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Battery powered Boats, providing Greening, Resistance reduction, Electric, Efficient and Novelty

Final Report Summary - BB GREEN (Battery powered Boats, providing Greening, Resistance reduction, Electric, Efficient and Novelty)

Executive Summary:
The BB GREEN initiative was established in 2008 with a goal to develop and prove feasibility of a new, innovative and competitive waterborne transport solution, presenting a technological- and environmental step change. The new vessel type should run entirely on renewable electric energy, stored in an onboard battery. The vessel should be able to operate at 30 knots +, and be the “first in the world” of its kind.

Addressed challenge:
In many cities and communities the public transport sector is suffering from heavy congestion and unacceptable emissions (fossil fuels). The project had, in line with EU request, an ambition to reduce the strain on land based transport, introduce a climate friendly waterborne travel choice; and contribute to reduced local- and global emissions.

Insufficient budget:
Unfortunately, the project budget was severely cut to Euro 3,12 mill; down more than Euro 2 mill from the initial. At the end of the project it is clear that the cuts made by the Commission resulted in a considerable overspend for several of the partners to carry out the obligations set in the latest and approved version of the DOW.

Main approach:
Set new SOA through combining innovations, the most efficient and capable technologies, materials, systems and solutions either available or adaptable.

Despite limited resources; amazing achievements have been made:
- Documented a considerable- and emerging market for fast, efficient and emission free ferries across Europe and beyond.
- Developed two new Air Supported Vessel (ASV) hull forms, with significantly reduced hull resistance. A reduction of 40% has been documented in model- and full scale.
- Developed a new air support- and ASV control and automation system.
- Engineered and applied vacuum infused Deveinycell carbon construction techniques for significant weight reduction and improved workforce health. (Fully enclosed process.)
- Built a 20 m BB GREEN prototype for full scale documentation under actual conditions.
- Developed, installed and proved in full scale new permanent magnet battery electric drivelines; and a matching battery Supercharger system.
- Developed a new, lean with low appendix drag, high efficiency, contra rotating pod propulsion system. (System details are confidential; not yet launched on the market).
- Engineered a new Lithium Ion Titanate battery cell module and build a 200 kWh capacity (1/2 commercial size) prototype battery, installed and tested in the prototype; capable of taking very fast recharge (20 minutes); and with a life expectancy of 20.000 + cycles.
- Engineered and built a fully integrated battery/electric control and management system full size.
- The project has done an impressive BB GREEN dissemination job with among other over 110
Dissemination actions (press / WEB - articles, conference papers, National TV and more).

Remaining issues; and the way forward to exploit of the new BB GREEN technology?
- At the end of the project, the feasibility prototype vessel is almost ready for launch, initial testing, debugging and final tests.
- Key project partners continue the work with a plan to meet the project’s final goal; to prove a low wake wash, 30 knots fast and efficient (- 40% energy reduction over a conventional vessel) is possible with the BB GREEN initiative.
- Echandia, SES Europe, Aqualiner and the yard BJB have applied for a technological documentation (RTD), dissemination and demonstration project under Horizon 2020 SME Phase 2 with the acronym GFFNOW (green fast ferries NOW!)

Lessons learned:
- It is impossible to fully predict all the challenges related to a very demanding innovation project like the BB GREEN at project application phase / early in the project.
- Unexpected factors occurred; related to technology developments, pricing of new/emerging components /materials / systems, bankruptcy of partners, added requirements from the scientific officer, considerably longer handling time for amendments, and more.
- Unfortunately cost and time for prototyping, testing and documentation ALLWAYS are higher and takes longer than what the project coordinator and the EU negotiation officer predicts.

Project Context and Objectives:
Project context:

BB GREEN represents innovation and research with an aim to develop next generation fast and efficient commuter ferries. The new vessel type shall not only cut emissions to water and air by a certain percentage; it should be completely emission free (on the assumption agreed that electric energy for recharging the vessels’ battery is sourced from renewable energy sources).

The vessel as presented has primarily been designed for operation in sheltered waters, but the project has also a “spin off” solution available (tank tested in another project) for more demanding sea- and wave conditions.

For a battery electric ferry hull reduced hull resistance is a key issue for success. The BB GREEN will not use a conventional “wet “hull concept. BB GREEN will utilize air supported vessel (ASV) technology. In the project two variants have been extensively tank tested at SSPA Sweden’s facilities in Gothenburg; a catamaran version and a mono-hull version. Both delivered significantly better hull resistance values than the conventional counterpart. The mono-hull proved to be the superior and this hull has been used in the continuation of the project and for the construction of the feasibility demonstrator vessel.
With the ASV concept up to 85% of the fully laden vessel displacement is supported on one or more cushions of pressurized air. A lift fan system is contributing to filling of the air cavity underneath the vessel separating most of the normally wetted surface areas from water contact; and reducing overall hull/water resistance significantly.

By means of two battery- electric drivelines BB GREEN can be operated without diesel engines, as used on fast ferries today. On the prototype vessel a smaller diesel engine has been installed, but will only be used as a redundancy system and when the vessel shall be moved from one test site to another. The latter will increasing the vessels range (at slow speed – approx. 5 knots) when required.

In an early phase in the project and on the basis of an risk assessment, the project decided to shift propulsion system; from a set of large diameter surface piercing propulsors to twin, lean shape, low drag contra rotating duo prop systems, designed not only to give market leading efficiency but also excellent manoeuvrability. Investigations were carried out to support the decision.
The project knew exactly what kind of system they would like to use, however no such system for electric operation was commercially available on the market. The solution therefore was to develop such a system adapted to electric drivelines. After a lengthy persuasion process and negotiations with a market leading propulsion- and diesel engine manufacturer the project’s coordinator managed to convince this company to support the project, assist in building such a system and lend to the project two prototype units for testing and documentation in the BB GREEN project.

With the kind of power-use- profile of a fast ferry, conventional Lithium Ion battery technology as seen in battery electric and hybrid cars today could not be used. A fast ferry will have a power consumption equal to that of a heavily loaded truck driving steep uphill at all time. The typical power consumption will be close to peak and not fluctuate as is the case for a car. The power density and tough use of a ferry also requires a battery with considerably more (depth) cycle life. A BB GREEN ferry with a 400 kWh battery will require filling up the battery, in a typical use scenario approx. 10 – 12 times a day, for 360 days in a year. With a smaller battery for shorter routes even more frequent recharging will be required.

The project also had its fair share of problems related to the battery and battery cell deliveries.
First the battery partner unfortunately went bankrupt; secondly the project coordinator had to source a new replacement partner. Then a prequalification process of the new partner was required. Thirdly the cell supplier faced economic- and delivery problems and could, despite promises, not deliver on agreed time. Therefore, as the correct battery solution was a must for the project, battery partner Emrol had to source and secure an alternative supplier. New negotiations then followed, and the module design had to be completely reworked due to different specification/sizes/voltage etc. Negative effects from this scenario also influenced the electric driveline system provider Echandia, and their system specification and sourcing of components.

To sum up; significantly more man hours and cost as a result of the above went into testing and documentation with the new set up (hardware and soft-ware). The situation also had negative implications on the delivery and installation schedule.

According to the DOW the project partner Aqualiner should be responsible for the construction of the test vessel / feasibility prototype. During the project the EU scientific officer reduced the budget for the construction of the test vessel considerably, to less than Euro 600.000,- and it was agreed to carry out a tender process related to the construction and outfitting of the vessel.

The tender, and information on the tender process were very thoroughly disseminated throughout Europe (and beyond), and the response and request for additional information were overwhelming. More than 30 yards / builders expressed interest in the early stage. However during the initial discussions with the yards that followed it became more and more clear that the budget allocated by EU were far too low compared with the cost expectations of the yards. Despite that; close to 10 yards submitted their tender offers, ranging between more than Euro 2,5 mill (highest) to approx. Euro 850.000 (lowest).

Then a thorough negotiation process with some shortlisted yards, with the lowest tender offers followed. These negotiations were conducted by the project coordinator SE with some assistance from Aqualiner.

BJB from Latvia was the most interesting yard; but when Aqualiner did not manage to secure a contract with BJB and declared that they would not continue with the responsibility for construction of the test vessel, the project coordinator had to find an alternative solution or end the project prior the construction of the vessel. Investigating the possibility of inviting BJB into the project as a partner was suggested and approved by the Commission. Following a lengthy negotiation, and on the basis that SE should give BJB additional commercial ASV exploitation rights, it was finally agreed that BJB should become a partner.

The work that BJB has carried out has been excellent and as outlined in the DOW composite engineering partner Diab has followed up the yard in a very convincing way, teaching the latest principles of carbon sandwich vacuum infusion techniques and solutions; during the construction of the BB GREEN prototype.

With 5 different scientific officers and replacement of several partners the project’s DOW has undergone several changes and deviations from the start until the end of the project. All have been justified and approved by the respective scientific officers. Some reallocation of work and budget between partners and tasks have been carried out.

Project objectives and achievements in the project:

- Overall project objective (O) and achievements (A) with comments (C):

o O: To develop new, robust, highly capable Zero emission maritime transport solutions, designed to fulfil tomorrow’s community- and customer’s requirement today.
Prove feasibility of the BB GREEN concept by means of a full size test vessel.
o A: Final documentation will be available when the prototype is in the water and tested.
o C: Excellent indications that the objectives will be reached (tank tests, systems evaluations and full scale tests with a similar ASV concept to BB GREEN.)

- Detailed sub goals / objectives (O), achievements (A) and comments (C):

o O: Hull resistance reduction 30% compared with conventional hull at 30 knots speed.
A: Tank testing shows resistance reduction at 30 knots of close to 40%.
C: Additional tests with another full size ASV (outside BB GREEN) confirm tank test results at sea. Tests at design load show acceptable hull resistance / load carrying capability to handle the targeted operation. Final validation when test vessel is in the water.
o O: Reduced wake wash (to acceptable levels for operation).
A: Towing tank results and observations indicate acceptable levels on wake wash - energy and - wave height. Same positive observations have been made from full scale testing of another ASV of same size.
o O: Motion dampened ride.
A: Tank tests and full scale tests confirm positive motion damping with the ASV hull form, and acceptable on-board comfort for the targeted operation type and duration when the BB GREEN vessel is operated at high speed in waves.
o O: Weight issues; reduced construction weight over GRP and aluminium.
A: Developed carbon sandwich engineering / construction of the hull and superstructure show approx. 40% reduction in structural weight compared with an aluminium equivalent. According to the weight specifications, operational weight for a weight optimized commercial BB GREEN vessel will meet the targeted weights of 25 tons (design) / 28 tons (max.)
o O: Secure market leading efficiency over a wide speed range (5 – 35 knots).
A: Selected contra rotating duo prop pod propulsion meets this requirement with a propulsion efficiency of approx. 72% at design speed (30 knots). Full scale tests with an ASV full scale confirm these values.
C: Final validation when test vessel is in the water.
There seems to be further development potential with the developed units; through reducing the appendix drag by making the electrified units even more lean than as tested.
o O: Electric drive line, improve efficiency of total system compared with a conventional diesel, gearbox, propulsion/driveline with 15%.
A: Final validation when test vessel is in the water.
o O: Eliminate local and global emissions.
o A: Provided electricity comes from renewable energy sources the vessel will be emission free.
o O: Recharging arrangement; secure a simple, safe and reliable on board system (for test vessel).
A: For test- and demonstration purposes a diesel generator on-board is a back-up / range extender. In a commercial application a land based Supercharger (as developed and proven by partner Echandia) will be used.
o O: Noise and vibration; achieve acceptable noise levels.
A: Due to budget limitations the test vessel will be “concept feasibility proving test-vessel”, not fully sound dampened as a commercial vessel would be. The electric drivelines are expected to be considerably less noisy than diesel equivalents. The lift fan system is located well away from the passengers and generates modest noise. Final noise measurements / assessments will follow when test vessel is in the water for testing.
o O: Cost issues; competitive or better than conventional diesel fast ferries with similar performance.
A: Comparison studies show that BB GREEN vessels for a large number of operations/routes can be more cost efficient than diesel conventional counterparts.
C: For these evaluations a large number of assumptions need to be made; including but not limited to: Pricing of electricity and diesel fuel, subsidies and taxation issues, second hand value and depreciation levels, battery performance and- cost developments. There will be considerable local/regional/national differences.

Project Results:
A. Resumes on Work Package (WP) level for work performed. Issues and challenges encountered, and main results / achievements during the project:

WP1: Administrative coordination. SE has been in charge.
The work load has been considerably higher than budget mainly due to following issues:

- The project has had to relate to different 5 Scientific Officers all with their individual interpretation of the DOW and respective requests for changes and modifications to project content and budget.
- A voluntarily change (based upon a risk assessment) of the propulsion system required considerable extra work, time and cost. Partly related to secure supporting scientific documentation for the suggested change, - to modifications to the BB GREEN team, - to budget reallocation and DOW changes, and to source, negotiate and agree with a new business unit that could deliver the proposed solution and contribute to fulfilment of the tasks related to the propulsion issues.
- The project has had significant problems related to the unfortunate bankruptcy of partner Amberjac Projects LTD. Amber was responsible for a large number of technical issues related to among other battery development and construction, electric drivelines, power management and electric systems integration, testing and optimization. The bankruptcy had financial implications to the project, but the EU Guarantee Fund proved to be a very good instrument to handle matters of this kind. These issues had to be dealt with by SE and gave extra administrative burdens related to administration, budget and DOW. New partners for each of the previous Amber tasks had to be sourced, participation agreed and budgets renegotiated.
- 3 new partners; Echandia, Emrol and later also BJB had to be enrolled, and registered as new beneficiaries; the process proved to be quite resource demanding.
- Additional requests from the scientific officers related to new documentation on the technological merits, on the new partners and their capabilities, and on the tender specification and -process also gave SE unforeseen extra work load.
- The fact that the negotiation between Aqualiner (supposed to be responsible for the subcontracting of the test vessel construction) and the tender winning yard – BJB - stranded also gave considerable extra administrative work load on SE.
- Above listed issues, mostly outside the control of the coordinator, unfortunately resulted in unforeseeable delays. A considerable amount of time was spent on amendment matters; including getting approvals, shifting budgets, applying for extension etc. This process took unfortunately much longer than expected and the project progress was put on hold as a result of this situation.
- The coordinator has worked hard to secure a follow up of the BB GREEN project, in order to take full advantage of the BB GREEN test vessel. The coordinator has therefore in addition to what has been reported spent considerable time in planning- and securing a proper follow up funding, to the benefit of all the beneficiaries in the project. An application – GFFNOW – was submitted to Horizon 2020 SME Phase 2 (transport) in June 2015.

WP2: Assessment of requirements and critical factors. SE has been in charge.
WP tasks carried out as planned, with main results:
- A thorough understanding of the typical operational requirements has been established
- A large number of suitable routes and operations have been identified.
- Critical factors have been discussed and reported. Changing propulsion system was a result.
- Suitable hull forms were modelled and thoroughly evaluated based upon the above.

WP3: Design development and model testing. SSPA has been in charge.
WP tasks carried out however some delay due to awaiting input from other WPS. Main results:
- Concept designs developed fully as planned (WP 2 input) (cat and mono). ASV Mono selected.
- Development of two main BB GREEN designs with several revisions (SE with assistance from Studio Sculli.)
- Two tank testing models developed, instrumented and tested fully as planned.
- Model tests carried out fully as planned with excellent and very encouraging results.
- Data model for scaling of ASV hulls of the BB GREEN type developed.
- Evaluation of BB GREEN concept construction and operation against rules and regulations, done and reported by Lloyds Register.
- Safety aspects related to BB GREEN vessels discussed and reported by Lloyds Register.

WP4: Development of systems. Emrol has been formally in charge, but SE has had the actual WP lead as SE initiated the project and was considered to have the best overall understanding.
Major challenges related to:
- Sourcing components and coordination of all battery/electric driveline related systems when Amber went bankrupt. Handled and rectified by joint efforts from SE, Echandia and Emrol.
- Sourcing a suitable prop system, handled by SE and Echandia with some support from a no named provider of propulsion systems.
- Sourcing of battery input factors, design development, testing and debugging of battery. Considerable extra work and efforts by Emrol.

WP tasks carried out:

- Satisfactory cell testing of Lithium Ion Titanate cell technology.
- Design developed and full size prototype of a new Lithium Ion Titanate battery (200 kWh).
- Development and full size prototype of full electric driveline with small diesel electric generator / range extender.
- Development and full size prototype of low appendix resistance contra rotating duo prop pod propulsion; with joy stick control and vectoring steering/handling.
- Development and full size prototype / electric powering of ASV lift fan system.
- Development and prototype (hardware/software) of ASV automatized control system.
- Design development of Supercharger battery recharging system.
- Development and full size prototype of battery / electric driveline / generator on-board power management system.
- Function testing of all key components.
- Reporting as outlined in the DOW.

Remaining issues:

- In the water final debugging, optimization, monitoring, full power testing and documentation of the systems.

WP5: Test vessel construction, outfitting and testing. SE has been in charge.
Major challenges related to:
- Preparing and carrying out the tender process on the basis of a too low budget made available.
- Failed negotiations between Aqualiner and the tender winner for construction of test vessel.
- However, through negotiation SE succeeded to enrol BJB as a partner in the project.
- Delays in start-up of the vessel construction due to the amendment process, formal acceptance of the new partners and lack of initial funding to the 3 new beneficiaries. (Outside the control of the project.)
- Technical management of the work package has been very demanding for SE and has taken up considerably more time than planned.
- Increased prices of construction materials (Devinycell, carbon mats, vinylester resin, consumables etc.); and insufficient amount of material (margin not included in the budget), resulted in seriously higher cost than initial budget for Diab and BJB. SE also has had higher spending than planned.
- Cost of outfitting / installation materials and time higher than allocated in the budget.
- Cost items not included in the budget and insufficient margins on spares/materials.

WP tasks carried out:
- Composite engineering fully as planned. More detail engineering than planned for Diab and SE.
- Detailed tender specification with tender offer document as planned. Follow up with Non-Disclosure Agreements, information / discussions with a large number of yards required considerably more work for SE than planned.
- Construction of a single use mould with pre-construction teaching of the yard by Diab fully as planned.
- Construction of the test vessel hull (in a mould) and supervised (vacuum table) by Diab fully as planned.
- Construction of the ASV specific hull related systems as planned.
- Battery pack installed in vessel.
- On-board installations and outfitting of the systems, most of the work done as planned.

Remaining issues:
- A minor remaining part of the systems installation and connections remain, will be done within July.
- A minor remaining part of the vessel superstructure mounting remains, will be done within July.
- Testing and debugging, will be done according to plan in August.
- Prototype in the water according to plan in end of August or September.
- Final tests will then take place.

WP6: Demonstration activities. SE has the WP lead.
No demonstrations have yet been carried out with test vessel.
However Echandia, SE, Aqualiner and BJB have applied for support from Horizion 2020 SME Phase 2 to carry out a detailed documentation of the vessel’s performance and capabilities (remaining issues in WP5), additional dissemination (with the test vessel), a comprehensive European Road Show (with the vessel) and local feasibility testing on a number of identified routs. Application was handed in for the June 2015 cut off. Project acronym: GFFNOW.

WP7: Validation of project achievements. SSPA has the WP lead.
WP tasks carried out:
- Technical performance has been reported and based upon tank testing results, results from scientific testing of another ASV of similar size, and full size scaling predictions based upon a data model for ASV scaling developed by SSPA under WP3. (D.7.1.)
- Environmental effects have been assessed and reported. (D.7.2)
- Recommendations have been prepared and reported. (D.7.3.)

Remaining issues:
- When the test boat is in the water, the planned tests (WP5) will be carried out.

WP8: Dissemination of project results and achievements. SE has the WP lead.

WP tasks carried out:
- SE has very thoroughly disseminated the BB GREEN concept visions and results from the project through mass media / WEB / press, through conference papers / presentations and TV.
- Aqualiner and the other partners have also carried out a large number of disseminations.
- A total of approx. 120 dissemination activities have been posted on the participant portal.
- At the time of formally ending the project, there is considerable interest for the BB GREN project and a large number of media/WEB/magazines have expressed as they will write more as soon as the boat is in the water and available for demos.
- For the benefit of the project, SE has spent much more man hours on dissemination activities than budget. Due to the importance of preparing the market for BB GREEN, end user partner Aqua has also spent more on dissemination than initially planned.
- The dissemination will not stop with the ending of the project.
B. Main Scientific and technological results from the project:
WP2: Requirements and critical factors:
Achieving a “game change” normally requires a new approach, willingness to think “outside the box” and a team daring using/combining solutions and technologies not previously merged. With such an approach, the probability of unexpected effects will naturally be larger than if very conventional solutions and tested and proven technologies were used.

For the project looking at, and establishing a thorough understanding of the market (including completion), the type of targeted routes, limitations / regulations; as well as (untapped) opportunities was a natural staring point.

With Aqualiner (the Netherlands) as the project “end user / operator”- partner several interesting current and potential operations, and operational networks, were identified.

Focus for the BB GREEN phase one (concept feasibility demonstrator) was agreed to be on operations / routes with the following characteristics:

- Existing permission or potential to operating at high speed (25 – 30+ Knots).
- Sufficient travellers / market volume / size (current or potential) and acceptable spread over the day. (Number of passengers and potential for establishing a matching time-table).
- Route / route leg length matching the theoretically assessed 14 NM range of a commercial BB GREEN vessel (with a 400 kWh battery.) The total range of 14 NM for the operation could either be return route or a single leg, or the distance between recharging positions (if route is more than 14 NM).
- Routes where the benefit of high speed matters; where sufficient leg/route length is one factor.
- Routes where a BB GREEN vessel can be operated at high speed; and the wake wash and/or traffic conditions on route, allow for an acceptable, safe passage.
- Where the new waterborne transport can compete / assist other traffic modes and contribute to reduced congestion (rush hours / commuter travel), shorter and more pleasant travel or other community benefits.

Routes in the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Great Britain, France, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Spain, Greece, Belgium and Portugal were studied.

Some were coastal routes while others were inland waterway / lake operations.

Most of the routes had certain common characteristics, but there were also quite different demands locally. I.e. in Sweden and Finland ice was normally a problem for a number of months each year.

In parallel with the operational and route requirements SE conducted a study on factors assumed to be critical for a successful design development and operation of BB GREEN type of ferries.

Below is a list of some of the factors discussed:

- BB GREEN concept idea
- Battery pack issues
- Recharging time; possible and required
- Battery life (use and number of recharging cycles)
- Battery weight
- Power supply issues
- Propulsion, steering and drive-line issues.
- ASV concept, hull form, air enclosure, function and control
- Lift fan function and noise
- Embarkation and disembarkation
- Vessel handling and manoeuvrability
- Vessel redundancy in case of electric or other types of failures

Based upon the above the suggested propulsion system (a new large diameter surface piercing propulsion made from carbon composite) was agreed by the BB GREEN consortium to represent too high a technical risk, and also possible a maintenance – and operational safety issue.

The latter (safety & ease of manoeuvring) were the main reasons for moving to current propulsion.

Suitable hull / concept:

SE and SSPA had considerable know-how on Air Supported Vessel (ASV) hull forms and could with a high degree of probability deliver suitable hulls for the BB GREEN project and the identified operational requirements of the concept. Two main types of ASV’s were investigated and analysed on the basis of suitability for BB GREEN, a catamaran and a mono variant. The better of the two, after tank testing offering best efficiency, on-board motions / comfort and meeting the other targeted goals would be the one to choose.
WP3: Design development and model testing.

As outlined in the DOW, two main ASV configurations should undergo a full design development and concept evaluation process, in order to find out which one performed best.

Based upon the initial ideas from WP2, SSPA and SE developed and investigated several alternative set of hull lines with complete Rhinoceros 3 D modelling for each hull; sharing main overall length of 20 m with a beam of 6 m.

Both concepts were designed to deliver a combination of air cushion support and dynamic support (lift when vessel is underway at medium/high speed). Another goal has been to reduce the wetted surface areas, achieve an acceptable (low) air cushion pressure and also incorporate / integrate the (at that time) selected propulsion system.

In addition to securing a low hull resistance, propulsion integration, manoeuvring / steering (at low and high speed), had a considerable bearing on the design development process. Below are some 3 D illustrations of the two main hull-forms used for construction of tank testing models.
On the basis of the most promising two ASV designs, moulds for two 2,5 m tank testing models were produced using 5 axis milling, and thereafter the two tank testing models were build and outfitted at SSPA.
During the process change from Surface Piercing Propulsion (initial) to contra rotating pod propulsion was thoroughly discussed from an efficiency point of view. Critics claimed the project would lose valuable efficiency, but SSPA analysed the situation and concluded on the contrary, with a propulsion efficiency meeting the objective for the project. See illustration below.

The tank testing of the two models clearly documented that both the ASV Cat and the ASV Mono were considerably more efficient than State of the Art conventional hulls. The superiority of the ASV Mono variant is showing on the hull resistance comparisons below.

In conclusion:

The tank testing of two models as a matter of fact superseded expectations. The ASV cat was significantly better than conventional SOA hull forms; however the ASV mono was even better (approx. 15% better still than the ASV cat). The latter has therefore been chosen as the BB GREEN hull form.

Some highlights from the tank testing:

- Hull resistance reduction of more than 40% at design speed range (22 – 30 knots +).

- Equally favourable results also at lower speeds - down to 10 knots.

- Very low fan energy consumption (3-6% of total power).

- Low wake wash (particularly wake wash energy).

- Competitive on-board motions in sea state typical for the targeted operations.

Comfort aspects:

In terms of comfort aspects for passengers (and crew) it should be noted that the proposed BB GREEN vessel has been designed for sheltered waters.

A common way to evaluate comfort is by means of motion sickness incidence (MSI) the r.m.s. (root mean square or standard deviation) acceleration response in LCG has been plotted in ISO 2631/3-1985 (E) graphs, ref. [2], where also the limits for 10 % motion sickness incidence (MSI) with respect to exposure time are included:

It should be remembered that the max operational time for the BB GREEN vessel will with a speed of 22 knots be less than half hour. At all the selected sea states the BB GREEN vessel is well below the critical values. I.e. with significant wave height of 0,88 m (extremely rear on the type of routes the vessel has been designed for), the passengers may stay on-board for up to approx. 2 hours (vs. half hour max); and still be within the IMS 10% motion sickness incident criterion.
Tests in the towing tank at even higher speeds, 30 knots and even 35 knots, show very acceptable values for significant wave heights of 0,5 m (single waves of 1 m).

The ASV concept clearly exhibit a motion damping effect, pitch motions and roll motions / accelerations are greatly reduced compared with a comparable planing vessel at same high speed; while less critical heave accelerations (for MSI) are also kept on an acceptable level.

Wake wash energy:

The wash waves from the BB Green mono ASV hull seems to be somewhat differently to (semi-) displacement mono- and catamaran hulls. The wave heights are comparatively high while the wave periods are comparatively low, resulting in a wave energy being lower than for most of the reference ships and also lower than for the BBG catamaran ASV. The wave period for the mono ASV also varies very little with FnD, contrary the rest of the reference ships.

In Task.3.4. SSPA has been responsible for developing a data model for optimizing and scaling of ASV / BB GREEN type of hulls. The development of such a scaling tool has been ongoing for as long at the ASV development with SE has been in force; for more than 15 years. In the beginning most of the data used were on ASV catamarans; later, as ASV mono-hulls proved in many cases to be even more efficient and suitable, focus was shifted towards the ASV mono-hulls. For the latter type of ASVs a vast amount of data, including ASV specific relations have gone into the development and fine-tuning of this useful tool. Data from two tank testing programs; the BB
GREEN program and another ASV Mono Soft Motion variant (tested within a Innovation Norway project with end use fast ferry operations along the Norwegian coast), and extensive tests with a full scale (20 m ASV mono); in different sizes / scales have been used.

In terms of assessment of overall resistance, the BB GREEN / ASV hull have been divided into different parts, each treated separately. The resistance related to each part calculated independently with their respective method of calculation. The sum of the resistance components represents the total hull resistance for the vessel. The new ASV optimization tool is a proprietary tool for SE, developed by SSPA.

This new and optimized scaling tool will be very important for the exploitation of the BB GREEN concept and tailor-making of most suitable hull forms / designs for respective vessel sizes, speeds, operational conditions and applications.

In WP3, classification society Lloyds Reg. has assessed the new concept against rules and regulations related to construction and operation; as well as carried out a theoretical assessment of safety aspects.

Based upon concept-, design -, hull form- and systems- developments, as well as test results, practical and documented experience from planned feasibility documentation of the BB GREEN test vessel, Lloyds has evaluated key features related to safety where the new vessel type may be differentiating from conventional vessels currently in use today on comparable routes and operations. The evaluations has resulted in recommendations to the designer and builder of BB GREEN vessels on how to construct safe and reliable vessels meeting current international rules (among other the High Speed Craft Code) for small and fast passenger ferries. In a similar manner suggestions to operation has been proposed.
During the course of the project, LR has also carried out a HAZID exercise ( ) involving all project partners, looking at critical issues and remedy actions.

With the full scale test vessel in the water it is expected that LR will make a new review of the feasibility proving prototype systems and make suggestions on how the concept could be further optimized / modified to meet commercial criteria for design and operation of future BB GREEN vessels.

WP4. Development of systems.

The BB GREEN concept requires new developments, modification and mixing of systems and solutions not pervious combined before. Consequently the planning of the overall composition of concept (detail systems engineering and specification of solutions) is far from straight forward. Detail planning of the overall duties, time- and cost assessment proved extremely hard to get 100% right as the BB GREEN team had no previous design/ development example of similar kind to use to consult and compare with.

In addition, as normal in a complex innovation project, unexpected things have happened:

- A key system provider / integrator (Amber) went bankrupt and could not fulfil their obligations. Splitting up the obligations and finding equal capabilities within a very limited budget proved difficult.

- Technologies assumed to be available in the application phase of the project proved not to be (Altairnano battery cells).

- Change of propulsion system (a risk assessment decision); and influence on vessel design / construction for adapting the selected hull form to the chosen prop system.

- No Name contra rotating pod propulsion system was hold back for company internal / strategic reasons.

- Price developments on key input factors did not go in the expected direction; key factors / materials needed to fulfil the project obligations did not go down, but went considerably up, leaving the project coordinator (SE) with a very though challenge to bridge these gaps.

In retrospect it is also fair to say that the negotiations with EU on budget issues had cut the project down to the bone, leaving the project with an underfinancing and no financial margins to handle unexpected cost increases or financing of additional modification/research work needed. This has been substantiated under the discussions of financial issues elsewhere in the report.

Despite the above the project is proud to have been able to compose and integrate all the required system in a full scale feasibility demonstrator as planned. The three leading SME’s SE , Echandia and Emrol have done excellent work in the WP to accomplish these tasks.
To achieve a commercial success with the BB GREEN concept, choosing battery cell chemistry that could handle the tough use profile of a fast ferry, operated under heavy load for many hours per day throughout the full year, was essential. Not only should the battery be able to handle a continuous and repeatedly though energy consumption (each time for up to 30 minutes); it should be able to do that for an acceptable number of cycles. And; it should immediately thereafter be able to take recharge at same or even higher C to fill up the battery again. Such a use profile is reducing the battery life considerably, so a suitable cooling arrangement has been required to keep the temperature down.

In the selection of most suitable cell chemistry there were several factors to consider, among other:

- Ability to handle high C energy consumption / recharging.
- Temperature and cooling aspects.
- Cell life at high C usage.
- Specific weight (kWh of usable capacity vs. battery system weight).
- Cost issues

Volume and battery-size were not a problem as there was plenty of space for battery storage in the BB GREEN hull.

For BB GREEN, Lithium Ion car battery life of 1.500 to 2.000 high C cycles was not sufficient, 20.000 cycles was considered to be a realistic and targeted level of life.
Following the bankruptcy of Amber, Emrol took over the battery development lead; and carried out an impressive amount of work to design, develop, prototype and test on module and full scale (200 kWh) level a BB GREEN battery for use in the test vessel.

The funding made available proved to be far from sufficient to deliver what was specified in the DOW. Despite this fact Emrol stuck to their commitment and has carried out their obligations.

Below, please find some images and illustrations from design of first battery module prototype, battery management system (BMS) design and full size battery modules.

The battery pack needs to hold the battery modules in place, protecting them from dust and water and housing all the electronic components. Easy maintenance on the packs is required as some parts might have to be replaced during the life of the battery system. Also, all the connections to other components are integrated on the outside of the enclosure. These connections include tractive power connection, communication, service connection, and water cooling connections.
The pack needs to be very robust, as the G forces tend to get high in such applications, but it still needs to be lightweight because there is a direct correlation between the efficiency of the vessel and it’s mass. Standardized aluminium profiles were used.
With the delivered product Emrol has met all the predefined requirements in the DOW:
- A ‘marine’ type 200kWh battery pack has been designed, developed and implemented, keeping in mind all requirements for standards and regulations (eg Lloyd’s type approval)
- It is possible to fast charge the battery; in only 20 min the battery can be fully charged
- High cycle life of the battery is guaranteed: it can handle more than 10.000 cycles even when doing fast charging
- The battery is very safe: it is using the safest lithium technology on the market and incorporates all necessary safety components while being highly reliable
- The mass of the battery has been drastically reduced; the specific energy has been increased from 29Wh/kg to 54Wh/kg on system level.
- The system has been designed so it can be extended to the customer’s requirement. Adding extra battery strings is very easy on a mechanical and electrical point of view (“plug and play”)
Due to the issues with lack of supply from Altairnano, Emrol had to redesign the complete pack solution, which caused significant additional costs and delays. Specifications for the end solution has somewhat improved.
Echandia has developed a driveline design with two prototypes for propulsion of the BB GREEN tetst vessel, as well as produced with prototype an electric driveline for the lift fan system. The construction of the driveline has been in close relation to the pod propulsion system provider, with work related to both the hardware- and software systems and solutions.
For the charging of BB GREEN type of vessels with high kW use, frequent recharging with a capable recharging arrangement is required. Echandia has developed their own Supercharger
System. A range of bespoke capacity units can be constructed and delivered to match each route and operation’s requirements.

Echandia has also been responsible for developing a power management system to handle all on-board power requirements. Their MFC, or Multi Functional Controller, is the hub between the application controller and the BMS. The MFC is capable of communicating with different protocols and storing and sending critical information about the battery to the application and the cloud.
Also charging protocols, multistring functionality and safety issues have been addressed.

SE has been responsible for the development and design of the lift fan system, designed to support up to 80% of the BB GREEN test vessel’s operational weight on a cushion of air.

Echandia has been in charge of the propulsion system development and adaption to the BB GREEN concept. Together with SE and with significant help and assistance from a no name pod propulsion supplier a first of it’s kind set of contra rotating pod propulsion units designed and adapted to battery electric operation have been delivered to the test vessel. The units are on loan to the project and will have to be returned to the owner after testing and demonstratons have been carried out. It has been agreed that the project shall keep a log of the experience with the drive and share this information with the owner of the drives.
WP5. Test vessel construction, outfitting and testing

Originally, and before agreed change, it was described in the DOW to seek a construction yard on the basis of a European tender competition. The yard BJB delivered the most competitive offer, however the budget was considerably lower than the tender offer. The negotiations between Aqualiner (responsible for the test vessel construction subcontracting) unfortunately failed. However due to additional negotiations between SE and BJB, BJB was convinced to accept the low budget and join the project as a full partner. The change was accepted and approved by the scientific officer.

BJB has on the basis of a significantly too low budget carried out an excellent job in constructing and preparation of the test vessel; based upon a design made by Studio Sculli (under SE), with engineering from Diab and detail solutions from SE / Diab.

The final vessel design is a result of design process involving several changes and modifications.

In order to seek reduction in light ship weight (for improved performance / efficiency), it was agreed to construct the vessel from carbon, Devinycell (core material) sandwich; using enclosed and construction friendly vacuum bagging / infusion techniques. Diab has been responsible for the overall and detail composite engineering, supplies of materials and consumables. Diab has also, in line with the DOW, given the yard a thorough instruction in use of this new environmental friendly, enclosed construction system.

The construction of the hull has been done in a simplified female mould; build for construction of only the prototype vessel. The panel parts for the superstructure have been produced on a flat table using same vacuum infusion technique as the hull.

WP6. Demonstration activities.

The BB GREEN test vessel will, as soon as in house debugging has been carried out, be used extensively for demonstration of the new BB GREEN concept. Several demonstration actions are planned and will be carried out by SE, Echandia, Aqua and BJB. Applications for funding these activities have already been sent in.

WP7. Validation of project achievements.

A test procedure for evaluation of technical full scale performance has been prepared by SSPA, and will be used as soon as the vessel is ready for final tests.

Assessment of environmental effects from operation of BB GREEN type of vessels has been concluded very favourably for BB GREEN. The Zero emission of the vessel makes the concept very unique from an environmental point of view.

Recommendations in favour of introducing the BB GREEN concept as a mean to reduce traffic congestion and local and global emissions have been presented.

WP8. Dissemination activities.

The project has delivered a very impressive list of dissemination actions and activities during the 4 year life span of the project. Particularly beneficiary SE, but also Aqua and other beneficiaries have been very active in “spreading the word” about BB GREEN.

With a total of more than 120 dissemination actions involving all media and type of disseminations considerably more has been invested in the very important early phase of market introduction and S&T results dissemination than foreseen in the budget phase.

These actions have contributed strongly to build a positive attitude and high expectations for the BB GREEN concept; with several potential exploitation partners / cities / communities having expressed interest in testing out the concept, several with hope to test the demonstrator / prototype on “actual routes” to get a first-hand understanding of the performance and capabilities of the concept.

The mentioned application sent in under Horizon 2020 SME Phase 2, with the acronym GFFNOW, has focus on validation ( WP 7 remaining issues), WP 6 Demonstrations and WP 8 Dissemination with exploitation and impact focus.

List of foregrounds by beneficiary:

- SE: A NDA has been signed between SE and each of the beneficiaries related to the ASV patents, IPR and ASV related solutions in general; including developments done under the BB GREEN project.

Two new hull forms have been developed and documented representing new and proprietary IPR belonging to SE / ESI (Mother Company to SE). Any and all information related to the ASV hull form and proprietary related information and results shall remain the property of SE/ESI.

As part of the negotiations to enrol BJB as a new partner in the project, SE gave BJB certain ASV exploitation rights (BB GREEN and ASV’s in general). The rights and obligations are outlined in a collaboration agreement between the SE and BJB.

- SSPA Sweden: In collaboration with SE / ESI (owner of the ASV IPR) SSPA has developed a proprietary ASV scaling and optimization tool, to be used by SE for future ASV developments.

- Lloyds Reg: No foregrounds developed.

- Diab: No patentable foregrounds developed. The carbon engineering for the BB GREEN vessel/hull is linked to the ASV geometry and solutions where SE will have a sole right to use. Diab will be a preferred partner in the exploitation of the BB GREEN concept also for upcoming projects.

- Aqualiner: No direct foregrounds developed. Proprietary information related to future routes and operations.

- Emrol: Emrol has developed a new battery module. Possible IPR securing actions will be considered. It has been agreed that Emrol shall be a preferred partner in the exploitation of the BB GREEN concept also in the future.

- Echandia: Echandia has developed new driveline and management system technology. The company will consider patenting or using key IPR developed in BB GREEN for IPR protection of new battery electric drivelines / solutions. Collaboration with SE, Aqualiner and BJB for future BB GREEN exploitation has been agreed. Echandia will be preferred partner for BB GREEN projects also in the future.

- BJB: Agreement with SE for ASV exploitation. No direct foreground developed. BJB will be a preferred exploitation partner / builder of BB GREEN / ASV vessels from carbon composites.

- No Name Company: This company will consider seeking additional IPR / patent protection for their new / adapted pod propulsion system for electric operation.

Potential Impact:
Throughout the duration of the BB GREEN project creating market awareness of the new zero emission waterborne transport solution; and dissemination of progress achieved, have been key issues for the project team.

With its unique features and performances BB GREEN has been a popular case for the public press. The editors, paper magazines as well as WEB based dissemination channels, have seen the news value of the technology and have been keen to publish materials presented by the project as well as introducing their own angles to the technology, use potential and implications.

Main highlights frequently used in BB GREEN articles & publications, issued to this date:

- BB GREEN could be a way to reduce traffic congestion in a number of cities and communities.
- Waterborne transport with high performance
- 21st Century service with Zero emission
- Battery electric drive
- BB GREEN unique features and how they contribute to setting new SOA efficiency levels; including:

➢ Air Supported Hulls to reduce resistance
➢ Carbon sandwich light weight construction to reduce resistance
➢ Battery technology able to take very fast recharge and with much more cycle life
➢ Propulsion / drivelines combining highest efficiency and excellent joystick manoeuvrability
➢ Spin off solutions for the near future (fast work boats, firefighting, ambulance boats etc.)

When the BB GREEN test vessel is ready for the water and demonstrations of concept as well as single features used in the project, the press part of the dissemination of the concept will move into another phase where “proving the concept through riding on the feasibility demonstrator” will be focal.

In addition to dissemination through the public press, dissemination directly to current and potential politicians, owners/operators, and other stakeholders have been frequently used; in the form of written and oral communication, meetings and introduction sessions.

The BB GREEN concept has also been frequently disseminated at various conferences, exhibitions, trade shows and other maritime/transport events throughout Europe and beyond.

With approx. 120 dissemination activities already listed, even before testing with the feasibility demonstrator is available, the zero emission fast waterborne transport idea / the new concept have been very well introduced and positive expectations for the continuation established.

The feasibility demonstrator represents a unique tool for dissemination- and exploitation activities.
All project partners, directly (SE, Echandia, Aqua and BJB) and indirectly (the rest of the team) have agreed to continue the efforts invested in BB GREEN also after the formal ending of the project. The test vessel will be prepared, debugged / optimized and outfitted first for final instrumented tests (WP7) and thereafter for extensive dissemination and demonstration- actions (WP6 and more).
Echandia / SE / Aqua and BJB have joined forces, prepared a RTD, dissemination and demonstration project with the BB GREEN test vessel in focus; and applied for a Horizon 2020 project under the SME Phase 2 (Transport) call. The application was submitted to the Commission in June 2015 and the main activities for this project with title / acronym Green Fast Ferries NOW (GFFNOW) will be:

- WP2: Market study, identification of suitable GFF routes and operations.
- WP3: Technical tests and scientific documentation.
- WP4: GFF concept dissemination.
- WP5: GFF concept demonstrations.
- WP6: Validation of project achievements.

Provided this project is accepted, the Commission as well as the beneficiaries will have an excellent opportunity to take full advantage of the massive efforts invested in BB GREEN to this date, and greatly increase the probability of securing a commercial as well as socio-economic success with the new zero emission transport solution BB GREEN represents.

A. The following communication and dissemination measures will be used towards listed main stakeholders - in summary:

- Local-, regional- and national politicians, engaged in transport related issues:
o As the planned dissemination will cover several European countries, cities and communities; a careful prioritizing (based upon GFFNOW WP2 output) of the most relevant routes and operations will be made.
o Establish contact with politicians likely to influence decision making in favour of the BB GREEN concept. Local BB GREEN contacts may be required for each targeted community.
o First dissemination –of the BB GREEN idea and effects from introducing new waterborne transport.
o Creating awareness of the benefits and potential socio/economic impacts will have priority.
o Politician’s close links and contact with local- and regional mass media and press will be exploited for creating a general awareness also among the general public.
o When schedule for the BB GREEN “dissemination and demonstration tour” has been agreed, politicians and press will be directly invited for testing and demonstrations in the respective local communities.
o Often the local BB GREEN contact, which in many cases will be an established ferry operator/owner, will be in charge and act on a local level.
- Transport authorities engaged in passenger transport planning and decision making:
o Non-political personnel, managing passenger transport planning and day to day operation, on behalf of their respective communities, will in an early phase of the project be contacted.
o Starting with general BB GREEN information (to secure awareness) and followed up through direct contacts / meetings.
o In a similar manner as for the politicians, practical testing and demonstration with the BB GREEN prototype is expected to be crucial for their perception of the concept.
o The feedback, of a conceptual (generic) and local/practical level from this group will be vital for refining the prototype design and solutions towards the final commercial BB GREEN design.
- Commercial commuter ferry owners and operators:
o In cities and communities with waterborne transport operations, identifying the owners/operators and current routes/operations will be straight forward. Detecting potential operators/routes and operations will be more demanding. Local knowledge will be essential.
o Several owners and operators have already heard about the BB GREEN concept from either conference papers given; or from articles published in magazines and on the WEB.
o The project team intends to contact the managing director / responsible person for business development to establish a dialogue around use of BB GREEN vessels; where demonstrations with the BB GREEN feasibility demonstrator is expected to be the best sales tool.
- Transport service providers engaged also in other types of public transport:
o The fact that the BB GREEN concept in many communities may be complementary to other modes of passenger transport will be actively exploited.
o Introducing BB GREEN may expand business and improve overall service offered to the local community and individual end users.
o Knowledge about the BB GREEN concept will be provided through a combination of direct contacts with selected transport service providers, indirectly through media and press and invites to test the feasibility demonstrator.
- Yards, builders and potential outfitters of BB GREEN type of vessels.
o To increase competitiveness (reduce price / secure a healthy profit margin) the plan is to prepare for BB GREEN standardization, modular construction and outfitting; - series production.
o Partner BJB is a preferred BB GREEN partner, but SE will also allow BJB to build carbon sandwich ASV hulls on licence, for outfitting and completion elsewhere.
o Echandia will allow a similar set up to increase the sales volume.
o The communication between the project/partners and mentioned yards/outfitters will be a combination of technical and commercial dialogue; starting with convincing the yards about the capabilities and business opportunities with the concept. In this process the feasibility demonstrator will play a vital role, directly towards the yards and indirectly towards potential owners/operator clients identified by the yards.
- Press and media:
o The dialogue and communication with press and media is already well underway.
o The basic introduction to the BB GREEN concept is done and the editors and media representatives are now waiting for testing the BB GREEN concept in the water, and prepare their own stories on the basis of personal experience.
- Travellers, current and potential end users of BB GREEN services.
o As the feasibility demonstrator is a prototype / concept demonstrator, a large number of travellers will not be allowed on board for testing.
o Press representatives, from newspapers, television and others will receive in depth information on the concept, and will be invited on-board for tests. On the basis of articles and stories presented by the press, the travellers will obtain information on the BB GREEN concept, how it works and what it can do for the final end users of BB GREEN type of vessels

List of Websites:
The project website is:
1.6. Contact details for BB GREEN:

P1: SES Europe AS
3210 Sandefjord, Norway.
Office phone: Int. + 47 334 65650
Contact person: Technical manager Tor Livgard.
Mobile phone: Int + 47 47 24 96 95.


P2: SSPA Sweden AB
Gothenburg, Sweden.
Office phone: Int. + 46 31 772 9000
Contact person: Vice president Bjorn Allenstrom.

P3: Lloyds Register EMEA
London, England UK.
Contact phone: Int. + 44 20 7423 1923
Contact person: Senior Specialist Kim Tanneberger.
E-mail address:
Mobile: Int + 44 (0)7795 427 352

P5: Diab AS
Oslo, Norway.
Contact number: Int + 47 66 98 19 30
Contact person: Man dir Ulf Kristiansen.
E-mail address:
Mobile phone: Int + 47 911 37 750

P6: Aqualiner
Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Contact number: Int. + 31 88 277 6284
Contact person: Man dir Gerbrand Schutten.
E-mail address:
Mobile phone: Int. + 31 6 22 45 46 05

P8: Emrol bvba
Malle, Belgium.
Contact number: Int. + 32 3 309 24 24
Contact person: Business manager Stefan Louis.
E-mail address:
Mobile phone: Int + 32 474 71 26 21

P9: Echandia Marine Sweden AB
Stockholm, Sweden.
Contact number: Int + 46 73 399 55 15
Contact person: CEO Magnus Eriksson.
E-mail address:

P10: BJB
Riga, Latvia.
Contact number: Int. + 371 67 35 35 44
Contact person: Project manager Alexander Busarov.
E-mail address:
Mobile phone: Int + 371 29 43 66 22