and learning outcomes of courses that will fulfill the need of these job roles/profiles. The content of these courses should be equivalent to/or better than level 4 of the EQF criteria (see table 1);
4. Secure agreement from end-users that the course content/learning outcomes are appropriate;
5. Ascertain if any existing courses within Member States meet both the content and learning outcomes stipulated by ENEN III for the four work domains;
6. Ascertain if these existing courses have been accredited by a recognized authority;
7. Develop an accreditation process for any new courses resulting from ENEN III activities.

In principle, "learning outcomes" can be achievable via a variety of education and training paths (in a formal or informal context) for individuals who are following a learning process to acquire specific competencies in a nuclear sector. Learning outcomes are gaining in importance compared to the traditional input-led evaluation, based on textbook knowledge or end of course examination. In practice, learning outcomes refer to specific competencies and therefore consist of a mix of Knowledge (Learning to know), Skills (Learning to do) and Attitudes (Learning to live together and/or Learning to be), to be defined by all stakeholders concerned.

Accreditation

There are already in existence various life-long learning accreditation services, both at European level (EQF) and national level. Many other courses e.g. work-based training (see next section) are provided by the employer and for consistency these courses should also be subjected to an accreditation exercise. In the UK, NSAN has already embarked on evaluating employer training courses using an independent organisation NEF. It is proposed that the ENEN III project should ascertain if the procedures/methodologies used by NEF would be acceptable across other Member States.

A step-wise approach to accreditation would be a logical approach to accreditation i.e. initially accreditation at national level with subsequently harmonization across Member States. Consulting the European Quality Assurance Reference Framework (EQARF) would be a sensible first approach. The EQARF is designed to promote better vocational education and training by providing authorities with common tools for the management of quality. It supports lifelong learning strategies, European labor market integration and promotes a culture of quality improvement at all levels, while respecting the rich diversity of national education systems.

One of the latter phases in the ENEN III accreditation process is the delivery of pilot courses developed under the umbrella of this project and those (fundamental nuclear courses) already available elsewhere to a selected audience (internees). In consultation with their employer the internees would rate the effectiveness/value of these courses and feed back their views to the ENEN-III project.

Skills Development

A large proportion of training activity is undertaken at work, the range and balance of training activities will vary according to the individual’s experience, level of role and career development. By adopting a structured and systematic approach to training it is possible to plan which methods and activities are appropriate for the individual and for the organization. Table 2 identifies and links the individuals needs with actions and suggests some examples of resources and activities that can be used at each stage. An engineer/scientist is competent when she or he possesses the skills and abilities required for lawful, safe and effective professional practice without direct supervision.

This framework draws upon previous competence developments and role definitions and, in particular, builds on a generic training /role frameworks already developed within the sector. A unifying framework for professional nuclear engineers/scientists roles must be generic enough to accommodate other relevant frameworks, but specific enough to reflect the components of professional nuclear engineers/scientists work at a suitable level of detail. In addition to developing skills via training courses internships involving mentors, practical exercises etc will also enhance self-confidence, attitudes etc.

Passport of Competence

The concept of a European passport was introduced by EUROPASS in 2004. This passport is configured to provide a single framework for transparency of qualifications and competences and is available across Member States and includes:
- Applicant’s Curriculum Vitae (CV); The Europass CV enables people to make their skills and qualifications visible and other Europass documents can be attached to the CV.
- Language Passport; allows people to describe their language skills, skills that are vital for learning and working in Europe.
- Europass Mobility; is a record of any organized period of time (called Europass Mobility experience) that a person spends in another European country for the purpose of learning or training. It is supported by the European Quality Charter for Mobility (EQCM).
- The Europass Certificate Supplement; is delivered to people who hold a vocational education and training certificate; it adds information to that which is already included in the official certificate, making it more easily understood, especially by employers or institutions outside the issuing country. The information in the Europass Certificate Supplement is provided by the relevant certifying authorities.
- Europass Diploma Supplement is issued to graduates of higher education institutions along with their degree or diploma. It helps to ensure that higher education qualifications are more easily understood, especially outside the country where they were awarded. The Europass Diploma Supplement was developed jointly with UNESCO and the Council of Europe.

4.1.3.1.3 Training Scheme in Basic Nuclear Topics for Non-Nuclear Graduates

Introductory courses should be seen as informative and educational and should acquaint the student with all aspects of the industry. The course should demonstrate the interrelation of the various subsystems involved, their complexity and how the various elements interact, and emphasize that the industry is well regulated and meets exacting standards.

The layout and content of the course is provided in the detailed report. The delivery of the course should be accompanied by some means of assessing the students understanding. This could encompass:
- Short dissertation addressing an agreed topic (agreement with the student, course deliverer and employer);
- Examination paper (agreement with employer and course deliverer again would be needed).

Either of these assessment exercises would have to be acceptable to an independent accreditation body. These introductory courses should be the foundation on which to build more specific life-long learning courses that underpin job roles/profiles depending on the various career paths.

4.1.3.1.4 Training Scheme for GEN III Design and Construction Engineers

Training Scheme B defines in detail the required competences of Design Engineers of GEN III Nuclear Power Plants as examples for the wide field of Fluid Systems and Safety Evaluation. Three key learning categories Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes are structured in detail in order to develop the variety of ‘learning outcomes’ to be achieved by the participant of the training programme for effective fulfillment of the respective job profile.

The scope is to provide the necessary development of learning outcomes to be achieved by the design engineers at the end of the programme. It is clear that most of the existing training schemes are based merely on the acquisition of knowledge with less time spent on the application side. A simple organization of the learning modules should be implemented, starting with purely theoretical and partially applicable contents, followed by a distinct structure of specialized course modules in the respective fields of knowledge. A basic concept to be followed is presented here. Each area of interest should be broken down into 4 sub-domains to be later placed in the course modules organization. These 4 sub-domains will have a strong emphasis on application rather than knowledge accumulation. The structure can be as follows:
1. Basic or fundamental knowledge about the studied phenomena (heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, electrodynamics, neutron physics)
2. Basic example in ‘dummy’ structures of the simple phenomena (simulation, calculation, case studies or live demonstrations on scale experiments)
3. Examples of application in real Nuclear Power Plant systems (code calculations, theoretical description of such events, mathematical modelling in computer codes)
4. Evaluation of real experimental data from Nuclear Power Plants (Operational experiences, test results from Start-Up Procedures, large scale experimental faculties).

Trainees Prerequisites

It is clear from the beginning that all the trainees participating in these training schemes are graduate students at least to the level of master degree as defined by the European Commission. All the trainees taking part in the training scheme B should fulfill a number of prerequisites. A good starting point is to structure their required competences in the 3 areas: Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes. The learning outcomes of the training scheme A for non-nuclear engineers can already be seen as a qualification for the scheme B.

Job Profile / Description

Each of the following job descriptions will be presented as required by the future employer e.g. AREVA NP. It will have to contain the following elements:
- Job’s name
- Main function of the job
- Detailed tasks of the job that could be the basis for the definition of some learning outcomes
- Description of the job in terms of Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes (KSA).

Learning Outcomes

In the detailed report, more than 200 learning outcomes are listed and organized in specific areas for each of the two job profiles for the GEN III design engineers, the System and Process Engineer and the Safety Analysis Evaluation Engineer. A similar listing is provided for each of the two job profiles for the GEN III construction engineers, the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning project implementation Engineer and the Fluid System Construction and Commissioning Engineer.

The nuclear power plant knowledge will not be presented to the trainees in the frame of NPP systems arrangement and layout. The overall introduction to the GEN III Reactors will be made from the functionality point of view, following the three main fundamental safety functions: reactivity control, heat removal and confinement of radioactive materials. The advantages of such an approach are simple to explain. First, all the participants will have a strong motivation in learning the fundamentals of NPP on the basis of fundamental safety functions. A strong orientation toward safety culture can be easily then defined and achieved. Second, each trainee or participant to the training scheme will have the opportunity to improve his knowledge about cross-connecting disciplines, in particular necessary for the commissioning activities.
It is important to remind that for the achievement of nuclear safety not only knowledge is required but also a strong component concerning attitude toward ultimate goal: safe operation of all types of nuclear facilities. The nuclear safety knowledge module is separated into two main topics: fundamentals of nuclear safety addressing to both types on nuclear profile engineers.

The Training Scheme C aims to cover the required KSA for construction and commissioning engineers. For a successful implementation of such a training scheme it is important that the participants have also knowledge about the design activities. This will reinforce the communication with the previous step taken in the realization of a NPP, namely the Design. The extent of such a module should only serve as information module and not as extensive design knowledge as required in Training Scheme B for Design Engineers.

An introduction to the nuclear engineering design is desirable upon more theoretical systems and nuclear physics since it has a large impact on the future work of the employees. The related learning outcomes could be achieved during the first phase of the training scheme responsible for the acquisition of the knowledge. Further achievements of learning outcomes in this area of interest clearly remain to be seen as a specific task of the future employee. Such learning outcomes could be addressed in short nuclear engineering design procedure courses and during several case studies stimulating the team work, attitude or even communication and organizational skills.

There are more than 60 Journals treating the area of nuclear engineering and they are of great interest. The problem arises in the moment when you are asked not how it is, but rather how you do it. And this should be the orientation point for definition of learning outcomes in this area of interest. A short comprehensive overview of the NPP Systems is desired.

4.1.3.1.5 Training Scheme for GEN IV Pre-Conceptual Design Engineers

This report defines learning outcomes for the training of engineers that are involved in the development and pre-conceptual design of GEN IV nuclear reactors. The training scheme is in line with the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP), which was published in 2009. It therefore includes areas of interest that would give the trainees the possibility to find answers to the R&D challenges mentioned in the SRA, among others:

- Primary system design simplification
- Improved materials
- Innovative heat exchangers and power conversion systems
- Advanced instrumentation, in service inspection systems
- Enhanced safety
- Partitioning and transmutation
- Innovative fuels (incl. MA) and core performance

All six GEN IV reactor types are targeted in this training scheme: the Lead Fast Reactor (LFR), Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), Gas Fast Reactor (GFR), Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR) and Molten Salt Reactor (MSR).

4.1.3.1.6 Objectives and Criteria for Evaluating Training in the Nuclear Power Industry

The purpose of training in the nuclear power industry is to provide competent personnel who can safely operate, maintain, and improve the performance of the plant. The nuclear power industry uses a systematic approach to achieve this purpose, based on job performance requirements, to guide the training and evaluate the competency of nuclear plant personnel. This approach provides personnel with the necessary knowledge and skills prior to job performance, including the ability to perform technical tasks, meet expectations for high levels of human performance, and make effective decisions that take into consideration nuclear plant safety. The Objectives and Criteria for Evaluation of Training in the Nuclear Power Industry provide the framework for a systematic approach to training and the industry standard used for achieving and maintaining the evaluation of the training program. The evaluation objectives and criteria apply to training processes and training results. Training that meets the evaluation objectives has the following attributes:
- It supports the improvement of plant and personnel performance;
- It is based on specific learning objectives that relate to job performance requirements and that trainees are responsible for achieving;
- The training content is technically accurate and presented in an instructionally effective manner;
- Trainees are evaluated to verify that the learning objectives have been achieved.

Fundamental to the evaluation program is the use of a systematic approach to training. The essential elements of this systematic approach to training, as applied to the nuclear power industry, are described in a separate report.

The European Academy for Nuclear Training conducts team visits to ascertain that plant training and personnel qualification programs implement the systematic approach to training effectively and meet the evaluation objectives. The teams conduct an independent review of training programs and corroborate the information in the station self-evaluation report. Information gathered during team visits and from the station self-evaluation report form the basis for decisions by the European Nuclear Evaluating Board on initial the evaluation and its periodic renewal.

Essential to job performance-based training are the knowledge and skills transferred from qualified, high-performing personnel to new, inexperienced personnel. Training programs must provide opportunities for this knowledge and skill transfer to occur, recognizing that some of this information transfer is through less formal and undocumented methods, such as mentoring, observations, shop and staff meetings, and pre-job briefings. Other learning occurs during professional development seminars that broaden worker and supervisor perspectives but may not relate to specific learning objectives needed for job performance. The evaluation objectives and criteria are not intended to apply to the less formal methods and professional development seminars; these learning venues should supplement, not replace, formal training programs.

The evaluation objectives and criteria provide the basis for self-evaluation, evaluation team review, and evaluating board review. The objectives and criteria describe the expected results of an effective, well-managed training program. The objectives generally address broad functional areas; it is intended that evaluated training programs will meet the objectives. The criteria are principles or methods that support the objectives and are applied with professional judgment. If an objective is fully met, it is not necessary that all supporting criteria be met. The training objectives are mentioned below. The detailed criteria are provided in a separate report.

Objective 1: Training for Performance Improvement.
Training is used as a strategic tool to provide highly skilled and knowledgeable personnel for safe, reliable operations and to support performance improvement.

Objective 2: Management of Training Processes and Resources
Management is committed to and accountable for developing and sustaining training programs that meet station needs. Resources and an infrastructure of training processes are applied in a consistent way with the need to support the training program sustainability.

Objective 3: Initial Training and Qualification
The initial training program uses a systematic approach to training to provide personnel with the necessary knowledge and skills to perform their job assignments independently.

Objective 4: Continuing Training
Continuing training uses a systematic approach to training to refresh and improve the application of knowledge and job-related skills and to meet management expectations for personnel and plant performance.

Objective 5: Conduct of Training and Trainee Evaluation
Training is conducted using methods and settings that support trainee attainment of job-related knowledge and skills. Achievement of learning is confirmed with reliable and valid evaluation methods.

Objective 6: Training Effectiveness Evaluation
Evaluation methods are used systematically to assess training effectiveness and to modify training to improve personnel and plant performance.

4.1.3.1.7 Process for the Evaluation of Training Programmes in the Nuclear Sector

The following process is conceived for mutual recognition of best practices and maintaining the quality for the different training programs. The evaluation process assists European Academy for Nuclear Training (EANT) members in establishing and maintaining the quality of training programs that produce competent nuclear professionals who can safely operate, maintain, and improve performance in the Nuclear Industry with emphasis in nuclear power plants.

The European Academy for Nuclear Training (EANT) establishes evaluation standards and assists members in achieving and maintaining the objectives and criteria. The independent European Nuclear Evaluation Board (ENEB) makes the final recommendation regarding whether the objectives are met and suggesting a calendar for implementing the appropriate changes to improve the areas with problems.
For new NPP operating companies, training programs are evaluated prior to the initial fuel load or within the time frame established by EANT and the operating company senior management.

After the initial evaluation, training programs are reviewed approximately every four years. Nuclear power plants are awarded the evaluation for training and qualification of personnel responsible for operating and maintaining equipment important to safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation. Personnel who perform these duties participate in appropriate portions of the evaluated training programs. When differences exist among units at plant locations, such as significant differences in equipment or power generation technology, then training programs must meet the needs of each unit for the evaluation to be awarded.

When several plant locations share common training processes, efficiencies may be gained by coordinating the evaluation team visits and the European Nuclear Evaluation Board (ENEB) review. However, the evaluation will be awarded separately for each location and individual training program.

The evaluation process formally recognizes the training when the nuclear plant training programmes meet the evaluation objectives of the Objectives and Criteria for Evaluation of Training in the Nuclear Power Industry.

The professional positions to be evaluated are the following:
1. Programme Engineer
2. Performance/Reliability Engineer
3. System/Component Engineer
4. Maintenance Engineer
5. Safety Analysis Evaluation Gen III desing engineer
6. HVAC Project Implementation Gen III construction engineer
7. System Engineering

The whole harmonization process of the training described here is mainly for the benefit of safety. Therefore, it seems logical that EANT should develop its activities in connection with the European regulatory bodies. This is particularly true for its first function “preparing and maintaining the Evaluation Objectives and Criteria”. However, the objectives and missions of the regulatory bodies and of the EANT are distinct and must remain so. For example, it has been noted that the assessments made by the EANT are not mandatory.

4.1.3.1.8 Barriers and potential acceptance level for mutual recognition of training schemes across the European Union

A separate report summarizes the information obtained from ENEN-III Participants about the possible barriers to be overcome for spreading throughout Europe the Education and Training schemes in the nuclear field that are the main objective of the ENEN-III Project. The “barriers” considered herein are represented by the fact that specific job positions of professionals working in the nuclear field may require to receive a special license under each Country law, so that the free circulation of these professionals may be limited by the need to receive such recognition while moving from one European Country to another. The limited survey performed in this work highlighted some of these barriers, though at the time of writing, it is not possible to obtain a complete picture of those existing throughout Europe.

The ENEN III Coordination Action is mainly concerned with establishing training schemes in cooperation with local, national and international organizations aimed at providing the required learning outcomes to young engineers to be employed in the nuclear field. These learning outcomes have been identified for four specific target groups and involve the areas of knowledge, skills and attitudes, with a learner-centered approach that is at the basis of good teaching practices and is being enforced as a basis for present and future Education and Training (E&T) activities throughout Europe.

As it was for previous projects involving the ENEN Association aimed at establishing the mutual recognition of educational schemes at MSc levels, ENEN III is now coping with a further important phase of the lifelong education process of engineers working in the nuclear field, aimed at providing them with competencies and abilities enabling to play their crucial role in the different steps of design, construction and operation of safe nuclear plants. Establishing sound schemes for this learning process is presently more and more necessary in view of the generational turn-over taking place in academia, research centers and industry; moreover, the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident and the subsequent need to enhance even more the attention on safety aspects, that never declined in the nuclear sector, presently give to this action a key role in view of the progress of nuclear technology in Europe.

Establishing the above training schemes needs mutual recognition of the education and training courses throughout Europe, in order to assure the requested mobility. As mentioned before:

“The training schemes that will be established under this project allow the individual professional to acquire a profile of skills and expertise, through basic nuclear courses, training sessions complemented with internships leading progressively to autonomy and increasing responsibility based on on-the-job training. The schemes concepts that will be developed in this project will include internships realized by trainees attached to different stakeholders from several countries in the European Union, comforting them with different policies and cultures of employers. Providing young professionals the required level of qualification according to this approach will have a major potential impact on their availability for mobility across the EU. The schemes shall be documented in “training passports”, a concept to be developed in the framework of this project. The evaluation and validation of schemes for four target groups will be the main output.”
In this framework, evaluating the barriers that could oppose this process, in terms of qualifications to be delivered by specific bodies in each EU Country according to its law, is a crucial aspect. In fact, while the training passports will testify about the acquired competencies, the need that these competencies be recognized by different national laws and regulations, according to possibly different requirements, may create a challenge for the implementation of this concept. In order to be prepared to cope with such challenges, it was decided to perform an inquiry aimed at establishing the present status of these potential barriers.

The following mobility barriers derive from the regulation of positions of NPP personnel:
- the course programmes are programmes of the national industry and held in national language;
- the required experience relates to the technology (plants and simulators) of the respective licensee;
- the contents of the national training course programme will generally vary from country to country.

Removing mobility barriers will require bilateral, multilateral or international agreements of regulators and utilities. Overcoming these barriers represents a challenge for the establishment of the concept of a “training passport” that can be solved at a political level by multilateral agreements, to be possibly established under the aegis of the European Commission.

4.1.3.1.9 Nuclear Skills Passport Concept

There are at least two creditable skills passport formats currently available for consideration by ENEN III. Good examples in the UK are the NHS Trust skills passport and the NSAN passport. There are however other formats of skill passport in existence that have been developed for other market sectors.

The options available to ENEN III are to recommend:
- the development of a EU nuclear skills passport that is complementary with other existing nuclear passports;
-modification of Europass incorporating more employer involvement;
- internationalisation of the UK National Skills Academy Nuclear passport.

Development of an EU nuclear skills passport

The time, effort and involvement for the development of an EU nuclear skills passport should not be under-estimated. In the UK there are two good case studies, the NSAN nuclear skills passport and NHS Trust (Cheshire and Merseyside Teaching Primary Care Trust) skills passport from which appropriate information/data can be accessed. In both cases, a financial estimate of benefits and development and operational costs are reported. Savings of about £78K for 1000 NHS Trust employees have been estimated with the largest saving in the more efficient provision of refresher courses (£45K) for the NHS Trust employees, with an estimated cost of about £7K per annum for license costs, system administration cost and interface provision. Provision of a NHS Trust passport for a local region (Cheshire and Merseyside) will be significantly different and less complex than developing a passport for a market sector that includes numerous potential stakeholders. The £7K per annum operational cost excludes development, pilot trials, consultation meetings etc costs which could be substantial.

NSAN has estimated that set up costs could vary from about £3.4K to nearly £50K for supply chain companies to large site license companies respectively. Additional costs for a supply chain company with 2,500 employees would include an all inclusive membership fee of £36,308 with an annual running cost of £2,500. Based on these figures NSAN estimated that this supply chain company could save about £450K.

Subscribers to an EU nuclear skills passport could exceed 500,000 from several Member State countries. This number and number of stakeholders will influence development, setup and operational costs. Agreeing centralized administration, security of information accessibility, costs etc. will require significant input from all interested parties taking a few years to accomplish.

Modification of Europass

Europass has by far the largest subscribers with currently more than 16 million completed passports. Although this passport was developed for recording of vocational-type training it contains many of the attributes required of a nuclear skills passport for professional staff. It may however require re-tuning to be acceptable to stakeholder (employer) requirements. This would necessitate numerous consultation meetings involving all interested parties for each Member State country with a nuclear industry and/or intending to develop nuclear energy; the timeframe and cost would be significant.

Although Europass has an established web database and administration, it is uncertain if this facility could be used by and/or appropriate for the EU nuclear industry.
Internationalisation of NSAN skills passport

The NSAN passport has been specifically developed for the UK nuclear industry, initially for under-graduate personnel, but is now being extended to accommodate graduate and post-graduate professional staff. The passport has taken nearly 2 years to deliver with numerous stakeholders involved and with a dedicated team; the pilot passport was implemented in May 2010. Although there is a dedicated web site, database etc registered employers are responsible for updating their employee information. It has not been set up for individual input unlike Europass, but individuals can access/view their passport via the internet. Some indicative costs for UK nuclear organisations for setting up and annual running costs have been provided earlier in this section. For other Member State countries it is likely these figures could be on the low-side, but this assumption would need testing.

Conclusion and recommendations

1) Skills passports (SPs) are not a new concept. Several nuclear organizations introduced Skills Passports in the 1990s and the concept was further developed by various industry sectors. For example UK market sectors such as nuclear, health etc.
2) The UK’s National Skills Academy Nuclear and NHS Trusts have demonstrated the value and savings of a skills passport.
3) Developing a SP for the EU nuclear industry would be a major undertaking involving numerous stakeholders with significant costs.
4) ENEN III should ascertain if Europass could be adapted to meet the requirements of the EU nuclear industry.
5) In parallel ENEN III should consider if the NSAN passport could be appropriate for other Member State countries.

4.1.3.2 - Establishment and implementation of qualification programmes

4.1.3.2.1 Summary Description of the Tasks Performed

After establishing the “Knowledge” learning outcomes, the education and training qualification programmes for each of the target groups have to be composed by an adequate selection of courses and training sessions. This will be constituted by basic nuclear topics (for non-nuclear engineers), selected nuclear courses, training sessions, seminars, advanced courses and workshops. Databases concerning academic courses have been established under ENEN FP5 Coordination Action and a similar one was established under FP6 NEPTUNO Coordination Action related to training courses. All this data is in the process of being updated under the responsibility of ENEN Association. The information already available will facilitate the establishment of the different qualification programmes. For several years, several universities, members of ENEN Association, have organized their academic courses according to a modular structure. Some of these modules were already opened for the registration of young professionals permitting the acquirement of basic nuclear qualifications.
The main work achieved was the compilation and selection of courses, training sessions or seminars for each qualification programme. Special attention was given to the introduction of practical sessions, associated to the basic courses, making use of tools such as training reactors or nuclear power plant simulators.

This compilation of the courses and their screening with respect to the learning outcomes provided also enabled the identification of “gaps” and new courses or training modules to be developed to fill them. Finally the implementation of the qualification programmes by the organization of courses, seminars, training sessions and their evaluation through the feedback provided by professors, trainers, trainees and employers completed this part of the project.

4.1.3.2.2 Qualification Programme for the Target Group A – Basic Nuclear Topics for Non-Nuclear Graduates

It is clear from the beginning that all the trainees participating in these training schemes are graduate students at least to the level of master degree as defined by the European Commission. No knowledge in the nuclear engineering area is needed, as the purpose of the training scheme is to provide a wide and useful background of the nuclear science and technology area for non-nuclear graduates. The target group consists of engineers supporting the operation of a Nuclear Power Plant in the following positions:
- Programme Engineer
- Performance/Reliability Engineer
- System/Component/Maintenance Engineer
- Safety Assessment Engineer

It includes plant personnel, contractors and subcontractors.These job profiles tend to cope with all the different positions that any graduate would have when he/she starts working in the nuclear industry, having no nuclear education at all, or not enough to meet the requirements of a nuclear engineer.

In such a special field as nuclear is, there is strong need of basic knowledge about nuclear safety and nuclear culture as it will impact on every work that could be done in a daily-work for a graduate. The training is intended to be enough to cover all the different aspects needed to start working in the nuclear area with sufficient nuclear culture. As the training scheme is supposed to provide a basic knowledge for the non-nuclear graduates, there is no need to make different trainings for the different job positions, as it is not intended to give such specific training. In case of needing that training, it is covered in Generation III specific training for design and construction. The knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the fulfillment of the job task are the next ones:

Knowledge
Nuclear Administrative Aspects Knowledge
Nuclear Engineering Fundamentals Knowledge
Basic Knowledge of Plant Systems and Component
Basic Knowledge of Plant Operations
Skills
Working with Self-developed Engineering Tools or Off-the-Shelf Tools
Presentation and Documentation of Work Results
Teamwork/Communication
Attitudes
Individual, Critical Examination of the Tasks

The knowledge requirements cover the more needed and basic fundamentals that can be useful to begin working in the nuclear area. The special knowledge needed to understand how the nuclear industry works is vast, and is should be covered widely. Once the basic fundamentals are implemented, it should be completed by the plant systems, components and operations knowledge, as it will be necessary to a safe and successful starting to work for a nuclear plant.

The skills let the trainees start to be self-dependent and doing engineering tasks, as being able to work in groups, to make calculations with the engineering tools and to document and to present the results.
The attitudes of the trainees will be critical for the tasks performed and surely individual-based, having a personal point of view based on the knowledge they have acquired and the skills they have developed.

Educational Goals

The study program aims at:
- Providing students with skills and knowledge to work safely in the nuclear industry
- Develop competences in the area of nuclear engineering
- Educate students who can use the acquired knowledge and skills in various fields of the nuclear industry such as nuclear safety, radiation protection, etc.
- Educate students to understand how a nuclear power plants works
- Provide students with the minimum safety culture knowledge to understand the complexity and safe operation of the nuclear power plants.

Teaching, Learning and Assessment

The teaching should be based mainly on lectures, complemented with simulator work (if possible). The lecturer should emphasize on active discussions in every lecture, for example, the last 5 to 10 minutes of a 50 minute lecture. The lecturer should be available for tutorials.
The learning process should be progressive; from fundamentals to more complex knowledge during the education. It should be state very clear which of that knowledge is essential and which is informative. This fact will help to meet the Learning Outcomes, focusing on the aspects that will develop competences more that those which only can be used as extra information.

The assessment method should be Learning Outcomes oriented. To meet that goal, it at least a 50% of the assessment should be formative (assessment FOR learning), assessment that helps to inform the lecturer and the students as to how the students are progressing. It can be carried out both at the beginning or during the course. The rest of the assessment should be summative, which helps to measure the students’ performance and the acquired knowledge. With the sum of both kinds of assessment the Learning Objectives will be easier met. It is recommended that either of these assessment exercises would have to be acceptable to an independent accreditation body like an academic institution.

Courses

In a separate report the learning outcomes are listed together with 40 courses provided by the project beneficiaries and the ENEN Members.

4.1.3.2.3 Qualification Programme for Target Group B -Design Engineers of GEN-III Nuclear Power Plants

Acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes sufficient to be profitably involved in the design of Generation III Nuclear Power Plants represents an important achievement for engineers to be employed in the ongoing process of plant design. A careful preparation stimulating understanding and providing the ability to perform the different functions required in the design of safe nuclear power plants is therefore required. The responsibility that engineers have in completing tasks relevant for the safety of the nuclear power plants to be built demands personal commitment and a sound background in nuclear engineering knowledge and safety culture, in addition to the skills and attitudes necessary to complete the specific actions required in daily routine.

A list of learning outcomes, to be achieved by the engineers willing to enroll in such a challenging learning process has been established, which also reports in detail the related learning outcomes. That report allowed defining the requirements of courses to be made available for developing the basic knowledge, skills and attitudes requested to such engineers. The lists of learning outcomes for the different courses were compiled taking into account the presently suggested guidelines for lifelong education and training and for the implementation of the ECVET system.

The detailed tasks for the two job profiles are summarized as follows.

System and Process Engineer
- Concept development with respect to system configuration of the nuclear reactor plant (development within the scope of the contract);
- Design of systems/system parts with appropriate validation /analysis through evaluation or plausibility inspection;
- Requirement specifications of other assembly sections and/or project phases (e.g. control and regulatory functions, loading capacity, system operation mode, mechanical component specifications, commissioning);
- Technical bid development with cost and time schedule for scope of supply and services for the specific engineering activities. Activities are coordinated with the executive manager;
- Documentation of work results and development of presentation material and interview with customers as well as appropriate authorities where necessary;
- Additional duties: Technical coordination in teams;
- Concept development with respect to system configuration of the nuclear reactor plant (development within the scope of the contract).

The knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the fulfillment of the tasks identified for this job profile are summarized as follows:

Knowledge
Nuclear Power Plant Knowledge
Basic Nuclear Safety Knowledge
System/System Group Knowledge
Nuclear Engineering Design Knowledge
Flow and Thermo Dynamics Knowledge
Skills
Working with Self-developed Engineering Tools or Off-the-Shelf Tools
Cost Estimates (costs, time) for the Engineering Work
Order Processing (Project Management)
Attitudes
Formal Quality Control of Result Reports
Individual, Critical Examination of the Tasks
Presentation and Documentation of Work Results
Teamwork/Communication

Safety Analysis Evaluation Engineer
- Compilation of relevant input data for the construction of safety analyses (transient analyses, probabilistic analyses, accident severity, radiation protection, ZEDB etc…) for nuclear power plants;
- Implementation, evaluation, appraisal and documentation of the appropriate analyses using complex computer programs (e.g. NLOOP, S-RELAP-5, MELCOR, GASFLOW, MCNP, Risk spectrum, S-TRAC etc...) including separate handling of utilized programs in coordination with experienced colleagues;
- Maintenance and redevelopment resp. verification and validation of computer programs, evaluation and simulator models;
- Development of technical measures, methods and concepts (e.g. determination of program uncertainties, mitigation of severe accidents, radiation protection and neutron fluency);
- Examination of result reports, documentations etc…on formal regulations and plausibility (quality check), and where necessary implementing corrections;
- Compilation of licensing documentation for submitting to regulators and expert organizations;
- Development of presentation material and interviews with customers, experts, regulators and external auditors for the individual task assignment.

The knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the fulfillment of the tasks identified for this job profile are summarized as follows:

Knowledge
Extended Nuclear Safety Knowledge
Thermo hydraulic Knowledge
Basic Knowledge of Power Plant Engineering
Basic Knowledge of Plant, System and Component Engineering
Skills
Working with Self-developed Engineering Tools or Off-the-Shelf Tools
Order Processing (Project Management)
Formal Quality Control of Result Reports
Presentation and Documentation of Work Results
Teamwork/Communication
Attitudes
Individual, Critical Examination of the Tasks

With the aim to fulfill the commitment to set up a qualification programme for the different job profiles, ENEN-III participants were invited to propose their own courses that could be considered eligible for providing the learning outcomes requested. However, owing to the fact that some learning outcomes for this target group can be considered common to other target groups, also the courses for other target groups be considered eligible also for Design Engineers.

Most of the courses are delivered in English, but some of them, as also implied by their name, are presently imparted in French by INSTN. Nevertheless, while proposing these courses, INSTN suggested that changing the language to English for the purposes of the present project could be generally feasible. In order to identify by a first screening the degree of coverage of the requested courses by the offered ones, an exercise was made to assign to each one of the knowledge areas and domains identified in the list of learning outcomes, one or more available courses taken from the input by the course providers.

In relation to this exercise, it is necessary to anticipate that:
- the main purpose of the exercise is, as already mentioned, to assess the degree of coverage of the requested learning outcomes, proposing a list of courses that can be considered an example of the qualification programme whose definition is the objective of the present report;
- in fact, the complete offer in terms of courses is reported in the three tables below, where the interested organization can freely select the courses considered more appropriate for their trainees;
- courses are sometimes repeated under different knowledge areas, since the classical learning outcomes of such courses involve more than a single one of them;
- a very detailed assessment of coverage is presently difficult, since the offered courses are not provided with detailed learning outcomes; at the suggested websites, when available, it is only possible to get information about the course content; as a consequence, a complete evaluation of coverage must be postponed to the final phase of courses evaluation, envisaged by the project.

The latter difficulty was fully expected. In fact, it must be recognized that the practice to express course contents in terms of learning outcomes is not yet widespread enough; it is hoped that the present exercise will be a stimulus for the organizations offering courses in order to prepare detailed lists of learning outcomes. With the mentioned limitations, the qualification programme obtained in assessing the learning outcome coverage is reported.

In a separate report the learning outcomes are listed together with 72 courses provided by the project beneficiaries and the ENEN Members.
As it was noted, the proposed qualification program reasonably covers all the areas established, with a single apparent exception in the knowledge area “Thermal-Hydraulic Codes Applicable for System Analysis”. In this regard it must be anyway considered that:
- At the time of writing, information received from INSTN indicates that their courses on thermal-hydraulics and neutronics do contain lectures devoted to the use of codes adopted for safety analyses;
- It is foreseeable that other courses related to matters relevant for safety contain lectures or exercises devoted to provide the attendants with basic knowledge about the structure of widespread codes and the principles of numerical discretization of balance equations;
- In addition to the offer by ENEN-III Participants, courses on the use of system and CFD codes for the analysis of thermal-hydraulic reactor problems do exist in Europe and could be included in the qualification programme.

4.1.3.2.4 Qualification Programme for Target Group C -Construction engineers of GEN-III Nuclear Power Plants

Acquiring knowledge, skills and attitudes sufficient to be profitably involved in the construction of Generation III Nuclear Power Plants represents an important achievement for engineers to be employed in the ongoing process of plant construction. As mentioned in above for design engineers, it can be similarly repeated here that a careful preparation stimulating understanding and providing the ability to perform the different functions required in the construction of safe nuclear power plants is therefore required. The responsibility that engineers have in completing tasks relevant for the safety of the nuclear power plants to be built demands personal commitment and a sound background in nuclear engineering knowledge and safety culture, in addition to the skills and attitudes necessary to complete the specific actions required in daily routine. The same considerations apply as already given in section 4.1.3.2.3.

The detailed tasks for the two job profiles for construction engineers are summarized as follows.

HVAC Project Implementation Engineer
- Development of scope of supply and services of the department unit (engineering and component), as a basis for the bid preparation through the sales departments, as well as queries, cost estimations;
- Processing of scope of delivery (technical, time, commercial);
- Compilation of presented material for components, the findings of which are to be coordinated with an executive manager;
- Examination and release of qualification documents;
- Concomitant supervision/control of assembly by manufacturer with respective documents and internal procedures. This is the manufacturer's own responsibility and is supported through technical purchase department;
- Processing of erection and commissioning activities in collaboration with other department units;
- Compilation of operation and maintenance procedures according to requirements;
- Compilation of component specifications;
- Development of presentation material and technical solution documentation and interviews with customers and authorities including appropriate justifications and discussions Compilation of component specifications.

The knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the fulfillment of the tasks identified for this job profile are summarized as follows:

Knowledge
Nuclear Power Plant Knowledge
Mechanical Engineering Knowledge
Technical System/Process Engineering Knowledge of Ventilation Engineering
Electrical and, Instrumentation and Control Knowledge
Skills
Working with Self-developed Engineering Tools or Off-the-Shelf Tools
Cost Estimates (costs, time) for the Engineering Work
Order Processing (Project Management)
Presentation and Documentation of Work Results
Planning and Organisation Aptitude
Attitudes
Formal Quality Control of Result Reports
Individual, Critical Examination of the Tasks
Assertiveness
Teamwork/Communication

Fluid System Construction and Commissioning Engineer
- Problem analysis/ concept development as well as basic and detailed functional specification of fluid and gas treatment systems, the components of which lie within the framework of back fitting and new build orders;
- Functional specification of system parts with appropriate validation/ verification /analysis through evaluation or plausibility inspections;
- Functional specification and verification calculation with aid from technical scientific programs;
- Requirements specifications for other assembly sections (e.g. safety instrumentation control, control and regulatory functions, mechanical component requirements, plant dynamics, interlocking testing, loading capacity, system operation modes, commissioning);
- Compilation of logical plans for safety and operational instrumentation and control for guidelines, requirements;
- Development of procedures concerning the system functions of the nuclear reactor plant (normal/abnormal operation, accident conditions) and repetitive tests using appropriate detection analyses through calculations or plausibility inspections;
- Technical supply processing with cost and deadline evaluation for scope of supply and service for the engineering activities of the department unit, as a basis for the supply preparation via the distribution unit;
- Technical order processing with planning and control of time schedules, costs, qualities and the appropriate interface management, with deviations, coordination with project management and appropriate implementation;
- Employee review with evaluation of input and result data on plausibility through comparison evaluation for example;
- Review of result reports on technical and formal regulations (quality check), where necessary initiating corrective actions and then forwarding for release;
- Documentation of work results and development of presentation material and interviews with customers and authorities. Training on the individual task area.

The knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the fulfillment of the tasks identified for this job profile are summarized as follows:

Knowledge
Nuclear Safety Knowledge
Thermal-Hydraulic Knowledge
Basic Knowledge of Power Plant Engineering
Basic Knowledge of Plant, System and Component Engineering
Skills
Working with Self-developed Engineering Tools or Off-the-Shelf Tools
Order Processing (Project Management)
Formal Quality Control of Result Reports
Presentation and Documentation of Work Results
Teamwork/Communication
Attitudes
Individual, Critical Examination of the Tasks

In similarity to the section 4.1.3.2.3 a first screening has shown the degree of coverage of the courses as requested from the learning outcomes by the offered ones, an exercise was made to assign to each one of the knowledge areas and domains identified, one or more available courses. The 114 courses are listed together with the learning outcomes in a separate report. The conclusion is similar to the conclusion reached for the courses addressing the learning outcomes for target group B in section 4.1.3.2.3.

The proposals of ENEN-III Participants for courses to be offered for establishing a qualification programme for the different profiles of engineers envisaged in the project were collected and utilised for setting up a qualification programme for the profile of Construction Engineers for Generation III Nuclear Power Plants. The obtained qualification programme represents a reference that is anyway enriched by the full list of proposed courses available from the project beneficiaries and the ENEN members. The coverage of the requested learning outcomes by the selected courses seems reasonably complete, though the present lack of lists of learning outcomes for the offered courses introduces some uncertainty in this evaluation.

4.1.3.2.5 Qualification Programme for Target Group D - Design Engineers of GEN IV Nuclear Reactors

The Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) of the Sustainable Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) outlines the goals and visions up to 2050 for new sustainable nuclear energy systems. The central R&D topics in such GEN IV systems and concepts involve new reactor types with simpler design, enhanced safety and security, improved economy, conservation of natural resources and minimized waste accumulation. New nuclear technology with improved materials and fuels, innovative heat transfer systems, advanced operation and control systems have to be developed. GEN IV reactor designs are closely related to the choice of the nuclear fuel cycle with potential use of reprocessing and waste transmutation. Non-electric process heat applications are envisioned because of the availability of very high operating temperatures. In many countries, small modular nuclear units are desirable and, also for nuclear energy, possibilities for energy storage and for power regulation would be advantageous.

For the realization of GEN IV visions with large demonstration plants and numerous supporting infrastructure projects, research facilities and nuclear enterprises must obtain sufficient financial, material and human resources (HR). The present ENEN-III project addresses the education and training (E&T) efforts to respond the HR needs. In this project, the Type D training scheme which is specifically meant for nuclear engineers on the design of GEN IV nuclear reactors is described as:
“The GEN IV nuclear reactors are characterized by higher operating temperatures, requiring gas or liquid metal coolants in the primary circuit, although supercritical water cooling and molten salts are possible options as well. High temperature materials, corrosion effects, liquid metal dynamics, heat exchangers are typical topics which would fit to this training scheme. GEN IV nuclear reactors are also characterized by fast neutron fluxes for both breeding fresh fuel in blanket materials and enhanced burning of long-lived waste products. In combination with the higher temperatures and the new primary coolants, those features will need the development and testing of entirely new nuclear fuels and fuel cycles, together with new fuel fabrication and fuel recycling concepts. A training scheme for the design of GEN IV nuclear reactors, including this large variety of components, will be more research oriented and will have a broader and less specialized scope than the former ones. Nevertheless it is expected to respond to the current needs of the research communities in order to design and build the prototypes of the nuclear reactors of the future.”

The present and near-future job market of GEN IV nuclear engineers is strongly based on the decisions concerning large demonstration facilities and on the other hand on the replacement and supplementing of personnel of research facilities active in the field. Presently, a detailed, reliable estimate of the amount of experts and their profiles cannot be made. The main need is probably for research oriented people either with profound nuclear engineering experience or on the other hand high-level experts in specific areas and being complemented by a sufficient basic knowledge in nuclear engineering. Professionals in R&D are not in any reserve and they have to be recruited and trained in the standard, arduous way.

It is preferred to concentrate on rather general job profiles instead of making a comprehensive scenario of possible GEN IV competence requirements. The training of generalists has several advantages: insemination of GEN IV ideas to widen and enhance the GEN III views and of course a research frontier is expected to create spin-offs as well. Fusion research and GEN IV have several cross-cutting issues. One must, however, note the complex situation, because a dedicated specialist training, once the need is clearly detected, is a faster and more efficient way than by first producing a generalist and then performing the complementary parts.

GEN IV Job profiles

The main jobs/profiles for GEN IV R&D have been divided preliminarily into subject areas on materials (1), safety design (2), and Generation IV systems (3). Materials would involve issues concerning high-temperatures, radiation damage, corrosion, nuclear fuel properties, etc. Safety design would address neutron dynamics, thermal hydraulics, safety and licensing issues. In Generation IV the economic aspects, non-electric applications, fuel cycles, waste management, sustainability and similar areas have also to be dealt with. The details of these profiles are to be defined in the early stages of the project and all profiles have several cross-cutting features.
A GEN IV nuclear engineer would function as a researcher or design engineer at various levels of project planning and management tasks. The research areas (job profiles) would partly be similar to those of GEN III nuclear engineering profiles, but partly be highly topical ones with a strong emphasis on GEN IV specific features. A coarse classification could be performed, for instance, according to the typical expertise required:
- Reactor physics
- Thermal-hydraulics
- Materials and fuels
- Fuel cycle
- Waste management
- Nuclear safety
- Project management

Some of the basic principles and introductory courses are common to all GEN IV concepts but in deeper expertise levels the specific reactor type or the activity areas of the support facilities have to be selected. The E&T details depend on the experience level of the trainee roughly as in the case of non-nuclear versus nuclear engineers in GEN III training. For non-nuclear specialists, some topics on basic nuclear engineering principles of all generations can serve as part of the training and, therefore, the GEN III courses may be considered when selecting the course material. It is evident that in most cases the education must lead to rather tailored training portfolios.
The GEN IV facilities will create their own organizational structure. From that point of view the jobs could also be classified according to functional units such as operation and maintenance, technology R&D, engineering support, safety and security, project management including HR, finances, legal services, etc. Subcontractors, external support and consulting organizations are also expected, and their personnel must have appropriate E&T as well. To envision the organizational structure of a GEN IV facility, one can use references, on one hand, by an operating NPP where the main function is to provide safe and economical production and, on the other hand, by large nuclear construction projects like ITER or the Johann Horowitz Reactor. The latter ones, in fact, have many similarities with GEN III design and construction projects but, as an additional flavor, the strong research and development orientation dominates as in the case of GEN IV.

A typical organization of an operating NPP consists of 1) operation, 2) maintenance, 3) engineering, 4) safety, 5) security and also 6) administration units. For some larger refurbishment projects, a separate team organization may be created. The structure may be considerably different in construction projects or in large research facilities. The first GEN IV installations will probably be close to the present research facilities with their characteristic organizational structures. However, the huge sizes of GEN IV demonstration units will clearly be similar to the building of new GEN III NPPs.

A large number of very different specialties are needed in GEN IV facilities and their taxonomy is not yet mature. One possible way to classify the job profiles is summarized below.

Construction Phase
Project management (integration of activities)
Risk evaluation, QA, costing, legal matters,
Procurements, planning, coordination, supervision, education and training
Buildings, site infrastructure

Operation Phase
Reactor core- reactor physics, primary circuit heat transfer
Fast reactor neutron kinetics and dynamics, criticality, reactivity, feedback
Reactor stability, control and instrumentation
Core, fuel
Nuclear fuel cycle & waste management
Nuclear fuel issues, the fuel cycle, reprocessing, nuclear chemistry, nuclear waste management
Materials, mechanical structures, construction
Nuclear materials, extreme operating regions, novel coolants, chemical behavior
Strength of materials
Operations & maintenance, CODAC
Supervisor and operator, experimental campaigns
NPP Systems, engineering, (mechanical, electrical, civil engineering)
Mechanical, electrical, instrumentation and control
Process units

Nuclear safety, security and proliferation
Licensing, organizations

In all the job profiles above, basic knowledge of GEN IV is needed. In addition, extensive specific expertise is needed depending on the working area. Of course, each area can be further divided into subsets. On the other hand, the major job areas have common E&T needs and, therefore, both general training, plant training and subject specific topical training is required. On this basis, individual E&T portfolios, together with more general training plans, can be created.

Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes

Knowledge, skills and attitudes required for the fulfillment of the job tasks are identified below.

Knowledge
General knowledge of GEN IV systems and technology
Design specific knowledge for the Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor
Design specific knowledge for the Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor
Design specific knowledge for the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor
Design specific knowledge for the Very High Temperature Reactor
Design specific knowledge for the Supercritical Water Reactor
Design specific knowledge for the Molten Salt Reactor
Skills
Working with Self-developed Engineering Tools or Off-the-Shelf Tools
Working with nuclear design codes
Cost estimates (costs, time) for the engineering work
Order Processing (Project Management)
Attitudes
Formal Quality Control of Result Reports
Individual, Critical Examination of the Tasks
Presentation and Documentation of Work Results
Teamwork/Communication

According to experts, engineers involved in research for GEN IV reactor types need to have a basic training on the general aspects of GEN IV systems and technology. This knowledge area is independent of the specific reactor type the engineers will be working on and is designed to give them an overview of the challenges that exist in GEN IV design. The first area of interest can therefore be treated as a compulsory part of the training scheme. In addition, a lot of the basic knowledge needed for training of GEN III engineers is also mandatory to GEN IV professionals. As an example, the nuclear safety knowledge – its fundamentals and methods - must be assimilated in sufficient depth and detail. The same applies to most of the knowledge areas listed in 4.1.3.2.2. As a consequence the courses in 4.1.3.2.2 – 4.1.3.2.4 can be selectively applied. Similarly special courses on topical areas like nuclear fuel, waste management, and nuclear materials could be added into the E&T portfolio of an expert. Due to the large number of alternatives, the role of educational mentoring and tutoring becomes important.

After the orientation, each reactor type can be elaborated separately to reach the learning outcomes for design specific challenges. Each trainee has to focus on the reactor type he or she is working on.

In general, one of the learning objectives both in the basic and in the more specialised sections is to thoroughly understand the fundamentals of the studied issues and to be able to put the phenomena into the right context. Orders-of-magnitude, time scales etc. are not always properly appreciated. Awareness of methods and tools and their validity and limitations are important pieces of permanent knowledge. Networking and data mining provide efficient means to find the more detailed and newest knowledge and partly represent also the skills needed. In well organised courses, specific skills can already be practised in demonstrations and project sessions.

GEN IV Courses

Concerning the course list for Gen IV engineers, one can make the E&T planning according to the person´s nuclear engineering status. For a non-nuclear expert, the basic knowledge on nuclear technology and its principal attitudes may be obtained from the Generation III basic courses. A GEN IV expert usually must have a good knowledge on most of GEN III competences. Those courses can be consulted to form a training plan for GEN IV.

The skills of a GEN IV engineer comprise qualitatively the same issues as in case of other nuclear design engineers. One must master the principal methods and tools of the engineer´s expertise areas and also their limitations of applicability. The courage to be able to tackle apparently impossible tasks and the way how to analyse the problems are clear virtues needed for pioneering tasks. Scientific criticism is needed. Work in a demonstration plant may emphasize the researcher abilities, but one must keep an optimal share between innovativeness and discipline arising from the project schedules, organisation and regulations. Data mining, networking and collaboration are necessary for efficient team work. Communication skills are a must in project oriented R&D&D work. Project management issues from tools to strategy planning are needed. In nuclear engineering, safety culture is a central issue which all nuclear engineers must learn and assimilate. In addition to that, engineering ethics involves things like goal orientation, awareness of environmental and social impacts, social attitudes, and also a clear awareness of economical factors.

In a separate report the following courses and corresponding learning outcomes are listed.
14 Courses proposed by ENEN-III Project Participants for the target group of GEN IV;
31 Courses of GEN III (non-nuclear) supplementing the GEN IV Curriculum;
29 Courses of GEN III (design engineers) supplementing GEN IV Curriculum;
28 Courses of GEN III (construction engineers) supplementing GEN IV Curriculum;
8 Supplementary educational material sets for GEN IV topics (General and Specific).
A full-distance pilot course on Accelerator Driven Systems for Advanced Nuclear Waste Transmutation was developed and implemented by UNED with ENEN III trainees.
Finally the education material aimed for Generation 4 lectures and courses in Finland for the GEN4FIN network can be mentioned. The content has been prepared together with Aalto University, Lappeenranta University of Technology and Technical Research Centre of Finland. Based on such lecture material, courses are implemented as general introductory courses and examples. In more advanced courses the topics are focused on specified reactor concepts (e.g. LFR) or on special subjects (e.g. fast flux neutronics for SFRs). The premiere of the general course in Finland took place in the academic year 2012-2013 within the YTERA doctoral program.

Despite the challenges of profiling the GEN IV engineers, this report, providing a limited review of GEN IV related courses by ENEN-III partners and by some other GEN IV stakeholders, shows that already now sufficient E&T material is available to cover the required learning outcomes. The courses are not always regularly repeated, but by active exploration reasonable GEN IV learning portfolios can be created. In such work, the role of supervisors, tutors and mentors is invaluable. Firm commitment to GEN IV prototypes would help in the planning of more focused E&T; for the time being, the alternative options are very broad large and hence training is closely linked to the research projects. Several cases of this symbiosis can be found in the Euratom funded activities.

The issues of skills and attitudes have been considered rather superficially. The research character of the various job profiles defines the basic competences needed. In addition, working in a large demonstration facility assumes project management skills and special skills and attitudes involved in nuclear engineering. The qualification can formally be documented in the person´s learning portfolio and it would be reasonably easy to create an authoritative body for unofficial auditing. The body could consist of GEN IV expert group persons and to academia, if formal acceptance is needed.

4.1.3.3 Training Programmes developing the Required Skills

After and in parallel with acquiring the knowledge learning outcomes, skills and attitude development are the further objectives of the training schemes. This is done by the establishment of specific training programmes for developing skills for the four target groups. Training programmes for acquiring the necessary skills are based on scientific and technical visits, case studies and acquirement of good practices. Emphasis was put on the organization of this phase of the training for a limited number of trainees on a specific topic and under the tutorship of confirmed engineers or researchers. The skills development programmes and their evaluation have been completed through the feedback provided by trainers, tutors, trainees and employers.

4.1.3.3.1 Skills Development Programme for Target Group A- Basic Nuclear Topics for Non-nuclear Graduates

According to the project structure this section is devoted only to the required SKILLS for the new engineers and not dealing with the KNOWLEDGE. This separation in the real world is difficult to establish because a certain part of theoretical knowledge is necessary to review and reinforce the practical sessions either in a conceptual simulator, full scope simulator, on the job training or some other training setting where the new engineer can obtain the required skills.

Cognitive, psychomotor, and affective learning outcomes identify what the trainee will know, be able to perform, and value, respectively, following training. Even though aspects of job performance have been classified into three separate domains, in practice, most tasks include aspects of all three. Each course may have cognitive as well as psychomotor learning outcomes to achieve the required job competence.

Psychomotor outcomes define the physical actions exhibited when performing job tasks and are typically used in on-the-job, laboratory, and simulator training. Job analysis, task analysis, plant references, and procedures are sources for determining psychomotor learning outcomes. Psychomotor learning outcomes address the following levels of performance: Observation, Simulation and Performance. These levels of performance can be used to identify outcomes that, when met by trainees, enable them to achieve competency. Psychomotor outcomes are generally sequenced to correspond with procedural/task performance requirements. They are taught in the same sequence that they are performed.

Affective outcomes define the attitudes and values associated with reliable job performance. They identify the non-technical aspects of effective performance by communicating company policy and culture. Company policy, ethics, and professional standards are sources of affective learning outcomes. The use of affective learning outcomes can reinforce the culture of a facility by making company values visible. In so doing, affective learning outcomes contribute to enhanced teamwork and reinforce safe, reliable job performance. For example, new employee orientation, teamwork, and supervisory and management development programs generally include affective dimensions.

Affective outcomes can be influenced by:
- Role models: When the actions of peers, supervisors, and managers support stated corporate values, employees tend to emulate and internalize these values.
- The individual’s attitudes and values; those that confirm the value tend to strengthen and sustain it. Experiences that show the value to be ineffective can erode and, eventually, extinguish the value.
- The absence of unity between stated corporate values, leader behavior, and operating practices. This absence will undermine desired values and replace them with ones compatible with actual practice.

Developers of affective outcomes should consider appraising these items before attempting to write affective outcomes since achievement of them can be influenced more by forces external to the training environment than achievement of cognitive or psychomotor outcomes. Instruction in the affective domain is the most difficult of the three domains and is the most difficult to measure. Teaching in the affective domain can be for example by the instructor, following the proper safety precautions when demonstrating a task, then the trainee will most likely follow the proper precautions as well. A method of achieving affective goals (such as safety) in a program is to place the desired values in the standards of the performance outcomes. The course designers should incorporate the affective domain with all learning outcomes/lessons wherever possible to continually emphasize their importance to an effective and reliable job performance.

The recommended total training program for new engineers covers 40 days and has the skills and attitudes training embedded in the practical sessions. The details are provided in a separate report.

4.1.3.3.2 Skills Development Programme for Target Group B – Design Engineers of GEN III Nuclear Power Plants

The areas in which Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes have to be developed are taken from initial identification as required by the job profile. The development of practical skills requires a different approach than a simple knowledge transfer. Skills must be learned (or acquired) and trained over an extended period. The approach employed for skills qualification is aiming to cover this scope. This is reflected in the resulting skills qualification programme, which is broken down into two successive stages: Skills Acquisition and Skills Demonstration.
The overall training programme for skills development can employ for both stages a selection and / or combination of the following five methodologies, which are well adapted to address the skills area and which will be discussed in more detail subsequently:
- Practical Training
- Case Studies
- Sharing Experience
- Virtual Reality Environments and E-Learning
- On the Job Training

Practical Training

Practical training sessions are well adapted to develop the Skills area and can be used on all stages from initial familiarization to demonstration of developed skills. A practical training session is designed and organized to cover a certain range of topics covering the learning outcomes to be relayed, sticking to a predefined timetable or sequence of topics. Practical exercises are addressing specifically the skills the trainees need to develop and are completed by groups of trainees. The trainees are guided by a practical instructor who introduces the scope of each practical exercise and the tasks to be carried out. The instructor can offer help during the exercise and reviews the success of the exercise after completion.

Practical training supports the acquisition of basic knowledge in connection with “hands on” skills training and also addresses an everyday work setting, which will address the communication and organizational skills as well as “hands on” skills. Examples for “hands on” skills are defined in the training scheme B modules pertaining to the job profiles “System and Process Design Engineer” and “Safety Evaluation Engineer” respectively in a separate report.

In the nuclear field, engineers should have a basic understanding of nuclear physics. This can be acquired in lectures covering the theory and introducing nuclear-specific concepts. In training sessions combining theoretical lectures with practical exercises, students first learn about the new concepts and can then demonstrate their understanding in the subsequent exercises. An example of such an approach is a training session at a research reactor, where trainees learn about the underlying theory and then perform experiments on the reactor independently, covering areas such as start-up and shutdown, neutron flux measurement, radioactivity or radiation protection. As an example, a possible timetable for a one-week training course at a research reactor is provided in a separate report.

Practical training is also well adapted for the trainees to become acquainted with the usage of tools that are required for everyday work. This encompasses how to use simulation codes used for the design of systems in a nuclear power plant or 3D software packages used for the arrangement of piping, cables, etc. within the power plant buildings. Standard tasks within such software tools can be effectively conveyed and subsequently trained or rehearsed efficiently in a practical training session. Tools for work organization or project execution can also be the subject of a practical training, in addition to scientific or engineering tools. As the design of a nuclear power plant is a rather large project, specific software tools must be employed in order to advance the project within the available time frame. The use of the necessary tools covering for example cost and time planning or resource allocation can be trained effectively in practical training sessions using examples of typical everyday tasks, thus addressing the Skills area. The Attitude area can also be addressed in practical training by training communication within large entities such as a project organization, as attitudes play a crucial role in communication.

Case Studies

Case studies offer several advantages for skills development programmes:
- Can be easily related to learning outcomes in the skills area, particularly as regards ‘Analytical Skills’;
- Can be directly related to a theoretical training session;
- Can be conducted individually (especially analytical skills) or in pairs (especially communication skills)
- Focuses on the practical application of knowledge, rather than the acquisition of theoretical knowledge, because skills demonstration is an integral part of a case study, thus promoting the application of acquired knowledge;
- A cost effective method for improvement and development of skills, as it is not individualized and applicable to different job positions and trainees or skill development plans, respectively;
- Could be implemented with E-Learning or Long-Distance Learning Tools

Depending on the targeted skills, case studies can be conducted in several ways, differing essentially in the number of people addressing tasks at hand. Individual case studies, selected specifically for a trainee to develop certain skills, aim primarily at improving analytical skills as defined by training scheme B.

Partnership case studies are to be seen as projects to be worked out by partners preferably from different design departments, e.g. an engineer from the building design and layout department with an engineer from the piping department working on a task of mutual interest such as routing of pipes through a building. Information exchange, communication and coordination skills should be the main target of these partnership case studies, addressing communication and organizational skills as defined in the training scheme B modules for the job profiles “System and Process Design Engineer” and “Safety Evaluation Engineer” respectively. Also the Attitude areas can be developed during this joint work.

Workshop case studies can be conducted in larger groups of up to 20 participants. These aim at improving direct communication and coordination skills as well as addressing the Attitude area. Both are defined within training scheme B. In workshop case studies, trainees can learn how to communicate in large organizations, familiarizing them with interfaces between the subunits constituting the large organization.

The structure mimicked in a workshop case study setting could be a large project execution organization as they are frequently formed for the design of large industrial facilities like a nuclear power plant. In such a case study, experts from different system design departments can work together, learning about the requirements (e.g. design data, design objectives) of their colleagues from different or neighboring disciplines to fulfill their task. Participants thus get to know the approaches used in other functional departments and will finally become aware of the interfaces between the involved units – which information has to be relayed, what are the time constraints for other departments, how are the contributions from different departments fused together to achieve project execution. Workshop case studies can also be used to address the “hands on” Skills area in addition to the already discussed communication and organizational skills, by combining a case study with practical training. For example, a training measure aiming at familiarizing the trainees with the usage of tools (e.g. CFD simulation code) can consist of theoretical lectures on the underlying principles of these tools followed by practical exercises and culminating in a joint workshop case study where all participants work together to address a larger task.

Virtual Reality Environments and E-Learning

Most of the new build projects of GEN III+ NPP are using digital data storage developed with the aid of CAD and CAE Tools. These allow one to take virtual tours through buildings, systems and 3D component representations. Planning of outage or component exchange already takes advantage of such representations; the design engineers should be familiar with this technology and be able to use them where applicable. Such models can be used to familiarize the trainee with the future plant, indicating whether a design solution is really viable, e.g. whether a manual operated valve in a system is really accessible, also when the surrounding conditions, such as room sizes, piping and cable routing, are taken into account. Such virtual tours could be provided by a dedicated E-Learning platform or intranet portal.

Interactive Program “We SHARE!”

It is essential that young design engineers are able to gain experience and knowledge accumulated over the years by the experts, especially lessons learned from construction and commissioning activities. Consequently, this program is based heavily on sharing the experience of ongoing GEN III new build projects. Within the ENEN III project this is implemented by confronting ENEN-III trainees with real situations from such current ongoing projects. In particular, visits to construction and commissioning sites will demonstrate the trainees the “results” of their design activities as well as the interaction of different technical disciplines in real life.

In field reports, the experts can relay the experiences from their everyday tasks in construction and commissioning projects, and the trainees can also use this opportunity to ask specific questions. Such workshops or programs cover a large range of activities like simulator scenarios, walk-through construction site, experience feedback from daily construction and commissioning work. During these workshops specialist and engineers from the ongoing projects explain to participants how their daily work is carried out on the construction site, discussing both challenges and positive experiences. The programs cover all aspects of such a work, presenting the viewpoints of project management as well as of numerous technical disciplines. Safety aspects should be reinforced within every presentation and aspect of the daily work.

The sharing of experience is not only limited to workshops, dedicated intranet portals can also establish contacts between trainees and renowned experts. Such a portal offers the trainees access to experts identified within the organization and offering a platform or an intranet forum for discussions and mutual questions.

Evaluation

The success of the skills development program can already be evaluated while the training measures designed for this purpose are underway. This applies in equal measure to analytical, “hands on” and communication and organizational skills. The evaluation is based on skills demonstration; the trainees must show that they can apply the skills they have developed in situations identical or close to their actual tasks. In practical training sessions, the instructor can track how the trainees progress from initial introductory or simple tasks to the more complex and challenging assignments with the advance of the training program. The successful application of analytical and “hands on” skills is reflected in the result obtained by the trainees. Trainees can demonstrate the communication and organizational skills they have acquired and developed during the interaction with their partners in group exercises within practical training measures or case studies (partnership or workshop),. The trainees’ progress in the Attitudes area, can also be monitored accordingly.

4.1.3.3.3 Skills Development Programme for Target Group C – Construction Engineers of GEN III Nuclear Power Plants

The structure, the implementation and the evaluation of the skills and attitudes training programme for the GEN-III Design Engineers, as described under section 4.1.3.3.2 applies mutatis mutandis as well to the job profiles for the GEN-III Construction Engineers. Of course, the specific tasks within the training sessions, the topics addressed and the learning outcomes acquired are different for the Target Groups B and C. They are provided in detail in separate reports.

4.1.3.3.4 Skills Development Programme for Target Group D - Design Engineers of GEN IV Nuclear Reactors

The skills of a GEN IV engineer comprise qualitatively the same issues as in case of other nuclear engineers. One must master the principal methods and tools of the engineer’s expertise areas and also their limitations of applicability.
Working with Self-developed Engineering Tools or Off-the-Shelf Tools
The practical tools utilized in the typical expertise areas differ thoroughly from each other (computer codes, simulators or test facilities for flow behavior, materials or reactor physics). Therefore most of the learning will occur during the individual training periods, not on the courses. Experimental work is a science as such. However, while GEN IV work is mostly R&D type work, the self-developed tools are more common than in the industrial use. Therefore some common courses on the development of tools could be useful to be arranged for this purpose.

Working with Nuclear Design Codes

The nuclear design codes include a large spectrum of computer codes from detailed analytic level of some area of physics or chemistry (e.g. reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, fracture mechanics, severe accident phenomena) to more comprehensive design levels (fuel management, cooling systems, construction, automation). Everybody must have a deep understanding of the codes he or she is using and also practical skills to carry out the calculations. However, the development of a new concept cannot be carried out without very tight cooperation of engineers of different areas – more involvement is needed than in the work carried out for the existing reactors. Therefore rotation of duties during the first years of the carrier would be recommendable.

Cost estimates (costs, time) for the engineering work & Order Processing (Project Management)
The skills to be able to make cost estimates or management for the gen IV concept projects do not in principle differ from the skills in any development project. Therefore common courses of the universities including rehearsals can be utilized. However, the project management is most effectively learned by doing and participating in a well-managed project also outside the home institute. The habits and the spirit of the companies or research units cannot be fully harmonized and the recruited person has to learn them as in any enterprise.
The different skills are alternatively categorized as analytical skills, hands-on Skills, communication skills and organizational skills, all of which are needed in the international GEN IV work.

The interaction and comprehensive knowledge of the first two earns a special mentioning here: it would be especially important that the “theoreticians” carrying out calculations would be tightly involved with practice i.e. experimental work because the real GEN IV reactors do not exist yet. As well, the experimentalists can act much more effectively if they really understand what is needed to the validation of the calculation tools.

12 Courses of GEN IV and GEN III Curricula are proposed by the ENEN-III project participants as being suitable for skills and attitudes development of the target group D, GEN IV design engineers. The list is provided in a separate report.

4.1.3.3.5 Evaluation of the Qualification Program with Feedback from Teachers, Trainees and Future Employers

The Coverage of Learning Outcomes by Training Courses

The qualification program was obtained by collecting offers of courses by ENEN-III participants and ENEN Members and comparing the course content with the specified learning outcomes (LO).
An ambitious objective of the project was to evaluate to what extent existing courses match the ENEN-III requirements, defined as learning outcomes and to identify the gaps.
An important observation is the fact that training courses on specific Gen IV topics are very rare. From the survey on existing training courses among the 19 ENEN-III partners, it was shown that basic courses in nuclear engineering and courses targeting issues related to Gen III nuclear reactors are regularly offered, especially for the knowledge domain. Training courses on Gen IV are offered only seldom, mainly because this subject is still much more research-oriented and the relevant competences are scattered among very few research institutions or universities. Customized training courses should therefore be developed, but this is a time and resource consuming activity, that not all institutions want to take up. Only one course was specifically developed by UNED in the frame of the ENEN-III project to deal with the design challenges of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS).The design and evaluation of the course has been presented in workshops and conferences.

In order to assess by a first screening the degree of coverage of the requested learning outcomes by the offered courses, a qualitative exercise has been made to assign to each one of the identified knowledge areas and domains one or more available courses.
Existing courses were generally considered to cover LOs properly, at least in the knowledge area. However, for example, the area of nuclear fuels is not explicitly mentioned as required knowledge and skills for the groups of Gen III design engineers and construction engineers. Some courses at SCKCEN and INSTN address nuclear materials. Do they properly address important fuel concerns like fuel design fabrication and behavior under irradiation? This may be a lack in the existing package of courses. Among the advanced courses of the International School in Nuclear Engineering (INSTN), one course is fully focused on nuclear fuels. More basic courses on nuclear fuels may have to be developed.

An important and generic topic to be discussed in more detail is the role of computer codes and/or simulators in the development and qualification of skills. CEA organizes specific CATHARE workshops that may be of high value. The SUNCOP seminars, organized by University of Pisa, include “hands-on training” on thermal-hydraulics codes (RELAP…). The importance of simulators at developing and qualifying skills should be more explicitly emphasized. Existing courses include several days of practice on modeling codes (neutronics, thermal-hydraulics) and/or simulators on PWR operation and or safety.

As a whole, it appeared that a very detailed assessment of coverage is presently difficult, since the offered courses are not provided with detailed learning outcomes. At the suggested websites, when available, it is only possible to get information about the course content. In fact, it must be recognized that the practice to express course contents in terms of learning outcomes is not yet widespread enough. It is hoped that the present exercise will be a stimulus for the organizations offering courses in order to prepare detailed lists of learning outcomes.

In relation to the latter aspect, it is obvious that the present survey, being limited to the offer proposed by ENEN-III partners and ENEN Members, cannot completely reflect the richness of the wider offer that European academia and industry can provide in this sector. Any lack detected in the list of available courses, with respect to what was requested in establishing the general requirements for the job profiles, should not be strictly interpreted as a sign that European Countries are unable to provide the necessary education and training to nuclear engineers. On the contrary, it must be expected that, in the present attempt to establish a European network of education and training schemes for nuclear engineers, it will be possible to cover different areas at different extents, requesting a wider involvement to produce a more complete coordination among existing agencies delivering the proper education to nuclear engineers.

Selection and Follow-up of the Trainees

The initially forecasted number of 79 trainees, including 40 from Areva GmbH, was not reached, mainly due to the adverse effects of the Fukushima accident on the European nuclear renaissance and the world-wide reduction and delay of new-build reactor projects. The industrial partners were most affected. In practice, the interested partners could freely select the courses considered more appropriate for their trainees. It should be observed that most Areva trainees followed internal Areva professional training programmes. Only 5 trainees from Areva have been included in the standard evaluation of the ENEN-III qualification process. Seven ISaR trainees followed the ISaR TGTP-NT 2010-2011 basic training programme (45 weeks, including 24 weeks internship) corresponding to traiing scheme A. The feedback from the ISaR training programme is documented in a dedicated separate report. As a whole, 36 trainees (from 11 partners, 7 countries) have been included in the ENEN-III standard evaluation process. A total of 76 course sessions were attended, respectively 7 in training scheme A, 45 in training scheme B and 24 in training scheme D. No trainees applied for training scheme C.

Methodology of the Evaluation

After the definition of the learning outcomes for each area of interest, a survey was conducted to identify possible training activities among the project partners that could be used in the training schemes. The available courses were collected for each of the four training schemes and displayed in a database.

Within the ENEN-III project, a group of trainees among the different project partners were identified to test the proposed training schemes. These trainees were allowed to attend different training activities in the framework of their CPD (Continuous Professional Development).

Several documents have been created to monitor the participation of the trainee in the training scheme. The portfolio of documents for each trainee consists of the following:
(1) The “Europass Curriculum Vitae”
This document gives a comprehensive picture of the actual competences and qualifications of a trainee.
(2) A document called “My Learning Outcomes”
In this document, the learning outcomes for the chosen training scheme are evaluated with respect to the background of the trainee. Each of the learning outcomes needs to be listed as ‘achieved’ or ‘to be achieved’. This is done using face-to-face interviews with the trainees and their supervisors.
(3) A document called “My Action Plan”
In this document training activities are listed that should lead to the acquisition of the missing learning outcomes. These activities can be selected from a variety of theoretical training sessions, practical training sessions, seminars, workshops, case studies, technical visits, on-the-job training, etc.

In addition, each portfolio should be completed with the relevant certificates of attendance, test results, reports, etc. This portfolio will form the basis to move towards an accreditation structure for the recognition of the acquired learning outcomes.
A questionnaire was developed to support the evaluation process. The questionnaire is based on the LOs tabulated for knowledge, skills, and attitude areas for each of the training schemes. Trainees were invited to check the acquisition of LOs before and after attending the training courses.
For example in training scheme D, LOs pertaining to the attended training courses were checked one by one, either in a process of self-evaluation or through an interview performed by the sending organization of the trainees. The results were then agglomerated into more global areas of interest.
The evaluation of skills and attitudes was performed in a more global approach common to all training schemes.
The results of the evaluation of the 36 trainees have been compiled. They are available for deeper analysis to the ENEN-III partners and course providers in general. As an example of feedback from trainees on training scheme B, an indicator of the mastering of LOs before and after the course for each LO is given. The mastering of LOs after the course ranges from a considerable increase to no increase at a low level - LO not covered by the course - or no increase at a high level - LO already acquired prior to the course.

4.1.3.4 Internships leading to Increasing Autonomy

The training achieved under the qualification programme is usually followed by internships realized by trainees attached to different stakeholders. Here the objective is to create schemes and procedures confronting the trainees with different policies and cultures of employers in various European Union countries. The objective is reached by the agreement of several stakeholders accepting to host the trainees.

A pilot case has been conducted leading to an increasing autonomous internship approach carried out during a defined period and precise schedule. A separate report has been written with contributions from the trainees and a review organized by the project partners to evaluate this pilot approach of the internship concept.

As a first consequence, a general concept of coordinated internships with different stakeholders has been developed and tested. This has been done by the association of various stakeholders, supporting the ENEN III Coordination Action, representing different policies and cultures of employers in different European Union countries. This naturally leads to a stakeholders’ agreement or protocol supporting the coordinated internship concept.

4.1.3.4.1 Basic Autonomous Internship Approach

In the year 2008 ISaR started organizing a trainee programme “Top Graduate Training Programme Nuclear Technology” (TGTP-NT) which aims to educate young scientists and engineers of specializations other than nuclear to become so called “nuclear generalists”. Therefore the TGTP-NT fits in the type A of the above mentioned training profiles. Initially the intention was to include the internships within the TGTP-NT in the budget of ENEN-III project. However due to the delayed start of the project TGTP-NT has been run as a separate trainee programme without financial support of ENEN-III. In years 2008 – 2011 it has been financed by the energy industry in Germany.
The project task “Internships leading to increasing autonomy”, aimed to create schemes and procedures confronting the trainees with different policies and cultures of employers in various countries of the European Union. The selected training was to be realized by the agreement of several chosen stakeholders who will be hosting the trainees. As a means to realization of this goal, a general concept of coordinated internships with different stakeholders was to be developed. To provide a sound basis for the development of such a concept, one of the tasks planned was “to conduct a pilot case leading to increased autonomous internship approach”.

This section describes the realization of the task mentioned above. The internship concept and results of the TGTP-NT should support ENEN-III and be considered a blueprint for the further internship programmes to be developed. The concept is extended to be usable for a wider scope of training schemes, and to provide a set of best practices and highlight the potential difficulties possible to occur while organizing such a programme.

Cultural and legal aspects

Cultural and legal issues need to be carefully researched before the start of the internship programme. Internships are always placements at other firms so a few points have to be clarified like for example: contractual regulation, confidential agreement, non-proliferation policy, local culture at the destination unit. Those challenges may gain in meaning especially if stakeholder with a rather national profile is hosting a trainee. In case of stakeholders with a very international employee structure and activity profile they can however be of small or no meaning. Our learning was that those cultural issues need to be carefully considered and discussed already during the application process, especially the cultural issues relevant for the stakeholder at hand. Moreover, in case of programmes including international participation it is important to have a clear policy with regard to overcoming unnecessary cultural and organizational barriers that might occur in case of some trainees. For example it is reasonable to:
- Help the trainees from abroad with the daily organizational issues like renting an apartment, explaining the basic administrative and cultural issues etc.
- An initial overview of the nuclear industry in the given country should be provided in order to facilitate future search of internship possibilities.
-Provide help with the correct formatting of the job application documents as well as some coaching regarding the job application process being a standard in the hosting country – for some it might be an important factor increasing their future autonomy as young generation specialist looking for a job in the European nuclear sector.

Cooperation with Universities

Co-operation with universities has proved to be very beneficial regarding the creation of the networking possibilities for the trainees, organization of the internships as well as in some financing issues related to the trainee programme. From our experience obtaining a visa can also be solved easier and faster with the help of a university.

Attracting Interns with the highest potential

Conducting a trainee programme aiming at educating high quality young professionals efforts should be made to attract the people of highest potential to the programme. Based on the experience it is recommended to:
- Provide salaries high enough to be attractive for the best candidates. If we want people of the higher end of the spectrum, we should provide them with a salary also belonging to the higher end of the salaries offered to the trainees in other trainee programmes.
- Choose a place for the trainee programme wisely. Attractive places have the potential to attract very good candidates.
- Connect the internships with mentoring. The mentor is a high influential person at the hosting organization helping the trainee with experience and contacts to start the career successfully.

Networking

Take great care to create networking opportunities for the trainees. Within the TGTP-NT network building among the trainees and other young professionals was done by looking for an appropriate balance of participants already working in the nuclear industry and trainees, university fellows or students. In order to encourage the development of peer-to-peer relationships, the courses organized within the TGTP-NT training scheme can be used also for the continuous training of young professionals already working in the nuclear industry and other nuclear organisations. They bring the trainees together with the young generation employees and this way the links between graduates and the nuclear employees are established. Moreover, in case of some of the trainees, during their internships, coaching and mentoring relationships have occurred. This helped them to acquire new skills more effectively and to identify the suitable ways to achieve personal objectives. Expanding the professional network of young specialist and creating professional relationships between the trainees and the experienced employees or mentors in the nuclear industry plays an important role in increasing the autonomy of the trainees. Such possibilities are one of means to attract very qualified graduates. The main lesson learned from this aspect of the trainee programme is: to create a plan of action to allow the trainees use the networking possibilities to the fullest extent. Ways to do it can be for example:
- Present the online networking opportunities to the trainees: how they work, how to develop the professional contact network as well as the benefits of doing that;
- Strongly encourage the trainees to join professional networks in the hosting country and register them for all related events taking place during the training period;
- Take great care about spreading the knowledge about the mission and goals of the trainee programme and internships among the employees of the stakeholders.

4.1.3.4.2 Report on the evaluation of the pilot case

The total duration of the initial training at ISaR was appropriate for all trainees as well as the technical course programme. Some trainees indicated however that the course blocks were a little bit too long. They would have preferred to have only blocks of one week, whereas in the programme some courses took three weeks. The same accounts for the language courses: according to some trainees these courses were too intensive and it would have been better to spread them a little bit more over time.
The initial training is perceived as an essential part of the programme, according to the trainees. The knowledge gained during the technical courses provides them with the basics needed to start their internships. Especially the fact that during this initial training, the trainees received a good overview on all aspects relating to nuclear energy and technology was appreciated. It ensured that the trainees had a better understanding of the internship project from the start. Whenever the trainees encountered a problem, they could always rely on this basic knowledge as they had to look for more advanced solutions. Most trainees enjoyed the fact that the technical courses were spread in time during the entire programme. This way, they could also use some of the knowledge and skills gained during the internship for a better understanding of the technical courses.

The programme benefited from the presence of teachers from different companies. It not only allowed for good networking, but it made sure that courses were not too academic and that a close connection with industry was always present during the lectures.
The fact that the content of the technical courses was not only technology related was very interesting for the trainees with a scientific background. It is however important to find a good balance between the non-technological and the technological parts. Some of the courses - for example the ones on law and regulation - were perceived as being too long and not so relevant by some trainees. Also, the trainees indicated that it is important to ensure that there is not too much overlap between the different technical courses.
Important parts of the initial training phase were several assignments on which the trainees had to work together in groups (for example performing LWR accident analysis with the ATHLET/ATLAS software). Not only did they acquire new nuclear skills during these smaller projects, but they also worked on different fields: teamwork, presentation and communication, responsibility etc. The initial training therefore also addresses attitudes, complementary to knowledge and skills. Important hands-on experience was gained during the nuclear trips: visits to several nuclear facilities were been performed. The trainees indicated that they wished that these trips had been organised sooner in the programme, given their importance, to get a feeling of a real nuclear environment. This clearly indicates that the development of relevant competences in the attitude area needs to be started rather sooner than later.

Each trainee indicated the importance of the German language courses during the initial training. Without these courses, the integration in the different companies would have been more difficult. Most of the time, the working language was English during the internship. Many procedures, documents and administrative aspects, however, required a sufficient knowledge of German.
Most trainees were generally satisfied with the content of the initial training, but some of them would have wished for more collaboration of ISaR with the partner utilities when setting up the content of the technical courses. The trainees argued that the technical courses should have been designed more in such a way that specific job profiles would have been targeted, supporting effectively the approach taken by ENEN-III.

According to all the trainees, the internship was a very important part of the TGTP-NT. It provided the trainees with a less technical, more business and managerial oriented view of the nuclear industry, something that is very hard to achieve with only training courses. During the internship, the trainees received valuable hands-on experience in a real working environment. Whereas during the initial training phase, all trainees have received the same training, the internships were on an individual basis. Each internship being different, and some training courses being scheduled during the internships, the trainees could exchange their experiences during the year.

All the trainees agreed that the TGTP-NT approach with respect to the autonomous internships is a successful one. There were however some minor comments to be taken into account. First of all internship positions were scarce and the trainees did not have a lot of options to choose from. Some trainees felt they were informed about the positions rather late and with limited flexibility. They suggested that the available internship topics could have been introduced during the initial training phase in order to inform the trainees of the different possibilities and help them to choose a topic in a better way.

Some trainees argued that the stakeholders or utilities deciding to collaborate in projects such as the TGTP-NT, should make the programme as visible as possible in their company in order to facilitate the integration of the trainees. In order to do this, the utilities should be committed from the initial phases of the programme, starting with the recruitment of the trainees.

4.1.3.4.3 European Internship Concept

General Coordinated Internship

These internships are addressed to trainees following the type A training scheme “Basic training in selected nuclear topics of non-nuclear engineers and professionals in the nuclear industry". Within this programme the trainees will acquire general knowledge that will enable them to actively participate in the nuclear community. Core competences are addressed on basic and intermediate levels.

A sequence of internships within different stakeholders, lasting together 15 months, is executed according to the following consecutive stage scheme:
(1) Academia (research and education) – 3 months
(2) Industry (vendors, service providers, utilities) – 6 months
(3) Technical support organizations – 3 months
(4) Regulatory bodies – 3 months

Each internship stage includes three major issues:
- General knowledge acquisition;
- General skill development in order to perform basic tasks that rely on relevant information, basic methods, tools and materials;.
- Work or study is conducted under direct supervision in a structured context.
Targeted Coordinated Internship

These advanced internships are addressed to trainees following the type B “Basic training in selected nuclear topics for personnel of contractors and subcontractors of nuclear facilities “ and C “Technical training for the design and construction challenges of GEN III Nuclear Power Plants” training schemes.

The program follows a scheme similar to the general coordinated internship programme but is targeting trainees already established in the nuclear community, who would like to develop their competences in two chosen stakeholder fields. The first of those fields applies to the group of Academia and Industry, the second one to the group of Technical Support Organization and Regulatory Bodies. The targeted coordinated internships follow the consecutive stage scheme presented as follows:

(1) Academia (research and education) or Industry (vendors, service providers, utilities)– 6 months;
(2) Technical support organization or Regulatory bodies – 3 months.

These internships provide the trainees with the following competences:
- Comprehensive, specialized, factual and theoretical knowledge within a field of work or study and an awareness of the boundaries of that knowledge;
- A comprehensive range of cognitive and practical skills required to develop creative solutions to abstract problems;
- Take responsibility for completion of tasks in work or study; adapt own behavior to circumstances in solving problems and supervise the routine work of others.

Specific Coordinated Internship

Trainees for this type of internships have broad interdisciplinary knowledge and skills with highly developed expertise in all stakeholder competences and a specialization in some targeted field. These trainees follow the type D training scheme “Technical training on the concepts and design of GEN IV Nuclear Plants”. The trainees will follow a 3 or 6 months long internships with at least two stakeholders of the same group (e.g. different utilities, different TSOs etc.)
The relevant internship objectives are:
- Knowledge at the frontier of a particular field of work/study and at the interface between different fields;
- The most advanced and specialized skills and techniques (including synthesis and evaluation), required to solve critical problems in research and/or innovation as well as to extend and redefine the existing knowledge or professional practice;
- Demonstrate substantial authority, innovation, autonomy, scholarly, professional integrity and sustained commitment to the development of new ideas or processes at the forefront of work or study contexts including research.

Common Issues

Language
A so called language passport/certification is a self-assessment tool for the language skills and qualifications and is mandatory. The main communication language is English with possible addition of German, French and Spanish. However in the lessons learned from the pilot cases described in 4.1.3.4.1 trainees encountered communication difficulties at different stakeholders with a rather national profile. To address this issue, some specialized-intensive language courses should be offered. Thus it is necessary to find out the language requirements in order to ascertain whether special language preparation is needed.
Based on the language requirements, stakeholders grouping should be created:
- Stakeholders with rather national profile (communicative knowledge of a local language is needed)
- Stakeholders with an international profile (English is the main working language)

Contractual Regulations
In the Member Countries of the European Economic Area (EEA) the free movement of workers is a fundamental right which permits nationals of one EEA country to work in another EEA country on the same conditions as that member state’s own citizens. However, some restrictions are to be found for some citizens. The eligibility and interdictions can be found on the following web pages:
- Your Europe Portal:
http://ec.europa.eu/youreurope/citizens/work/migrant-worker/work-permits/index_en.htm
- The European Job Mobility Portal: http://ec.europa.eu/eures/main.jsp?acro=lw&lang=en&catId=490&parentId=0
It is good to know who is covering the health insurance policy: the trainee or the hosting stakeholder (employer). If one is a national from the EEA or Switzerland, they are entitled to a European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) to access health care service when visiting these countries. The EHIC is used free of charge and can be obtained from the applicant’s local health authority. All EHIC carry just the basic information –holder’s name, date of birth and a personal identification number. The card does not carry any medical information. Thus, visiting the European Job Mobility Portal in order to make educated decisions about free movement of the trainees is the proper way for overcoming these issues. This portal will provide help and support when considering training or recruiting from another country.

4.1.3.5 Responsibility, Autonomy and on-the-job-Training

This section deals with the last phase of the training scheme. In this phase of the training, the objective for the trainee is to acquire responsibility, self-confidence and autonomy through on-the-job training. Arrangements are made for the trainees to conduct autonomous activities under the mentorship of employers and to acquire responsibility and to be in charge of specific duties. This enables trainees to get acquainted with the employer environment, policy, culture and with the professional counterparts.
The follow-up of the trainees during this phase of the on-the-job training is realized by a selected jury by collecting reports from trainees and the mentors at regular intervals. Analysis of these reports produces a definite evaluation of the training scheme and the final feedback report includes recommendations for improvements when necessary.

4.1.3.5.1 On-the-Job Training

On the Job Training takes place at the trainee’s work place and is characterized by a strong correspondence to the real work situation by using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully qualified. In addition to knowledge transfer – which can also be carried out in an OJT setting, especially in the case of detailed or task-specific knowledge – OJT is a well established method for addressing the areas of skills and attitudes. It focuses on specific means to practice the application of skills and attitudes for a set of tasks required for the trainee’s future job position and that were defined prior to the implementation of the OJT phase, during the design phase of the OJT. The application of OJT allows these competences to be developed efficiently. Learning and practice are occur simultaneously during the tasks, thus the transfer of knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired from training measures to real work situations (transfer of training) is not required, in contrast with other forms of training such as classroom training.

On the job training is a formalized, structured and systematic process that can be applied for the development of technical and methodical competences as well as social and motivational competences. Depending on the focus of the OJT, different measures can be applied in order to address the aforementioned competencies. The practice of selecting a mentor or coach to support and train the employee for his or her new position during training implementation and to offer guidance with respect to knowledge, skills and attitudes is well established within the framework of OJT. Other strategies are also in use in OJT, such as allocation of performance aids, i.e. tools and procedures that guide the trainee through his or her tasks. The more skills and attitudes that need to be trained, the more personal instruction, coaching or mentoring needed for a successful OJT.

The aims of OJT are to instill a high level of autonomy, responsibility and self-confidence in the trainees regarding their future work tasks and to get them acquainted with professional counterparts, well-established best practices, the work setting and the employer’s policy and culture.

In the ENEN-III project, On the Job Training is considered separately due to the pronounced importance of OJT for an in-depth and sustainable development of skills and attitudes.
Prerequisites for attending on the job training

It is expected that all trainees attending the on the job training have already participated in the theoretical classroom trainings mandatory for starting the OJT phase that are defined for their corresponding training scheme. This allows the theoretical knowledge acquired in the classroom training to be applied immediately in the OJT setting.

Competencies acquired by OJT measures

Application of OJT is necessary to cover all aspects of the training schemes, because it represents the first choice for training and acquiring competences in the skills and attitudes domains. The different skills can be addressed individually. The Attitude area is addressed by conduction of OJT itself, as a continuing joint work of trainee and mentor will advance the cultivation of attitudes through the mentor setting an example for the trainee with respect to attitudes.
In the skills domain, three kinds of skills are distinguished: analytical skills, hands-on skills and communication and organizational skills.

Analytical skills

Well developed analytical skills enable the trainee to recognize and interpret complex relationships and dependencies. These may arise frequently due to complex nuclear technology, e.g. in the field of cooperation between different plant systems. In OJT the trainees are familiarized with such complex sequences and benefit from the know-how and the experience shared by their experienced coach. The development of analytical skills benefits considerably from a functioning know-how transfer in coaching or mentoring settings, as these allow analyzing the tasks step-by-step, highlighting crucial points during the process. This allows the trainee to develop the ability to solve complex analytical tasks; he or she will be familiar with features and phenomena enabling him to remember the information shared by his coach when he recognizes similar situations later on. Eventually this will lead the trainee to cultivate his analytical skills of prediction, evaluation, innovation, anticipation and adaptation.

Hands-on Skills

Hands-on skills can also be developed efficiently in OJT settings. They comprise the skills necessary to use tools according to tried and tested methods, respecting best practices. Mentors can share their experience by preparing and conducting the task at hand together with the trainee. Familiarization of the trainee with tools or techniques is effected in four phases: instruction, demonstration, performance and follow-up. At a first briefing stage the task will be explained to the trainee, pointing out best practices and other relevant information to enable successful completion of the task. In the following demonstration the trainee watches the trainer performing the task. Later on the trainee performs the task under the supervision of the mentor. The process thus allows a gradual transition from watching to doing. Trainees initially only work on a small number of subtasks independently, and later acquire gradually more responsibility during the process. Mentors give immediate feedback to the trainee during and after these phases, particularly in the summarizing follow-up phase.

Communication and organizational skills

Projects in nuclear industry are often on a large-scale, requiring large organizations and therefore good organization and communication skills. Engineers from several disciplines, countries or cultures can be involved in such large project team assembled for example for design and construction of a nuclear power plant. Efficient communication is essential in such a large organization, in which the awareness of interfaces between project disciplines and how to effectively pass on information are of paramount importance.
Equally important are organizational skills, as the ability to adapt the sequence of milestones and the tasks defined within the projects is key. This requires some knowledge of the scope, technology and requirements of the other disciplines, which calls for good communication skills in order to obtain this information. Leadership and self-management are further organizational skills relevant to work in large project teams. Communication and organizational skills can both be trained efficiently in OJT framework by introducing the trainee into a project team with an experienced colleague offering advice and support.

4.1.3.5.2 On the Job Training Methodology

On-the-job training comprises many different methods that can be applied to teach the trainee at his or her actual work place. The methods range from job instructions and performance aids to coaching and mentoring. The key point for a successful OJT phase is a personalized task-specific combination of these methods. The preparation phase, during which this selection takes place, thus determines the later success of OJT and should be executed carefully. The following methods are required to set up on-the-job training:
- Job instruction: formalized structured and systematic approach to OJT, the job tasks are prepared by the trainees and an expert assigned to them. The expert shows how to perform the task, supervises the trainee and gives feedback. The transfer of know-how is not as important as the transfer of how-to in the job instruction setting. This kind of OJT is frequently used for manual tasks or the usage of tools.
- Performance aids: devices handed over to the trainees helping them to perform their job, guiding them stepwise through the individual tasks of the job. Such devices include signs, prompts, checklists or troubleshooting aids.
- Coaching: one-on-one training measure in which a more experienced and knowledgeable person is formally assigned to the trainee to develop their insights and techniques pertinent to the accomplishments of their job. Compared to job instruction, this is more intensive and embedded in a long-term training plan. The transfer of know-how or even know-why is more pronounced than the transfer of how-to.
-Mentoring: Extension of the coaching method, where a senior member of the organization takes a personal interest in the career of the trainee.

Several methods have emerged that effect the progression of the trainee with respect of responsibility or complexity or scope of the task.
The following methods can be employed for the development of technical or methodical skills:

- Job enlargement: widen the scope and variety of a job conferred on the trainee by extending the range of job tasks, while keeping the same level of complexity and responsibility. This means that the trainee is taking over more and more job tasks from his mentor.
- Job enrichment: increase the complexity of the tasks assigned to the trainee or the responsibility the trainee has to assume. Also the assumption of new tasks with more responsibility is a variety increasing the trainee’s competence level.
- Job rotation: change the trainee’s job assignments on a regular basis, rotating him or her through various positions within the same project. This is especially valuable in training on the awareness of the interfaces in large project organizations.

For OJT of engineers in the nuclear field, coaching is most suitable, because in the nuclear field a deep insight into the complex engineering disciplines is mandatory. A coaching program integrated into daily work activities and the opportunity to exchange views and experiences with experienced design or commissioning engineers is therefore the preferred method for the ENEN-III participants.
An OJT guideline, covering preparation, implementation, evaluation and documentation is provided in a separate report.

4.1.3.5.3 Academic Institutions

Extensive OJT is also carried out in universities and research institutes. During a PhD thesis, the postgraduate passes through several phases of OJT. Starting from initial job familiarization, during which the trainee will become acquainted with the scientific background of his or her task and with the usage of the tools available to him or her, the postgraduate will enter a coaching-like OJT setting, which is characterized by regular scientific discussions with his/her mentor – the PhD supervisor – who will guide the PhD candidate through the research project. 

4.1.3.6 Coordination of ENEN-III Training Development Activities with SNE-TP, ENEF and HLG E&T WG activities

The ENEN-III project is also cross-cutting, whereby the activities undertaken are coordinated with the education and training working groups (E&T WGs) of the other relevant EU platforms addressing nuclear fission-energy related activities, specifically the Strategic Nuclear Energy-Technology Platform (SNE-TP), the European Nuclear Energy Platform (ENEF) and the High Level Group (HLG). By establishing collaborations with these groups E&T activities will be mapped to ensure that the developments are coordinated to deliver coherent and consistent programmes that meet the overall objectives foreseen for a European training/skills portfolio that delivers quality training and mobility for the European nuclear workforce in both the public and private sector. Participants in ENEN-III have been represented and invited to participate in the E&T WGs of SNE-TP, ENEF and HLG. By establishing this collaboration between ENEN-III and the T&E WGs of SNE-TP, ENEF and the HLG it was assured that the major stakeholders are engaged with the five SAT stages (analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation) to be formulated within the training programmes. The stakeholder groups include:
• research organizations (public and private, power and medical applications)
• systems suppliers (e.g. nuclear vendors, engineering companies, etc)
• energy providers (e.g. electric utilities, heat and/or hydrogen vendors, etc)
• regulatory bodies and associated technical safety organisations (TSO)
• education and training (E&T) institutions, and, in particular, universities
• civil society and the international institutional framework (IAEA and OECD/NEA).

In order to facilitate exchange of information and coherent and consistent programmes across the four platforms (SNE-TP, ENEF, HLG and ENEN-III) an E&T and KM workshop has been organized approximately half way through the ENEN-III project. This workshop was organized by the EC and involved all projects dealing with the European Fission Training Schemes, ENETRAP-II, PETRUS-II, CINCH, and with the cooperation of the European Nuclear Society (ENS) and FORATOM as well as the IAEA and OECD/NEA to maximize stakeholder engagement.

4.1.3.6.1 Mapping of Nuclear Education and Training Activities in the European Union

The ENEN-III project explicitly aimed at coordinating its activities with working groups dealing with education and training (E&T WGs) of other relevant EU platforms addressing nuclear fission-energy related activities such as the Strategic Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE-TP), the European Nuclear Energy Platform (ENEF), and the High Level Group (HLG), as well as with other FP7 projects dealing with
European Fission Training Schemes.

The intention is to establish collaborations with those groups in view of:
- Mapping relevant E&T activities in order to ensure that the developments are coordinated to deliver coherent and consistent programmes that meet the overall objectives foreseen for a European training/skills portfolio that delivers quality training and mobility for the European nuclear workforce in both the public and private sector.
- Promoting understanding of approaches and methodologies to be developed and implemented within the ENEN III project among the major nuclear stakeholders, e.g. research organizations, systems suppliers, energy providers, regulatory bodies, technical safety organisations (TSOs), education and training institutions, and international bodies (e.g. IAEA OECD/NEA).

In order to meet these objectives the following main tasks have been carried out:
1. Presentation of the ENEN III activities to the relevant platforms and meetings of other EFTS projects;
2. Mapping of the different E&T activities across the different E&T working groups;
3. Reporting relevant activities of other E&T working groups at ENEN-III project meetings;
4. Organizing an E&T workshop for exchange of information across different platforms.

The mapping of the different E&T activities across the different E&T working groups has been prepared and is available in a separate report. Currently, there are few European projects, working groups, associations or initiatives that – among other topics – deal with aspects related to education and training (E&T) in the field of nuclear energy. The report summarizes such actions undertaken at the European level in major groups/organizations. It helps to avoid overlapping and doubling the work as well as to identify cooperation potentials and synergies.

The report is structured according to the following main topics:
- Background on the ENEN-III project and introduction of the task at hand;
- Mapping of the E&T activities;
- Conclusions and outlook;
- List of reference web links for further reading about particular platforms, groups and initiatives;
- Collection of appendices listing the activities.

This report, however, deals only with the few selected initiatives of special interest for the ENEN-III project. For a broader overview of nuclear education and training activities nowadays in Europe the mapping document prepared by European Human Resources Observatory for Nuclear Energy Sector (EHRO-N) that has been published in the end of 2012 should be consulted.

4.1.3.6.2 E&T Working Groups Summary Reports

A separate report summarizes relevant discussions at meetings of other E&T working groups of EU platforms with participation of an ENEN III representative and dealing with subjects related to the objectives of the whole ENEN III project and/or to the specific tasks of this section, such as the presentation of ENEN III activities and the mapping of the different E&T activities. It covers the relevant meetings held within the 36 months of the first and second reporting period of the ENEN-III project from May 2009 till July 2012.

The first part of the report is structured according to the following main topics:
- Background on the ENEN-III project and reporting on the tasks at hand;
- Description of relevant European platforms and their initiatives;
- Overview of meetings with participation of an ENEN III representative;
- Conclusions and outlook;
- Collection of appendices containing agendas, minutes and other related material from the individual meetings;
- List of reference web links for further reading about particular platforms, groups and initiatives.

The second part of the report (Part II) consists of multiple single summary reports, each summarizing a certain meeting that took place from August 2012 on.

4.1.3.6.4 ENEN-III Symposium

Following the final meeting of the ENEN-III project a one day Symposium has been organized. The presentations included a review all FP7 projects in the group of European Fission Training Schemes and several contributions of general interest to the field of nuclear human resources and education and training. The presentations are available on the ENEN web site
http://www.enen-assoc.org/en/about/news.html?actu_id=152

Potential Impact:
4.1.4.1 Conclusions and Recommendations

The ENEN-III project was the first FP7 project in the group of the European Fission Training Schemes to adopt to the full extent the concept of ECVET and the associated learning outcomes in the different fields of knowledge, skills and attitudes. The ENEN-III project included this concept from the initial phases into the analysis and description of the education and training needs for the job profiles addressed in the four target groups of the nuclear engineers. The ENEN-III project therefore played a major and exemplary role in the introduction of the ECVET concept and its related components and understanding in the nuclear education and training community, from the University Faculties over the Technical Support Organizations to the Regulatory and Radiation Protection Bodies to the nuclear Industry and the Waste Management and Disposal Community. The impact of the ENEN-III project on this new way of defining nuclear education and training requirements cannot be overestimated. This large impact has to pay tribute as well to the unconditional enthusiasm of the ENEN-III partners to organize brainstorming sessions and systematic thinking for identifying and documenting several hundreds of learning outcomes pertinent to the job profiles in their area. The impact of the ENEN-III project results on the mutual recognition of competences and training certificates across national boundaries is still increasing and will further develop when the barriers to mobility, as they have been clearly identified by the ENEN-III project, will have been abolished.
The ENEN-III project provided the opportunity for the beneficiaries to demonstrate and disseminate their best practices in education and training as they have been developed and successfully applied for several years. They include the development and implementation of training sessions according to the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) model, initially designed and promoted by the IAEA, and applied with outstanding results in the development of the ENEN-III European Fission training schemes. They include the development and demonstration of the basic Autonomous Internship Approach to promote multiple internships in different countries, cultural and social environments to enhance mobility, exchange of experience and job opportunities for the trainees. They include the systematic preparation, planning, implementation, mentoring and evaluation of the on-the-job training with many indicators to be monitored and components to be worked on. The project progress and the results have been communicated on a regular basis in international conferences, symposia, workshops and in numerous meetings of E&T working groups established by international organisations (IAEA, FORATOM, OECD, ENC) and platforms (ENEF, SNETP, HLG, IGDTP, ERHON).
The ENEN-III project provided also a wealth of recommendations on various aspects of E&T to implement the developed best practices and to orient further work.

4.1.4.2 Recommendations with Respect to Learning Outcomes

4.1.4.2.1 General Recommendations

From the learning outcomes a complex training scheme has to be developed for the achievement of such a large quantity of desired knowledge, skills and attitudes.

The following recommendations result from the overall definition of learning outcomes:
• It is clear that learning outcomes of different disciplines are repeating in one form or another. First, such repetitions have the role to increase the crossover-thinking of our trainees and support the understanding of well connected disciplines and second to fix the knowledge of the trainees in very important domains e.g. nuclear safety or nuclear heat transfer.
• For a person to be allowed to participate into the next phase of the program fulfillment of the conditions as described in the prerequisites are unavoidable.
• The acquirement of the knowledge in all cognitive areas (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, evaluation) is clearly a challenging objective and should be not seen as an exclusive task of the training scheme. Further training and overall refreshment of the knowledge should be encouraged in the continuous development programs.
• In comparison with the area of knowledge, the skills and attitudes area are more demanding. Knowledge can be easily structured and transferred to the interested person. Skills and Attitudes have to do with the psychological and emotional profile of each trainee. We would like to recommend that the acquisitions of skills and attitudes should be followed in all working packages as initially defined in the ENEN-III project. Pure theoretical training courses should have at least one learning outcome in the area of skills and attitudes. An example can be seen in nuclear safety: besides an overall knowledge requirement a strong attitude component should be part of this module.
• The Training Scheme should be in a modular format to allow flexibility in the choice of the subject. Small modules should be used instead of long training courses. This will provide flexibility to our trainees and optimize the time spent in different training activities.
• The description of the areas of interest in terms of learning outcomes reveals a large number of subjects to be covered. Some of the methodologies and learning outcomes are common for all types of nuclear power plants. For simplification a narrowing window should be applied to the area of interest and consequently to the number of learning outcomes. Since some job profiles are related with GEN III Pressurized Water Reactors we recommend to apply this criterion for the Training Scheme B and C.
• An individual profile should be documented for each participant in the training scheme, where the need and choice of training activities will be investigated. In short: Not everyone takes part in all training activities but rather with a very well defined target. Such document should be the result of an interview with the a coordinator and if possible with representative of Human Resources. This step should be taken before the “Learning Agreement” is signed by the counterparts.
• Each Training Scheme should follow a similar path for the achievement of the designed learning outcomes
• The existence of appropriate courses that provide the fundamental knowledge for the nuclear industry within the Member States should be identified.
• The learning outcomes from selected nuclear industry fundamental knowledge courses and those developed under the ENEN III umbrella should be aligned with the job profiles.
• The ENEN III end-users should prepare job profiles for the GEN III and GEN IV functions covered by this project.
• ENEN III should review appropriate existing learning schemes such as EQARF, NARIC, EUROPASS etc to ascertain their value to the nuclear sector.

4.1.4.2.2 Specific Recommendations with respect to Training Scheme A

The training scheme for non-nuclear graduates is a good example of a complete training scheme of type A for non-nuclear engineers. It covers all the areas that are developed within ENEN-III: the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes in the relevant areas of interest for the non-nuclear professional. The different competences are developed using the full spectrum of didactical approaches, ranging from classical training, laboratory sessions, team assignments, visits, networking opportunities, on-the- job training and internships. This is exactly what the ENEN-III training schemes intend to accomplish and therefore the TGTP-NT could be used as a reference framework for future uses of training scheme A, taking into account the following considerations/recommendations:
• The introductory core syllabus described in 4.1.3.1.2 should be considered, if necessary modified and approved by end-users.
• The core syllabus should be accredited at national level by an appropriate independent body.
• The existing introductory life-long learning stand-alone courses in the Member States should be identified.
• Appropriate existing introductory courses should be accredited.
• A training scheme should always include an initial training phase that is complemented with on-the-job training or an internship.
• These two phases complement each other and the final outcome of the training scheme can only be evaluated after both phases have been completed.
• Training schemes that are created based on a careful analysis of a job description and that are built based on learning outcomes will be more effective and more appreciated by the trainees.
• The time that is being allocated to the trainee for him to complete the training scheme has to be considered carefully and should not be taken too short.
• The training scheme should not only address the technical topics, but should also focus on transdisciplinary aspects of nuclear technology (for example the ethical, social and economical aspects).
• In the framework of international mobility, the option to follow language courses should always be included as it effectively supports the integration of the trainee in his new working environment.
• Utilities and stakeholders need to be involved from the beginning of the training scheme, starting with the recruitment of the trainees.
• There should be included for the future practices in conceptual and full scope simulators in order to familiarize the new engineers with technical aspects that are key to understand the global plant behavior.
• There should be included training in Human Performance Fundamentals that is an important cross cutting issue present in all activities in the plant.

4.1.4.2.3 Specific Recommendation with respect to Training Scheme C

• In comparison with the training scheme addressing the design challenges, the Training Scheme C must focus more on construction and commissioning procedures and activities. Theoretical aspects of design should not compose anymore the main learning outcomes as given in the previous schemes. A practical orientation of this training scheme will help the engineers to better fulfill their task as defined by the job profile.

4.1.4.2.4 Specific Recommendations with respect to Training Scheme D

• An important observation is the fact that training courses on specific GEN IV topics are very rare. From our survey on existing training courses among the 19 project partners, it was shown that basic courses in nuclear engineering and courses targeting issues related to GEN III nuclear reactors are regularly offered, especially for the knowledge domain.
• Training courses on GEN IV are offered only seldom, mainly because this subject is still much more research oriented and the relevant competences are scattered among very few research institutions or universities. Only four dedicated GEN IV training courses have been identified among the project partners. Customized training courses should therefore be developed and third parties not directly involved in ENEN-III should be addressed as well.
• The acquisition of learning outcomes in the skills and attitudes areas has not been documented explicitly for the GEN IV trainees. This is mainly due to the fact that researchers and PhD students acquire most of their skills and attitudes through on-the-job training. Another issue is the lack of physical mock-up tools or demonstrator facilities, as the technology still has to be developed.

4.1.4.3 Conclusions from the Qualification Programme

The project provided:
• A description of the pathway and the different steps for the implementation of the Training Schemes.
• An extensive list of courses offered by the Project partners and the members of the ENEN Association where Learning Outcomes were derived from the course content. Course content is expected to cover the Learning Outcomes.
• The implementation of the training schemes A, B and D by delivering selected courses and the corresponding Learning Outcomes to respectively 7, 15 and 14 trainees.
• A broad distribution of the attendance, some trainees attending one course only, some up to 10 courses.
• Technical, social and management skills courses included.
• An evaluation of the acquisition of individual learning outcomes by the trainees in semi-quantitative terms showing the impact of the courses.
• Feedback from the trainees on their participation to the courses, in general very positive comments with reference to the unique opportunity provided by the project to attend courses in an international context.
• Feedback from the trainees including very pertinent recommendations and critical observations on the courses, mainly on the lack of time to digest the quantity of information to be assimilated in short modular courses, and the short term rescheduling and cancellation of courses by lack of participants, interfering with the company planning.
• Essential in the developed approach is the use of learning outcomes instead of learning objectives to develop training schemes. The learning outcomes will enable training course designers to develop their courses with a direct link to job profiles and they can improve the transparency of qualifications. They contribute to the mobility of professionals by facilitating the recognition of competences. The use of learning outcomes has to be promoted among training providers.

4.1.4.4 Recommendations with respect to the On-The-Job Training (OJT)

• As the selection of individual learning outcomes will have a high impact on the quality of the overall competence development of each person, the trainee, his managers and training scheme coordinator performing this analysis should examine the training needs carefully.
• If a key LO identified during this stage cannot be covered by existing courses, in-house development of a corresponding course should be started immediately.
• Involvement of the line management is crucial at this stage, as employees must be given exemption from their everyday tasks in order to attend training and it has to be ensured that training does not conflict with the other duties of the trainee.
• On-the job training should be implemented in line with the ENEN-III approach by defining the scope of this training measure in terms of learning outcomes of the Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes areas and by developing a structured OJT plan including a time-schedule.
• In order to use the very effective method of coaching know-how partnerships, the processes need to be adapted such that the coordinator can appoint tutors or the whole scheme hast to be integrated in the processes of human resources and human development.
• Some flexibility, either in the design of the action plan or in the scheduling of tasks or duties in the trainees’ everyday roles, is required in order to overcome the challenges related to possible course cancellations or short-term booking of courses.
• Feedback from implementation has shown that in order to successfully implement a training scheme (i.e.an individual action plan), the necessary processes, responsibilities and tools related to assignment of learning outcomes to job profiles, individual LO selection and action plans must be in line with company practices and operations.
• To implement and establish a new competence development and in particular a new training approach based on learning outcomes requires the involvement of many stakeholders. In the specification of applicable learning outcomes for every job position, the human resources (HR) and people development departments as well as the line management of the technical disciplines have to be involved. This is feasible, but currently a huge task as it has to be done for hundreds of technical job positions in a company such as AREVA.
• Also for the design of individual training plans, the HR and people development departments need to be involved together with the trainee and his or her management. This implies also that a strategy on how to handle training implementation, e.g. course postponements (identifying suitable alternative course date, scheduling of tasks or duties in the trainee’s everyday roles). This strategy needs to be devised and put into place company-wide, backed by a corresponding procedure.
• All these selection and coordination activities need to be defined in procedures and processes as well and the associated responsibilities need to defined and recorded. Therefore, the relevant HR and people development processes, procedures and tools, e.g. for the definition of learning outcomes for job positions or the assignment of mentors to trainees, have to be adapted or introduced. Furthermore, the competence to apply learning outcomes descriptions for job position specifications must be available on a wide scale. Only then the approach will be rooted in the company.
• In conclusion, the approach of using learning outcomes to develop individual training programs is a good and very promising concept, the implementation of which is currently very complex on the scale of a large company. Therefore a viable and streamlined procedure needs to be identified or developed.

To address this reasoning and to develop such a procedure in the future the following is recommended:
• Investigate how competence requirements for a large variety of job positions can be faster and more efficiently expressed in terms of learning outcomes;
• investigate how company processes, responsibilities and tools have to be developed or adapted to allow for description and consideration of competence requirements in terms of learning outcomes, and also for individual training plan design and implementation.

4.1.4.5 Main Benefits for the Project Partners and Long-Term Perspectives

The main benefits for the partners from the ENEN-III project are:
• A confrontation of the training schemes to the introduction of the ECVET concepts, with the need to define learning outcomes for the job profiles addressed by the project.
• The production of lists of the learning outcomes in the areas of knowledge, skills and attitudes for particular jobs and the associated courses to acquire them.
• The opportunity provided to 36 trainees to participate to the training schemes and to acquire part or all of the learning outcomes to qualify for a particular job.
• The development of a methodology for training scheme design, development, implementation and certification.
• Facilitated and enhanced exchanges and cooperation between academia, research institutes, training organizations and industry.

Further considerations and longer term perspectives can be expressed as follows:

• ENEN-III LOs in the knowledge area are reasonably covered by existing courses. However, some gaps have been identified.
• The completeness of ENEN-III training schemes looks reasonably good but could be refined (limited sampling).
• An evaluation of courses by trainees has been performed (existing courses) but the process is not fully normalized and could be made more systematic. More advanced tools could be helpful (e.g. Formetris, www.formetris.com).
• The performance and evaluation of LOs in the skill area have to be improved (increased use of computer codes, simulators, facilities and training reactors).
• The performance and evaluation of LOs in the attitude area remain a topic difficult to handle. The potential of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) has not been sufficiently explored.
• Convergence and dialogue with other FP7 E&T projects have to be furthered. For example, the ENETRAP-II approach and tools could be implemented more systematically to develop LOs.

List of Websites:
http://www.enen-assoc.org/en/training/for-nuclear-community/efts-fp7/enen-iii.html
European Nuclear Education Network Association
Centre CEA de Saclay – INSTN – Bldg 395
F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
Tel +33 1 69 08 97 57
Fax +33 1 69 08 99 50
E-mail: sec.enen@cea.fr