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ERRAC Road Map

Final Report Summary - ERRAC ROAD MAP (ERRAC roadmap)

Executive summary:

The European Rail Research Advisory Council (ERRAC) was set up in 2001 with the ambitious goal of creating a single European body with both the competence and capability to help revitalise the European rail sector and make it more competitive, by fostering increased innovation and guiding research efforts at European level. Within ERRAC, all major rail stakeholders are gathered. ERRAC comprises of 45 representatives from each of the major European rail research stakeholders: manufacturers, operators, infrastructure managers, the European Commission (EC), European Union (EU) Member States, academics and user groups. ERRAC covers all forms of rail transport: from conventional, high speed and freight applications to urban and regional services.

Since its start, ERRAC has produced a number of important and influential documents, such as the Joint Strategy for European Rail Research - Vision 2020, the Strategic Rail Research Agenda (SRRA) and its 2007 updated version, the Suburban and Regional Railways Landscape in Europe, the Light Rail and Metro Systems in Europe, the Rail Research in Europe, a comparison of the Member States public research programmes with the ERRAC SRRA and others.

The most important target for the future of rail transport as it has been described in the SRRA is the doubling of the market share of rail transport and the tripling of rail transport in general. This can also be seen as the main driver behind the ERRAC ROAD MAP project. The ERRAC ROAD MAP coordination and support action (CSA) project was designed to support the Advisory Council in its work and has focussed for a period of 3 years on the drafting and delivery of concrete and detailed roadmaps on common European research and development (R&D) to implement the ERRAC SRRA. Officially the ERRAC ROAD MAP project started on 1 June 2009 and ran for three years and two months. However, because of the importance of the work things started rolling soon after the submission of the project proposal to the EC and work package (WP) teams for the future project were formed and started work. The ERRAC SRRA was built up on 7 pillars:

1. intelligent mobility;
2. energy and environment;
3. personal security;
4. test, homologation and security;
5. competitiveness and enabling technologies;
6. strategy and economics;
7. infrastructure.

The 3-year project has produced 9 detailed rail research roadmaps covering each of the 5 'strategic areas' as described in WPs 1 - 5. All aspects of the rail system have been well covered in detail as well as their interactions.

The 3-year project has produced 9 detailed rail research roadmaps covering each of the 5 ' strategic areas' as described in WPs 1 - 5. All aspects of the rail system have been well covered in detail as well as their interactions.

The objective of this project has been to develop a framework of quality roadmaps structured around each of the key WPs identified by the ERRAC European Rail Technology Platform. These roadmaps identify research needed to such a level of detail that the information contained within them can be directly transposed into actual research projects to be developed. The roadmaps also identify synergies and interrelationships between the individual research activities and they will be used as a tool to stimulate private and public, national and European research coherently. As a result it is also designed to provide guidance and as such has been used to contribute to shape the calls of the EC's transport work programme.

Outside of work which has been described in the project description, work has been undertaken to integrate all of the 9 separate detailed roadmaps into one document. This work will soon be finished and will be published on the ERRAC website as well as disseminated in complementary ways to the members of ERRAC and other European rail stakeholders.

All the ERRAC ROAD MAP documents can be downloaded from the ERRAC website http://www.errac.org

Project context and objectives:

Introduction

All the deliverables of the ERRAC roadmaps are described in the description of work (DoW) of the project. Besides the usual management, financial and technical deliverables and annual or annually updated Roadmaps, the project produced 9 final roadmaps spread over 5 different areas which are all non-confidential and available to the interested public. The 9 roadmaps cover the following areas:

(1) The greening of surface transport:
(a) roadmap on energy;
(b) roadmap on noise and vibration;
(c) roadmap on sustainable design and procurement.

(2) Encouraging modal shift (long distance) and decongesting transport corridors: (a) freight roadmap;
(b) passenger roadmap.

(3) Ensuring sustainable (sub)urban transport (including modal shift, suburban and regional rail, light rail and metro, and sustainable urban mobility):
(a) urban, suburban and regional rail research roadmap;
(b) urban mobility research roadmap.

(4) Improving safety and security:
(a) improving safety and security roadmap.

(5) Strengthening competitiveness: (a) strengthening competitiveness roadmap.

Each of these roadmaps also contains an overview of the status of ongoing projects as well as information on the implementation of finalised research projects in the for this part-roadmap relevant area. This information played an important role in the definition of the final research needs as described in the Roadmaps. This information has been provided to the 5 'strategic' roadmaps by WP6.

All 9 roadmaps have been written along the lines of a common outline. This outline consisted of the following elements:

(1) present situation;
(2) state-of-art, recent projects, ongoing research;
(3) vision;
(4) roadmap development;
(5) pictorial view - priorities on a timeline.

WP1: The greening of surface transport

This WP dealt with the following issues, each of which has been elaborated into a separate final roadmap:

(a) roadmap on energy;
(b) roadmap on noise and vibration;
(c) roadmap on sustainable design and procurement

The energy roadmap

(1) The most important challenges for energy policy and constraints are:

(a) Rail has the capability to play a key role in any sustainable transport system by offering efficient transport with low environmental impact, and these strengths need to be articulated in the political decision-making process.
(b) Railways must increase their energy efficiency in order to stay economically competitive and act socially responsible towards the environment.
(c) It is necessary to act now because of:
(i) rising energy costs;
(ii) energy security and independency;
(iii) climate protection.

(2) Targets for future research:

(a) The European railways must strive towards a carbon-free train operation by 2050 and provide society with a climate neutral transport alternative. Therefore the environmental performance of rolling stock and installed equipment needs significantly to be improved.
(b) The European railways will strive towards halving the specific final energy consumption from train operations by 2050 compared to the base year 1990; measured per passenger-km (passenger service) and gross ton-km (freight service). Therefore the energy efficiency of rolling stock and installed equipment needs significantly to be increased.

In the overview below, the highest priorities for research in the energy of energy efficiency and energy reductions are depicted on an intermediary time line towards 2035. The rationale for this as well as an in-depth detailed description you will find in the WP1 energy roadmap.

The noise and vibration roadmap

(1) The most important challenges for noise and vibration are:

(a) Noise considered as Achilles' heel amongst environmental advantages of rail?
(b) Modal shift to rail and increased market share can only be achieved with sustainable noise and vibration mitigation measures.
(c) EU policy supports noise reduction.
(d) Issue addressed in interoperability directives and corresponding technical specifications, by the Environmental Noise Directive (END).
(e) Noise and vibration became an even more critical factor for the railways in recent years in the construction of new infrastructure.
(f) Introduction of noise emission ceilings in some countries raised the pressure to plan line capacity to comply with the available noise quota.
(g) But railways have a long history of noise research and control since late 1980’s!

(2) Goals for future research

(a) By 2030 noise mitigation measures will be integrated naturally in all relevant processes of the railway, offering sustainable and practical solutions, implemented using a toolbox of various innovative and homologated techniques.
(b) The European railways will strive towards noise and vibrations no longer being considered a problem for the railways and its neighbours - meaning that noise levels are socially and economically acceptable and allow for 24-hour passenger and goods operations by 2050.

In the overview below, the highest priorities for research in the roadmap on noise and vibration are depicted on an intermediary time line towards 2035. The rationale for this as well as an in-depth detailed description you will find in the WP1 energy roadmap.

The sustainable design and procurement roadmap

Sustainable procurement means careful consideration of environmental and societal aspects as well as the economic aspects when carrying out the investment process. There is no single definition of sustainable procurement - not least because sustainability is a contested concept - and applications vary across organisational hierarchy and sector. However, there is a general acceptance that it involves a higher degree of collaboration and engagement between all parties in a supply chain. Many businesses have adopted a broad interpretation of sustainable procurement and have developed tools and techniques to support this engagement and collaboration.

It is important to note that railways are also affected by the environment, in addition to having effects on the environment. Over time, the way that railways manage natural hazards and weather events will change due to the impact of climate change. This roadmap therefore includes a section on climate change adaptation, which summarises the issues and proposes a research agenda for the railway.

Finally, the topics on energy efficiency, noise and vibration are also included in this Roadmap. However, we need to highlight that ERRAC WG1 'Greening of surface transport' has already tackled these topics via the previous roadmaps 'Energy roadmap for the European railway sector' and 'Noise and vibrations roadmap'. These reports do not include, proposals for procurement and design, and therefore for completeness, energy, noise and vibration issues relevant to procurement are also included in this roadmap. In the work carried out within WP1 in drafting this roadmap, among other things, relevant policy drivers and constrains have been considered, such as Eurovignette Directive, the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Regulation, the Ambient Air Quality Directive, the Noise Directive and many others.

Furthermore, relevant megatrends have been taken into account as well as findings from many research projects dealing with related issues, such as REPID and RAVEL, PROSPER II, INFRAGUIDER, the Railway-Industry Substance List, the UIC study on Sustainable Wooden Sleepers, EWENT and FUTURENET, WEATHER, ACOUTRAIN, RIVAS and CLEANER-D.

Following this, a number of priority areas have been identified such as:

- General procurement guidance and especially eco-design label for rolling stock,
- creosote or wooden sleeper alternatives - composite sleepers / alternative substructure,
- availability of materials currently used in 20 year-time - if not, ideas for alternatives,
- identification of components with special concerns in REACH,
- vegetation control,
- pesticides alternatives,
- the end of life treatment of products and reduction of waste.

The following research areas were identified:

- industrial processes to eliminate dangerous waste cost-effectively,
- design of products with consideration of elimination constraints,
- recognising the value of already existing infrastructure,
- cradle to cradle approach,
- research on bio-degradable materials for railway (long-term strategy).

In the overview below you will find the highest priorities for research in the field of sustainable design and procurement. The rationale for this as well as an in-depth detailed description you will find in this specific WP1 roadmap.

System climate change adaptation

- adaptation of the existing railway system to the new climate conditions,
- system optimise environmental and sustainable impacts of the life cycle of subcomponents,
- design procurement installation maintenance operations and disposal,
- system identification of components with special concerns in REACH,
- investigate alternatives with same life duration,
- Rolling Stock: eco-design label for rolling stock,
- based on key criteria covering significant environmental aspects: energy-CO2, materials, noise,
- infrastructure creosote or wooden sleeper alternatives,
- composite sleepers or Alternative substructure.

WP2: Encouraging modal shift (long distance) and decongesting transport corridors

ERRAC WG 2 has during the course of the three-year EU-funded ERRAC ROAD MAP project produced three roadmaps each for long distance passenger and freight rail transports. The roadmaps have been developed from a market requirement perspective.

The project DoW for this WP originally contained the following four objectives:

(a) public rail transport that makes life easier for the European traveller;
(b) reliable public transport;
(c) efficient freight transport for business;
(d) advancing the technological and economic frontier.

Each objective were to be addressed (tasks 2.1 - 2.4) by a roadmap with defined targets or milestones along a timeline. WP2 decided at an early stage to merge the roadmaps into a single one for passenger and one for freight. These two roadmaps cover the tasks as described in the DoW of the project.

The method chosen for developing the roadmap was to work with a scorecard and a chart were identified items were assessed with respect to their research, demonstration, regulatory framework or market introduction maturity. A core group was established consisting of experts in public transport and freight and logistics. The core group identified items of importance to advance rail as a preferred mode of transport. The items were discussed and validated in a series of workshops held during the period 2010 - 2012. Questionnaires were circulated in the first year to experts working with public transport and freight to establish and assess priorities.

The WP2 has produced three successively annually updated versions of roadmaps for passenger and freight respectively.

The roadmaps has contributed to a common view amongst key players on necessary actions to be taken to make long distance passenger and freight rail transport more capable of complying with customer requirements which is necessary if rail is to capture higher market shares and contribute to the objectives of the transport white paper. Results from the roadmaps have been discussed within ERRAC and fed into EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) calls, which has resulted in the launch of projects like ON-TIME and MARATHON.

The main deviation from the initial set-up was the merging or rather integration of the foreseen four roadmaps into two. This was justified by the necessity to work efficiently with experts who are pressed on time i.e. we had to cover as much as possible during workshops and conference calls. The same experts now only had to deliver input on one document or two if they covered issues relevant for both passenger and freight. The content of the roadmaps nevertheless addresses the key items in the DoW.

This WP dealt with the following two issues, each of which has been elaborated into a separate final roadmap:

(a) roadmap on freight transport;
(b) roadmap on passenger transport.

The rail freight roadmap

The most important challenges for rail freight transport are:

(a) reliability in delivery times;
(b) attracting more than a limited market share;
(c) train performance;
(d) price competitiveness and stability;
(e) cost for shunting and loading.

The targets and objectives for the future are:

(a) freight will arrive at the destination on time, 95 % of all trains are punctual;
(b) multimodal real time solutions and information system;
(c) freight forwarders prefer to ship their goods though rail;
(d) train is the strongest link in intermodal transport chains;
(e) the capacity of a given railway will be doubled compared with today;
(f) the costs and time for the production of new rolling stock and equipment are significantly reduced.

The most important areas for future research are:

(a) information technology (IT) solutions, wagon identification, fleet management and train movements;
(b) more efficient multipurpose wagons, less maintenance on the infrastructure, enhancing network use efficiency;
(c) more intelligence in logistics, optimising train payload, improved interfaces between modes.

The passenger rail roadmap

The most important challenges for medium and long-distance journeys are:

(a) punctuality and reliability;
(b) value for fare and taxes;
(c) local connections to medium / long distance travels;
(d) service offerings; frequency, seating, capacity.

The most important targets and objectives for the future are:

(a) a rail service able to attract a majority of the medium-distance passenger;
(b) multimodal real time traffic and journey information and payment systems;
(c) competitive rolling stock, operational systems and infrastructure;
(d) a seamless European travel system with reliable connections;
(e) attractive and efficient (multimodal) interchanges;
(f) spatial planning to facilitate the increased demand.

The most important areas for future research are:

(a) seat-km costs;
(b) cross modal integrated information systems;
(c) network usage and capacity enhancement;
(d) spatial planning; knowledge and investment analysis tools;
(e) travel time optimisation across modes.

In the overview below, the highest priorities for research in the field of 'Encouraging modal shift (long distance) and decongesting transport corridors' are depicted on an intermediary time line towards 2035. The rationale for this as well as an in-depth detailed description you will find in the WP2 'Freight and passenger roadmaps', which have been developed from a market requirement perspective.

ERRAC WG 2 has during the course of the three-year EU-funded ERRAC ROAD MAP project produced three roadmaps each for long-distance passenger and freight rail transports. The roadmaps have been developed from a market requirement perspective. The main research and technological development (RTD) implications in the roadmaps are summarily described below. A more thorough and detailed description is found in the roadmaps.

WP3: Ensuring sustainable (sub-)urban transport (including modal shift, suburban and regional rail, light rail and metro, and sustainable urban mobility)

WP3 as the other WPs worked with a network of stakeholders enabling dissemination of the project results, exchange of experience and building the widest possible consensus between stakeholders (including urban rail operators, manufacturers and researchers).

The WP3 prepared two roadmaps (the rail roadmap and the urban mobility roadmap), which were updated yearly. In order to do so, basic reference documents were studied (for the rail roadmap: 'ERRAC SRA 2020' of 2007, 'SSRA for urban, suburban and regional public transport and urban mobility in the EU (UITP)' and 'Rail 21 sustainable rail systems for a connected Europe'; for the urban mobility roadmap: 'EURFORUM SRA') and a wide consultation of stakeholders was organised. In addition, the White Paper of Transport was taken into account as well as the FP7 calls published during that period.

For the urban mobility roadmap, collaboration was put in place with ERTRAC. In particular, regular contacts were taken with Sylvain Haon from Polis, leader of the Urban Mobility topic within ERTRAC. Together, Polis and UITP published a common ERRAC-ERTRAC urban mobility roadmap.

Furthermore, this WP published a study 'Light rail and metro systems in Europe', with the help of a subcontractor.

The scope of the WP3 was to focus on the mobility of people and goods by research on the 'next-generation vehicle' and its market uptake, bringing together all elements of a clean, energy efficient, safe and intelligent rail transport system. Research on new transport and mobility concepts, innovative organisational and mobility management schemes and high quality public transport will aim at ensuring access for all and high levels of intermodal integration. Innovative research strategies for clean urban transport will be developed. Particular attention will be paid to non-polluting modes of transport, demand management and information and communication strategies and infrastructures. Tools and models supporting policy development and implementation will cover transport and land use planning including the relationship with growth and employment.

Efficient urban, suburban and regional transport systems are critical elements of the sustainable development of urban areas, where already some 80 % of Europe's citizens live. Urban public transport and especially rail systems have numerous advantages, which shall never be shared by private car transport in terms of e.g. speed, capacity, safety, environmental friendliness, energy savings and urban space consumption. At the same time, car ownership and care use is increasing every day due to a great variety of attractive technical innovations which are easy to standardise and to implement on private vehicles and on roads or streets in comparison to rail systems. Rail systems and especially (sub-)urban rail systems are indeed far more complex technically than road systems and they involve for their management many more (public) stakeholders than private or commercial vehicles traffic management. In addition, local rail transport services are operated under public transport contracts following public service requirements, which represent a heavy financial burden on local authorities for rail services financing and rail systems funding as long as external costs of motorised road vehicle are not internalised. As a consequence (sub-)urban rail will not be able to compete with private cars without an important improvement of public transport attractiveness, and a reduction in investment and operating costs. This implies an important investment in rail research, a strong support from public authorities, and an agreement between local / regional / national public authorities, rail operators (railway undertakings and infrastructure managers), and railway manufacturers to coordinate across Europe for technical harmonisation of products and services where it allows to bring European added value. This was the major challenge of WP3. At the same time, the European rail manufacturing industry is a world leader for urban rail systems (metro, tram and light rail) and has achieved significant innovation for the benefit of the customer (e.g. low floor tram), but has to remain competitive for most promising markets in Europe and outside Europe, especially China and other Asian markets.

This WP dealt with the following issues, each of which has been elaborated into a separate final roadmap:

(a) urban, suburban and regional rail research roadmap;
(b) urban mobility research roadmap;
(c) the urban, suburban and regional rail roadmap

The work has been built among others on recently finished and ongoing EU-funded FPs projects like: LIBERTIN, MODURBAN and URBAN TRACK (finished) and MODSAFE and OSIRIS (still ongoing at the time of the ERRAC ROAD MAP project).

The most important trends in this area been identified and taken into account:

(a) constantly increasing level of ridership;
(b) development of automated metro systems;
(c) more energy efficient systems;
(d) limited public funding;
(e) changes in lifestyles and aging customers.

The most important challenges for this area are to:

(a) improve the cost effectiveness of rail services to reduce the need for tax payers money;
(b) increase the attractiveness of urban rail in order to achieve a modal shift from road to rail.

Some of the key targets for urban, suburban and regional rail are:

(a) efficient core network for multimodal intercity travel and transport;
(b) clean urban transport and commuting, meeting customers' expectations;
(c) competitive and resource efficient rail for achieving a 60 % greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target;
(d) improved performances (capacity, environment, service quality and reliability).

The most important research areas for this area are:

(a) intelligent mobility;
(b) energy and environment;
(c) personal security;
(d) safety and homologation;
(e) competitiveness and enabling technologies;
(f) strategy and economics;
(g) infrastructure;
(h) benchmarking.

In the overview below, the highest priorities for research in the field of urban, suburban and regional rail are depicted on an intermediary time line towards 2020 and beyond. The rationale for this as well as an in-depth detailed description you will find in the WP3 'Urban, suburban and regional rail roadmap'.

Urban mobility roadmap

The work has been built among others on recently finished and ongoing EU-funded FPs projects like: EURFORUM, IFM, SPUTNIC, COUNTERACT, LINK and EMOTION (finished) and EBSF (still ongoing at the time of the ERRAC ROAD MAP project).

The most important trends in this area been identified and taken into account:

(a) limited public funding;
(b) more energy and environmentally friendly mobility;
(c) changes in lifestyles and aging customers;
(d) development of ITS;
(e) better intermodal and co-modal coordination.

The most important challenges for the area of urban mobility (in general) are:

(a) reducing the overall cost of urban mobility;
(b) increasing the attractiveness of public transport and reduce the need for motorised modes in urban areas.

The most important targets for future research are:

(a) to contribute to the achievement of the White Paper and Euroforum and UITP vision for long-term mobility (overarching target);
(b) understanding better the user needs and behaviour;
(c) sustainable, effective and user oriented urban mobility system of integrated land use services and infrastructures;
(d) optimise relationship between land use, transport system and mobility (freight and passengers);
(e) modern and innovative transport infrastructure and services;
(f) improved regulatory and financial framework, involving all relevant stakeholders.

The most important key areas for research are:

(a) integrated urban mobility systems and governance;
(b) innovative infrastructure;
(c) freight and urban mobility: interfaces and complementarities;
(d) user needs and behaviour;
(e) innovative technologies, tools and products;
(f) cooperation between stakeholders;
(g) data and models.

In the overview below, the highest priorities for research in the field of urban mobility are depicted on an intermediary time line towards 2020 and beyond. The rationale for this as well as an in-depth detailed description you will find in the WP3 'Urban mobility roadmap'.

WP4: Improving safety and security roadmap

This WP dealt both with safety as well as security which both have been integrated in one final roadmap on Improving safety and security.

According to project's DoW requirements, the WP2 on Safety and Security has delivered roadmaps on an annual basis. The first part roadmap has been settled in the 1st year and has incrementally been updated on the relevant aspects having changed along the previous years. As a final result, the 3rd year integrated roadmap on Safety and Security represents the most updated document on both these critical issues for the railway sector.

This roadmap takes into account, the state-of-the-art of safety and security in railway system in Europe, the implications suggested by the completed and ongoing projects and a common vision shared among expertise coming from the main railway system stakeholders.

As such, the integrated final roadmap fully covers the obligations as set in the DoW in terms of targets to be achieved. In particular, we refer to the target 1 that deals with coverage of safety and security management aspects and target 2 dealing with security improvement. Target 1 can be regarded as fully achieved, considering the structure of both roadmaps that include clear identification of priority area, topics, critical requirements and actions, respectively for safety and security. Related to target 2, it is convenient to refer to the roadmap on Security more specifically. This latter takes into account all the subjects that sector considers most critical, including the very important aspect of security perception in railway assets (train and station) so as their surroundings (station surroundings, shunting and parking areas). For the first time an integrated safety and security roadmap has been achieved, thanks to this EC funded CSA project ERRAC ROAD MAP.

The roadmap is the result of a joint work carried out by all the relevant stakeholders and actors in the field: infrastructure managers, railway operators, Industries, academia, regulatory and association sectors.

Having been supported by all the above mentioned stakeholders, actors, the railway system has the availability of guidelines settling the research priorities to be covered in safety and security long-term horizon. The 2050 perspective has been divided in four main targets areas:

- short-term target, 2015
- short-medium target, 2020
- medium-long target, 2030
- long-term target, 2050.

Ongoing research and trends (finished and ongoing)

Covered during the period from 2000 until 2010 there were about 30 projects, of which the majority in lowest occurrence - highest risk safety aspects (tunnel / fire).
At the moment of this writing there were more than 10 projects running of which the majority are oriented on infrastructure and maintenance.
At the moment of this writing there were 5 - 7 topics planned for the FP7 6th Call. In the development of the safety and security roadmap dealing with safety, the WP4 team has described the distinction between 11 separate areas in the field of safety. These areas are:

- derailments,
- fires and tunnels,
- train collisions,
- human factors,
- infrastructure,
- rolling stock,
- command / control,
- rail system,
- level crossing,
- rolling stock in motion,
- environment and climate.

The same method was used for the area of security where the WP4 has developed sub-roadmaps for the areas of:

- key asset protection,
- security human factor,
- security detection systems,
- security procedures, regulations and standards,
- feeling of security.

In the overview below, the highest priorities for research in the field of rail safety are depicted on an intermediary time line towards 2030. The rationale for this as well as an in-depth detailed description you will find in the integrated WP4 'Safety and security roadmap'.

WP5: Strengthening competitiveness roadmap

The purpose of the work within this roadmap was to follow through on the ERRAC SRRA and supporting documents that describe the areas of research that need to be undertaken in order that the technologies identified as necessary for the vision for the future railway are delivered. Inevitably the vision for the future railway is not fixed, and as the impact of climate change, energy costs, road congestion and global competition for the railway supply industry are evaluated, the vision and technical strategy are modified. In addition, the impact of completed and ongoing projects within the EU FP and national programmes changes the definition of research needs.

As part of the roadmap process, open workshops have been held on a biannual basis by all work streams to ensure that the widest range of opinions and knowledge sharing are available for inclusion in the developed maps. The work within this roadmap has been based on the following points of action:

(a) to define the vision for the future railway based on the ERRAC RSA and updated from the EU White Paper 'towards a single European transport system', ERRAC open workshops and other authorities;
(b) to develop the technology requirements to deliver the vision;
(c) to examine past and current research projects to identify gaps in the research strategy for delivering these technology requirements;
(d) to propose projects to deliver the research agenda in a logical sequence and timescale.

The long-term framework for the SRRA sets out seven research priority areas. The following relate directly to the work of WP5:

(a) Test, homologation and security
The spread of European homologation and acceptance procedures requires less restrictive product approvals, the wider application of cross acceptance while reducing risk through improved safety management.

(b) Competitiveness and enabling technologies
Increasing the competitiveness of the rail sector can be achieved by improving all aspects of product attractiveness for customers and reducing life cycle costs by the introduction of modern technology throughout the railway system including rolling stock, maintenance procedures, ticketing systems and infrastructure.

(c) Strategy and economics
New accounting and planning models will provide a better understanding of the costs of operating and maintaining rail infrastructure and how these costs vary according to changes in the frequency and types of train service. This understanding will lead to incentives to provide high performance and attractive rail services for customers.
The collection of costs must be done at a sufficiently fine granularity to reflect true costs as an aid to building a business case for innovative products.

(d) Infrastructure
Cost-efficient condition based maintenance, and maintenance-free interoperable infrastructure systems will be developed that yield a reduction in the need for maintenance possessions, increases in traffic capacity, track loading and track stability.

(e) Demographics - labour force
In addition to the influence of demographics on travel patterns and customer services, the other significance of the demographic shift will be the availability of manual labour to undertake many of the difficult and demanding jobs that ensure the continued safe running of the railway. Research is needed into the use of technology to increase the productivity of staff and remove some of the physical difficulties in order to both attract qualified staff to the railway and ensure that they are used to their full potential. Considerable investment is needed in education and life time training, not only to replace the increasing number of retirees but also to train for the new technologies that will be required.

(f) The need for change
Railway assets traditionally have a long life cycle that may typically be forty years but for some structures may exceed a century. Therefore many investment decisions that we make today will have an impact on the railway system of 2050. Major investments in infrastructure must take into account the needs of the second half of the 21st century including:
(i) changing socio-economic frameworks of societies, e.g. globalisation, ageing and urbanisation;
(ii) significant and growing ecological imbalances worldwide, e.g. climate change, scarcity of resources and degradation of biodiversity;
(iii) increased regulation and use of new technologies in the transport sector, e.g. alternative traction concepts and information and communication technologies.

This roadmap is based on a mid and long-term vision and has four target points in time:
- year 2015
- year 2020
- year 2030
- year 2050.

The most important single challenge for competitiveness is:

(a) Developing a pan-European solution for a 21st century railway to be a platform that is an affordable railway system concept, resilient to extreme weather, is designed for automated maintenance and operations and is adaptable to different route characteristics and future innovation.

The most important trends for competitiveness are:

(a) time for maintenance possessions reduced;
(b) more need for maintenance;
(c) maximise usage of assets; rolling stock and infrastructure;
(d) higher capacity trains;
(e) shortage of experienced staff.

The most important research areas are:

(a) developing a train track / system that is close to non-damaging interaction;
(b) innovative and adaptable vehicles;
(c) innovative infrastructure and maintenance technologies;
(d) automated and high speed maintenance;
(e) alternative solutions to conventional ballasted track;
(f) modelling as a tool to optimise system interfaces and support maintenance and renewal decisions.

In the overview below, the highest priorities for research in the field of competitiveness are depicted on an intermediary time line towards 2035. The rationale for this as well as an in-depth detailed description you will find in the WP5 'Competitiveness roadmap'.

WP6: Project evaluation and rail innovation database

WP6 has a very different character compared to the 'Strategic' WPs 1 - 5 which have developed rail research Roadmaps based on the Vision 2020 (and beyond) and the SRRA. Results from this WP also have served as an important basis to the work of the 'strategic' WPs.

Background and objectives of the work carried out in this WP:

1. Summarising the philosophy of project evaluations
(a) Project evaluation started in 2006, with the aim of determining how effective the investment in FP projects (by the sector and the EC) way on improving the rail sector.
(b) Evaluation of past rail projects funded in FPs was one of the tasks of ERRAC ROAD MAP. WP06: determines how project results have been implemented; this is the concept of 'market uptake'.
(c) The goal is to improve the effectiveness of rail research funding and ensure a strategic approach to the prioritisation of future rail research.
(d) Learning from the past and trying do to better in the future.
(e) 'Lessons Learnt' and 'Reasons for Outcome' - inform future proposals and projects.
(f) The evaluation working group (EWG) provides intelligence based on the project evaluations as input into future calls.

The 'Market uptake' concept
(a) The rationale for railway research is rightly always expressed in terms of achieving results, problem solving, decongestion of transport corridors, reducing energy consumption etc.
(b) This focus on results, can be seen in all declarations from the Commission, national political groups and in the Transport White Paper.

Unless research results are actually implemented, they cannot contribute to these high level ambitions.

Strong market-uptake: A project is evaluated with a strong market uptake if there is clear evidence of use of products or services, processes, dissemination of knowledge, tools, etc. in several countries / products and the major objectives of the project have been implemented. These projects will sometimes lead to additional research to realise their full market uptake.

Medium market-uptake: A project is evaluated with a medium uptake if there is some evidence of use of products, services or processes, or a limited dissemination of knowledge, tools, etc. in a few countries or products. If only a small proportion of a project has some market uptake, the project as a whole is considered to have a medium market uptake. A follow up of the project may be necessary in some cases.

Weak market uptake: A project is evaluated with a weak market uptake if no known use of products, services, processes, knowledge, tools, etc. has been identified anywhere. No follow up project is needed unless the reason for the market uptake failure is clearly understood and removed.

Main outcomes

Projects database

- All identified FP projects were captured in an Excel database, for practical use in the evaluation activity. The database was regularly updated both with new projects and with details of each evaluation carried out. ERRAC database includes now 165 rail related projects, of which 59 have been evaluated.
- WP06 initiated cooperation with the Transport Research Knowledge Centre (TRKC) to make public the presentations of the evaluated projects. Project evaluations have been uploaded to the TRKC website, allowing a better visibility of the results of WP6 work.
- The database of WP6 has been also been incorporated in the railway research website of UIC and the full project evaluation presentations are also available online. A permanent link, including the general documentation about the working group, has been established on the ERRAC website.

Lessons learnt:

The evaluations have established a level of knowledge which enables us to predict a potential success in market uptake (already) at the proposal conceptual phase.
- Applying this knowledge helps to:
(i) design future projects so that chances of successful market uptake are dramatically increased; or
(ii) determine that an idea will have a very narrow chance of achieving any market uptake and therefore should not be proposed.

Examples of lessons learnt from projects with strong market uptake:
(a) projects aimed at solving issues of general acknowledged interest (e.g. technical, safety, harmonisation, business cases, etc.);
(b) projects had strong interaction between partners and relevant stakeholders;
(c) projects clearly defined scope and objectives at the beginning;
(d) project results applied and implemented for products, or for regulatory application and made available for future revisions of TSIs and / or standards;
(e) project used results of previous projects;
(f) project pilot cases or business cases developed to provide viable solutions.

Recommendations:

(a) Make it clear that projects should search for viable solutions in terms of applicability and cost implications, and develop real business cases.
(b) Think of future market uptake and what happens after project ends: the project as an enabler and not an end to itself.
(c) Clearly define scope, inputs and deliverables of project at inception. Develop implementation strategy / plan (a mandatory critical factor), identifying targeted users for dissemination of results.
(d) Clarify ownership of project results and deliverables at inception.
(e) Select committed partners really interested in finding and applying viable solutions.
(f) Anticipate and identify possible problems / barriers to implementation to avoid split of interest and weak market uptake, taking account of implications for strategic interests of key players to avoid strategic, commercial, technological and operational constraints (e.g. not to devise technical solutions that incur extra costs to another party, without involving them).
(g) Set up a steering group of experts / stakeholders familiar with exploitation of results once the project has ended.
(h) Plan for knowledge retention and dissemination at inception.
(i) Establish clear communication channels and define frequency of exchange.
(j) Conduct a regular review on post-project progress (possibly electing a project responsible / promoter).

Dissemination and the way forward:

(a) Following the successful workshop of 2010 and others, WP6 has organised a final event on 15 May 2012 in Brussels in order to disseminate the final project results. During this meeting the lessons learnt gained from project evaluations to all rail stakeholders were disseminated.
(b) A 'Checklist for successful projects' was developed in 2011.
(c) WP6 has also taken up contacts with national ministries in order to investigate whether initiatives have also been launched for funding programmes. Contacts have been taken up with other relevant European technology platforms (ETPs) (ERTRAC and WATERBORNE).
(d) The results achieved by WP6 have been presented and had a significant impact on different occasions.
(e) The usual activities of the EWG will be continued also after the end of the ERRAC ROAD MAP project (as they were before) and results achieved so far will be preserved and developed further.
(f) The projects database and evaluations will be maintained also after the end of the project and should be made more visible to improve the impact of WP6 work on EC's, research organisations' and stakeholders' activities.
(g) Although the impact of ERRAC evaluations was significant for organisations preparing new projects, and the influence thereof already visible in the newly submitted proposals (the market uptake really became a high priority), future efforts should focus to improve the involvement of stakeholders to provide feedback and support the implementation of valuable project outcomes.

Research innovation database

Initially it was the intension to set up and use a research database within the UIC - the International Union of Railways - one of the project partners - to store all the results from the WP6 activities. However, it proved that the organisation was not yet ready for that at that moment. Therefore the project set up its own project database as well as shared the results of the project evaluations with the TRKC, the TRKC of the EC, which recently became TRIP.

The rail research institute of the University of Newcastle - NewRail - the responsible partner within the project for setting up the ERRAC ROAD MAP database therefore shifted its focus somewhat toward evaluating larger numbers of Rail projects. In the meantime also the development at the UIC concerning the rail research data base took off - outside and independently of the ERRAC ROAD MAP project and budgets - and is this now fully operational and all the evaluated projects are part of that database. The ERRAC EWG has used the evaluation method developed to finally evaluate around 70 projects from a total of listed 160 projects. Considering the impact of the previous evaluations carried out, the project partner UNEW is constantly developing further its methodology and activities, in order to support the strengthening of the effectiveness of research and innovation capacities. They are also involved as partner and coordinator of the HERMES EC funded projects transport research database, building on one of their earlier EC projects TRANSLO and TRANSNEW.

Project results:

This section includes only the second of the two overviews of dissemination activities related to the project.

- A1: List of all scientific (peer reviewed) publications relating to the foreground of the project.
NB: There have not been any scientific (peer reviewed) publications as ERRAC ROAD MAP is not a scientific research project which has not led to new foreground, intellectual property rights (IPR) or such.

- A2: List of all dissemination activities (publications, conferences, workshops, websites / applications, press releases, flyers, articles published in the popular press, videos, media briefings, presentations, exhibitions, thesis, interviews, films, television clips, posters).

Potential impact:

Report on societal implications

Replies to the following questions will assist the Commission to obtain statistics and indicators on societal and socio-economic issues addressed by projects. The questions are arranged in a number of key themes. As well as producing certain statistics, the replies will also help identify those projects that have shown a real engagement with wider societal issues, and thereby identify interesting approaches to these issues and best practices. The replies for individual projects will not be made public.

List of websites: http://www.errac.org

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