Skip to main content

New generation, High Energy and power density SuperCAPacitor based energy storage system

Final Report Summary - HESCAP (New generation, High Energy and power density SuperCAPacitor based energy storage system)

Executive summary:

The main objective of this project is to develop a supercapacitor based energy storage system, capable of storing ten times more energy than the reported State of the Art technology, while keeping the high power density, long life cycle and production cost of currently available supercapacitor systems.

This will lead to a large reduction in the overall cost of the stored kW-h, and as a consequence, a cost-effective improvement of the reliability, efficiency, security and environmental impact of the energy networks, either for stationary or dual-use applications.

The main impact of the energy storage system (ESS), developed in the HESCAP project will be a drastic reduction of the volume and weight for a given energy rate, together with a reduction of the cost of the stored kW-h, in the five applications selected that require short-term power delivery and high duty cycle (between brackets the Industrial Advisory Panel member that is interested in each application):
- SMART GRID application
- Voltage stabilization support (Unbalance control and Harmonics compensation) to the electric smart grids. (IAP: IBERDROLA S.A.)
- Reduction of the variability of photovoltaic (PV) systems and small scale wind turbines in distributed generation systems and micro-grids. (IAP: IBERDROLA S.A ELYTT)
- Uninterrupted power for critical substation loads. (IAP: , ELYTT, TRAINELEC)
- Railway energy networks, for both stationary (voltage stabilization) and on-board (autonomous traction) power systems. (IAP: TRAINELEC, ELYTT, HILTech)
- Hybrid and full-electric vehicles and their charging networks. (IAP: HILTech, JEMA)
- Safety devices in aviation (IAP: not available yet)

Project Context and Objectives:

WP1: Coordination and Management
All the tasks for the period from 1st April 2010 to 31st March 2012 were completed as planned. During the first review meeting some information updates were requested by the EC related with WP4 and WP6. Related with the second period of the project (from 1st April 2011 to 30th September 2012) two different technical solutions were presented during the second review meeting in order to overcome the overall technical objectives of the project.

Finally iIn December 2012 the steering committee of the HESCAP project has decided to ask the European Commission to terminate the project the 1st of January 2013 due to it is not possible to achieve at the same time and with the same product all the technical objectives fixed in the Description of Work.

WP2: Design and manufacturing of supercapacitor cells
Three types of materials were evaluated as electrode components: silica coating on carbon-based substrates, metal oxides and activated carbons. All of them were tested with different electroytes aiming at finding the best marriages between electrodes and electrolytes, according to the textural properties of the electrodes and the sizes of the ions in the electrolytes. Best results were found in the case of activated carbons in contact with aqueous gels and with ionic liquids. Particularly promising were the results obtained with some Carbide Derived Carbons (CDC) developed by Skeleton Technologies. For this purpose series of micro- and micro/mesoprous carbide-derived carbon (CDC) materials were synthesised and tested electrochemically. Additionally, the effect of physical activation to the pore size distribution and double-layer capacitance of microporous CDC was investigated. The samples with highest energy density were used to design and optimise the structure of supercapacitor cells for HESCAP prototype.

The best cell configuration was obtained using two CDC electrodes with balanced mass loading and an electrolyte made of a 50% mixture of an Ionic Liquid (PYR14TFSI) and an organic solvent (Acentonitrile). Results showed that 100% of the HESCAP power density objective was reached at 65% of the energy density objective (P = 3 kW/kg at E = 26 Wh/kg) or, in the opposite way, 100% of the HESCAP energy density objective was reached at 17% of the power density objective (E = 40 Wh/kg at P = 0.5 kW/kg).

WP3: Sensing technologies
1- Preliminary gas sensor specifications were defined (Task 3.1 deliverable D2): The target gases to detect were defined to be carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Gas sensor specifications were reported in deliverable D2 and updated in deliverable D6. According to the results on gas emission analysis and the suggestion of reviewers, the detection of carbon monoxide was added. Gas sensor will be developed by coating a gas sensitive chemical layer one kind of transducer. According to the gas concentration to detect (typically from 200 to 500 ppm), the quartz crystal microbalances (QCM) have been chosen. Bibliographic studies on chemical coatings sensitive to CO2, H2, CO on commercial CO2, H2 and CO gas sensors were also done.
2- Sensors testing (Task 3.3): in order to perform gas testing, modifications were done on LETI's gas test bench: dedicated carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen line were added and the software was modified. A Gas testing was performed on few CO2, H2 and CO commercial sensors, using LETI's gas test bench. Evaluation of gas sensors performances was done by measuring the gas sensor response for a defined range of concentrations. For each gas, one commercial sensor can be including in the HESCAP prototype.
3- A QCM apparatus (Quartz Crystal Microbalance) was set-up to test chemical coatings under gas flow. Screening of chemical coatings was completed; a large scale of layer was deposited on QCM among: Polymers: polyaniline, polyvinypyrrolidone, poly(4-vinylphenol), Ionic liquids: [C8MIM][NTf2], [C6MIM][NTf2], [C4MIM][PF6], [N4441][NTf2], Organic molecules : phthalocyanine and porphyrins, Silanes: APTES, FDTS, HMDS, EHTES, PFO-U-TMS, Pyralene, Hybrid organic-inorganic materials: SiOCH, Porous silica, Porous silia functionalized
Those different coatings were tested under CO2, CO and H2 flow. Several layers have been identified to be very sensitive to CO2 and H2, even at low concentrations, but unfortunately no layer was sensitive enough to CO. (Task 3.2).

For each gas, in a first time maximum 2-3 layers have been selected and tested with different thicknesses and concentrations. In a second time, gas tests were performed under a low ranges of concentrations (100-500 ppm for H2 and 300-1200 ppm for CO2) in order to confirm our choice. The coating robustness was then evaluated: stability, reproducibility, selectivity (gas mixtures) for each selected layer.

WP4: Assembling the stack. Testing procedures
As the results of APCT performed investigations have been:
1. Analysis of the results of materials and technologies testing for the stack manufacture (from IMDEA and APCT) was carried out.
2. A comparison of two stack production technologies (from IMDEA + ST and APCT) and their correspondence with the essential requirements to HESCAP technology was carried out.
3. The most probable causes of the difficulties in stack making were identified and possible solutions have been proposed.
4. ACFM technology is proposed to use for the stack manufacture in HESCAP project.
5. Optimization of the stack based on ACFM technology was carried out.
6. Identified key issues for further stack optimization and the conditions necessary for this.

WP5: Integration and testing supercapacitor devices
A search for simulation software has been done, particularly for power electronics, mechanical and thermal analysis. CEIT will use mainly PSIM for power electronic simulations, Creo Parametric (ProEngineer) for mechanical analysis and SolidWorks or ANSYS Fluent for thermal issues. However, MATLAB (and SIMULINK) is used as a base for any mathematical analysis. Based on the preliminary data from the HESCAP cells, an ESS model was developed in SIMULINK. It shows the advantages and disadvantages of each technology tested in HESCAP.

A prototype of the DC/DC converted that is needed in order to adequate the supercapacitor array output voltage to the application requirements have been developed. This DC/DC converter is able to work in a wide range of voltages and can work with commutation frequencies up to 100 kHz. In the same line, one high current active voltage equalization system has been developed, build and test by using commercial supercapacitor stacks. This system is based on a modified buck-boost topology.

WP6: Ecodesign towards a green ESS
The WP6 involves the environmental analysis of the project which will lead to the ecodesign of the final output, which is the supercapacitor module.

Report D2_WP6 (m6): HESCAP Specifications - Specifications of the HESCAP eco-design requirements (Task 6.1) which involves the specifications of the HESCAP eco-design requirements, was delivered on time. The Environmental Performance and Ecodesign Parameters that have to be followed were laid out. Also the four ecodesign strategies were analyzed.

Report D6_WP6 (m14): HESCAP materials selection - Selection of materials for the HESCAP subsystems (Task 6.1) which deals with the material selection for the HESCAP subsystems has been completed. The subsystems of HESCAP have been analyzed and all the various parts involved have been laid out.

Report D9_WP6 (m18): HESCAP system simulation. Life Cycle Inventory Study -Life Cycle inventory study of the HESCAP subsystem (Task 6.2) is completed. It is based on the Deliverable D6_WP6, a Life Cycle Inventory of all the parts and materials of all the subsystems of HESCAP will be put together

Report D13 (m24): Life Cycle Assessment of the HESCAP subsystems (Task 6.2) has been completed. A complete and accurate identification and quantification of air emissions, water effluents, and other life-cycle outputs is performed for the build-up of life cycle databases.

Report D14 (m28): Selection of materials for the HESCAP system (Task 6.2) is completed with main objective to evaluate the findings of all previous reports, and mainly those of D13_WP6, in order to re-suggest on a new basis the most suitable materials for the needs of putting together a new super-capacitor. A comparative analysis takes place on a component basis and the results have been supported by relevant tables and figures.

Report D18 (m33) (Task 6.2) Environmental Impact of the production processes of the HESCAP system, has been completed. Based on the Life Cycle Assessment, the Material use, the Energy use and the Waste production, in the production of all the units are analyzed. Their environmental Impact is performed and the report includes all the indicative diagrams of the different impacts of the whole production process

Report D20_WP6 (m36): End-of-Life management of the HESCAP system, has been completed. The end of management practices for HESCAP system were investigated and analyzed according the usage, the technological capabilities and the nature of the product itself.

WP7: Results exploitation and dissemination
Dissemination activities have been carried out according to the planning. In the first year of the project the emphasis was made on creating a dedicated webpage for the project and on publishing news and press releases, and giving interviews in general public newsletters, magazines, websites and media to promote awareness about the project. From the second year of project, the focus was placed on making presentations in national or international meetings and publishing articles in specialized research journals. As a result of this effort, 3 papers have been published in peer reviewed journals, 9 oral and poster presentations in scientific conferences have been made, and 2 general presentations about the project have been given.

An initial preliminary Market survey was made along the first six months of the project. It includes an assessment of 5 potential applications for HESCAP supercapacitors in 3 different sectors. Later, a specific technology survey was initiated on commercial sensors for monitoring gas emission on supercapacitors and batteries.

Project Results:

2 DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN S&T RESULTS/FOREGROUNDS
2.1 WP2: Design and manufacturing of supercapacitor cells
Objectives

To obtain a new electrochemical capacitor cell with improved specific energy storage capabilities. The most promising cell configurations will be selected, paying attention to their performance, reliability, safety, and cost characteristics. To obtain stacks made of such capacitors. For the selected cell configuration various types of stacks will be prepared and tested. Their performance, reliability, safety and manufacturing cost will be assessed. To supply the necessary stacks to WP6 for building up a module and integrate it in the energy storage system.

Task 2.1: Design criteria and cell specifications. (Months 1-6 (April-September2010))
Progress towards objectives
Preliminary design criteria and cell specifications were delivered according to the planning as part of deliverable D2. The information was not definitive since by the time the report was delivered, there were still many uncertainties regarding the electrode and electrolyte materials to be used. For this reason, the design criteria and specifications were made based on the technology available among partners involved in this Work Package, namely APCT, Skeleton and IMDEA. The document was reviewed and updated when an advanced definition of materials and components was made in February 2012 with the progress of tasks T2.2 and T2.3.

Significant achievements
Materials for electrodes, electrolytes and separators were listed. Two main options were described: (A) Activated carbon electrodes with an aqueous electrolyte in the shape of a gel, and (B) Activated carbon electrodes with an ionic liquid as electrolyte. Current ratings and performance of the reported State of the Art technology were contrasted and a guide of the existing International Standards was included in order to know the different tests methods to be performed for a concrete application.

Task 2.2: Synthesis and characterizations of materials. (Months 3-18 (June 2010- Sep 2011))
Progress towards objectives
In the first period of the project ST performed a series of synthesis experiments with 18 different types of carbides at wide synthesis temperature range to define the range of suitable CDC carbons for HESCAP cells. Later on, the research and development of CDC materials was mainly targeted to improving the effective surface area of carbon materials by means of a physical activation process of 6 types of CDCs, performed with water vapour at 900°C for different times. Results clearly show that the initial pore size distribution of nanoporous carbon has noticeable influence on the depth of physical activation. After synthesizing and testing silica and metal oxide nanoparticles with rather poor results, IMDEA focused its efforts in activated carbons. Up to 4 types of CDC samples from ST, 2 types of activated carbons provided by APCT, and 3 types of commercial activated carbons from other suppliers were characterized and tested aiming at looking for physicochemical properties that could be adjusted to the electrolytes investigated in task 2.3. Textural properties have been measured together with Thermo-gravimetric Analysis coupled to Mass Spectrometry.

Significant achievements
The concept of effective specific surface that takes into account the specific surface provided by pores bigger than the average diameter of the ions in the electrolyte is a parameter that correlates with the electrode performance better than the total specific surface. Also, the presence of functional groups has strong influence in the behaviour up to the point that it can alter the expected behaviour based on the effective specific surface analysis. Carbons such as PICA, YECA, CDC3 and CDC4 show characteristics that make them good candidates for HESCAP supercapacitors. In addition to this, it has been demonstrated that physical post-treatment of CDC materials promotes a noticeable increase of specific surface and it also reduces the Vp less than 1nm / Vp greater than 1nm ratio. This means that physically post-activated materials have a porous structure more open and should facilitate mass transport of ions through their pores. These are, in principle, very good characteristics for supercapacitor electrode materials.

Task 2.3: Research on cell components.(Months 4-21 (July 2010- Dec 2011))
Progress towards objectives
At the end of the first Reporting Period, results got by IMDEA with SiO2 coated EDLCs in aqueous and organic electrolytes and Pseudocapacitors in aqueous, were far from the HESCAP objectives of energy and power densities. In consequence, new strategies were designed that gave to a remarkable improvement of performances, but still some strong weaknesses were detected: (A) Ionic liquids show a high resistivity at room temperature, and (B) Jellified aqueous electrolytes did not show good stability when the operating voltage was increased over 1.5 volts. So additional work was carried out with the best alternatives, oriented towards reducing the resistivity of the EDLC by mixing ionic liquids and organic solvents, and increasing its cycle life by using asymmetric electrodes with tailored mass loadings. The best cell configuration obtained at IMDEA was made of two CDC electrodes with balanced mass loading and an electrolyte made of a 1:1 mixture of an Ionic Liquid and an organic solvent (Acentonitrile).

Significant achievements
The combination of electrodes with CDC4 and an electrolyte made of mixtures of Ionic Liquid and conventional organic showed that 100% of the HESCAP power density (Ps) objective was reached at 65% of the energy density (Es) objective (Ps = 3 kW/kg at Es = 26 Wh/kg). In the opposite way, 100% of the HESCAP energy density objective was reached at 17% of the power density objective (Es = 40 Wh/kg at Ps = 0.5 kW/kg). Regarding cycle life, after 7000 cycles at 3.0 V, the retention of energy density in the asymmetric configuration was 80% while in the symmetric it was just 50%. In terms of power, the retention of the asymmetric configuration was 95% while it was 80% in the symmetric case. Absolute values of the asymmetric cell after 7000 cycles were Es = 20 Wh/kg at Ps = 0.8 kW/kg.

Task 2.4: Research on cells.(Months 7-21 (October 2010- December 2011))
Progress towards objectives
Skeleton. Test cells with robust aluminum casing were built at ST by using pressure contact as planned for stacks of HESCAP prototypes. In the cells, the following components were varied: (a) Carbon materials (b) Asymmetric electrode pairs (c) Different electrolytes and (d) Different working voltages. Four different carbons were used: (1) Coconut shell based carbon, (2) microporous - CDC1, (3) nanoporous - CDC5, and (4) microporus carbon with reduced pore resistance - CDC3. The electrolytes were: (1) PYR14TFSI, (2) PYR14TFSI in mixture with ACN (1:1 by volume) and (3) pure ACN with Spiro salt.

APCT-Ukraine. The target of this investigation was searching of electrolytes which meet several requirements namely high values of specific energy and power combining with a low price and safety for customers and environment during all cycles of production, exploitation and recycling of SC. The reference for the investigation was a SC cell based on carbon forms with perfect structure working with a 3M aqueous solution of KOH. The main parameters of this cell were: max. voltage = 1.15–1.25 V; max. energy = 25–28 J; max. power = 6–8 W. Aqueous solutions based on nitrates of Li, Na, K as well as gels were chosen as the subject for investigation. The results obtained for LiNO3 showed a rise of all parameters, particularly of maximum power. The results obtained for NaNO3 showed a rise in the working voltage and maximum power, while maximum energy was similar to the reference.

Significant achievements
Skeleton. Testing results of test cells reveals that HESCAP objective in terms of power density is achievable by using CDC carbon with non-aqueous electrolyte. The target of energy density would be nearly achievable by using nanoporous CDC carbon and supercapacitor metal casing.

APCT-Ukraine. The investigations performed by APCT allowed obtaining some progress from two points of view: to increase the SC technical characteristics and to improve ecological safety without loss in a prime cost. The following technical advantages were identified:
(1) The cell working voltage was increased from 1.2 up to 1.5 V,
(2) The cell maximal power was increased from 6-8 up to 20-28 W, and
(3) Self-discharging current of the SC cell was lowered by 3-5 times.

The following ecological advantages were found:
(1) Aqueous solutions of LiNO3 and NaNO3 salts allow obtaining the gels suitable for the use in SC that improves their safety use,
(2) Application of NaNO3 as an electrolyte decreases hazard class of the compounds used in the SC production,
(3) Electrolytes based on NaNO3 might be considered for their possible recycling as fertilizers.

Task 2.5: Manufacturing of cells.(Months 16-24 (July 2011- March 2012))
Progress towards objectives
Skeleton. Despite soft pouch cells would be certainly better for gravimetric performance, they are not applicable because of safety issues. Very ambitious targets of the project regarding energy and power densities need careful optimization of cell parameters. So far the electrical connections and possible configurations of prismatic aluminum cells for supercapacitor module of HESCAP prototype have been researched. The modeling was made by using real supercapacitor cells of ST, which have current terminals similar to those proposed for HESCAP. However, they differ from the HESCAP cells by the size and composition of electrode materials and electrolyte.

APCT-Ukraine. Based on the SC cell construction grounded on the carbon forms with perfect structure and electrolytes as well as research results from APCT in Task 2.4 the hermetically sealed SC test-samples were designed and manufactured.

Significant achievements
Skeleton. The prismatic capacitor design that is considered for stack of HESCAP prototype is based on the developments of Skeleton Technologies. So far the electrical connections and possible configurations of prismatic aluminum cells for supercapacitor module of HESCAP prototype have been researched. The modeling was made by using real supercapacitor cells of Skeleton Technologies, which have current terminals similar to those proposed for HESCAP cells. However, they differ from the proposed HESCAP cells by the size and composition of electrochemical system (materials and electrolyte).

APCT-Ukraine. The hermetically sealed SC test-samples with electrode size of 50 x 50 mm were manufactured on the basis of carbon forms with perfect structure. The size of electrodes of the samples meets the requirements of the HESCAP project. In the hermetically sealed SC test-samples were used the LiNO3 aqueous solution gel as electrolyte that essentially improves their environmental properties. The SC test-samples created can be transported by all transport types and consequently their independent testing in any place.

2.2 WP3: Sensing technologies
Objectives:
To design the low cost sensors suitable for specifically monitoring the high energy supercapacitor cells and stacks developed in WP2.
To develop a generic gas sensors platform in order to detect several gasses in the supercapacitor which can be produce in the electrolytic cell (safety issues)
To select and test the current, voltage, temperature sensors in order to achieved the optimum and safety performance of the supercapacitor module.

Task 3.1: Specifications and state of the art on target sensors and chemistry. (Months 1-14 (April 2010- May 2011))
Progress towards objectives
This task deals with the definition of gas sensor specifications:
Specifications on the nature of electrolytes were provided by IMDEA and APCT. Aqueous and organic (acetonitrile based and propylene carbonate) electrolytes are intended to be used. A bibliographic study was done in order to define the emitted gases produced under degraded mode by decomposition of these different electrolytes.

This study allowed defining gas composition atmospheres in standard and in degraded mode, according to voltage range. After that, gas emission analyses were performed on supercapacitors stacks prototypes provided by APCT. Both samples were identical supercapacitor in acetonitrile-based electrolytes. One of these stacks was prepared and cycled under standard conditions while the other one was first aged under standard conditions and then kept to simulate degraded conditions.

Significant achievements
Report D2 and D6 on "specifications and state of the art on target sensors and chemistry" was delivered in September 2010.

Three target gases were selected to develop gas sensors: hydrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide

The update on the nature of the transducer: one mass transducer was chosen according to the supposed gas concentration to detected (QCM).

The bibliographic study was completed on chemical coating sensitive to CO2, CO and H2 and also on commercial gas sensors.

We've been waiting for several months that the batteries that APCT must deliver us.

Task 3.2: Chemical functionalization of commercial transducers.(Months 4-18 (July 2010- September 2011))
Progress towards objectives
This task deals with the functionalization of commercial transducers with various chemical coatings, in order to test their affinity with carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

Three ways of functionalization were used to coat QCM devices with chemical species: drop-coating, spin-coating and Chemical vapour deposition (CVD)

With these methods, deposited thickness ranged between few and several hundred nm.

By setting-up those three deposition procedures, a large variety of chemical compounds have been deposited on QCM devices: organic polymers, Ionic liquids, organic molecules, silanes, parylene, hybrid organic-inorganic materials, porous silica.

Significant achievements
A large panel of materials has been deposited on QCM devices.
All these materials have been characterised : thickness, porosity and morphology

Report D8 was written.
A QCM apparatus was set-up for screening sensitive chemical coatings, in order to develop such gas sensors.

Task 3.3: Sensors testing and characterization (on gas bench) (Months 8-32 (November 2010- November 2012))
Progress towards objectives
GAS TEST BENCH: In order to test the sensitivity of chemical coated QCM devices under carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, dedicated carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen lines, respectively, were added to LETI's gas test bench.

COMMERCIAL GAS SENSORS: Gas testing was performed on few CO2, H2 and CO commercial gas sensors, using LETI's gas test bench. Each commercial gas sensor was set-up in a closed-chamber, in which various concentrations of target gases were inserted. Evaluation of gas sensors performances was done by measuring the gas sensor response for a defined range of concentrations.

CHEMICAL LAYERS developed by CEA-LETI
Carbon monoxide:
Chemical layers sensitive to carbon monoxide: no chemical layer shows an affinity to carbon monoxide. For safety reasons, the concentration of the pressurised gas cylinder is equal to 50 ppm which is very low to develop a gas sensor prototype.

Hydrogen:
Few chemical layers show a significant affinity to hydrogen and may be used to coat QCM devices in order to develop H2 gravimetric gas sensors : PVP for example.

Carbon dioxide:
Some chemical layers show a significant affinity to carbon dioxide and may be used to coat QCM devices in order to develop CO2 gravimetric gas sensors:silanes PFO-U-TMS for example

Significant achievements
A methodology was set-up, including modification of LETI gas test bench and set-up of a QCM apparatus for screening sensitive chemical coatings, in order to develop such gas sensors.

Gas testing of commercially available gas sensors was realised, sensors that could be integrated into HESCAP prototype were identified. One commercial sensor has been chosen for the detection of CO (alphasense). This last one will be used in HESCAP prototype.

Task 3.4: Physical sensors selection and testing.(Months 19-32 (October 2011- November 2012))
Progress towards objectives
The physical sensor should be selected when the stacks will be well defined. Until then, the preliminary selected voltage and current sensors series are LV25 and HASXXX from LEM technologies

Significant achievements
Preliminary test have been started with the current and voltage sensors oriented to the equalization voltage systems.
*Please fill in the below questions taking into account all the task of the WP

2.3 WP4: Assembling the stack. Testing procedures
To assemble the stacks using the materials and technologies developed under WP2
To test the stacks using the correct methodology and to compare test results with other technologies available on the market
To apply test results for the cases study in order to find the market applications for the HESCAP system
To develop the optimal stack design and basic module concept for WP5
To address cost optimization and manufacturability issues during the stack design development
Task 4.1: Developing testing methodology.(Months 4-12 (July 2010- March 2011))
Progress towards objectives
A very simplified methodology for cross-checking characterization of cells and stacks using simple galvanostatic charge-discharge tests and complex impedance measurements, both at controlled temperatures.

APCT has developed methodology for assembling the supercapacitor stacks and optimized technological process so that to maintain similar characteristics of the stacks when being connected in series. In order to carry out the corresponding tests and develop testing methodologies, a series of supercapacitor cells and stacks have been assembled.

On the basis of International Standard IEC 62576 (Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles – Test methods for electric characteristics. Edition 1.0 2009-08) and FreedomCAR Ultracapacitor Test Manual (DOE/NE-ID-11173, 2004) APCT has defined Testing Methodologies best fitting to the specified needs and objectives, which will be used throughout the Project. The following parameters will be measured for characterization of the designed stacks: Capacitance, internal resistance, maximum current, maximum energy stored, maximum power, leakage current, self discharge, Life time, Cycling life, Safety Test. In the last category safety testing methodology have been elaborated following recommendations from the international standards manuals (USABC Abuse Test Procedure Manual).

Finally Cycle-life tests have been conducted in order to determine the supercapacitor device performance degradation over certain number of charging/discharging cycles. The experiments have been intentionally conducted at the increased voltage 3,5 – 1,75 V (compared to the rated voltage of 2,7 V). The current was 40 A.

Significant achievements
Overall, significant achievements by APCT over the period under report can be summarized as follows:
Optimized specifications for the stack components and optimized stack design have been developed.

Standard testing methodologies have been formulated.

Excel-based program "Parameter estimation" for evaluating specific parameters of the stacks has been developed. This program will be used throughout the Project for the material selection and data treatment.

Task 4.2: Assembling the stacks.(Months 13-32 (April 2011- November 2012))
Progress towards objectives
For the design of the original stack a single electrode was chosen with a size of 50x150 mm. This will allow to implement a current of 9.75 A from one electrode at a density of 130 mA/cm 2. It allows to realize a peak current of 100 A by using 11 electrodes. Based on the test results for the first stacks capacitance, maximum voltage and internal resistance was planned to optimize the size of the base electrode. Related with the stack appearance was decided to designing of high-impact polystyrene case. This case material combines: mechanical strength, compatibility with all water-based electrolytes for stack, ease of manufacturing handmade stacks with arbitrary form and size,easy seal in. Due to the freedom capability about the selection of the stack output electrodes (terminals), APCT decided to use the material SSM304, recommended by IMDEA (4.2.). Input control of materials made ARST and showed satisfactory mechanical and electrical properties of the material SSM304 for it. Nickel rolled products was used for manufacturing of stack output electrodes (terminals) also.

Chemicals and Materials for assembling of stacks was selected during WP2 by IMDEA and supplemented by APCT. In April 2012 APCT was ready to manufacturing near 30 stacks per month with a total energy of 30 W-h at condition given necessary materials.

Four different electrolyte compositions were prepared for these test stacks:
CMC – proportion 1g of CMC+14ml of Water + 5% NaNO3 salt with respect to CMC content
NaNO3 gel
KOH gel
PYR14TESI electrolyte

As one other option for HESCAP prototype, ST investigated the supercapacitor cells and stacks based on the hard aluminium casing. The semi-wound electrode assemblies were used for designing of stacks of HESCAP prototype.

Significant achievements
1. The initial dimensions for the electrode stack were selected. The chosen size of the electrode must provide requirements to peak current prototype of the HESCAP module.
2. High-impact polystyrene case for testing the stack with electrodes 50x150 mm was designed.
3. Laboratory technological process of electrode making (from IMDEA and APCT) is adapted to fabrication of 50x150 mm electrode.
4. Water-based electrolytes (CMC, NaNO3 gel, KOH gel) and ionic liquid (PYR14TESI) was prepared and adapted for use in the stack;
5. 41 stacks with different configurations were produced on basis of four electrolytes.
6. 17 stacks (on basis of 4 electrolytes) were sent for testing in IMDEA facilities
7. Theoretical modelling carried out by ST for prismatic aluminium cells predicts that the HESCAP targets are achievable with nanoporous asymmetrically configured carbon electrodes and with the spiro-type electrolyte (it has smaller cation than other commercially available electrolytes) at increased working voltage.

Task 4.3: Testing the stacks. (Months 13-32 (April 2011- November 2012))
Progress towards objectives
Electrochemical characterization of 3 full size cell samples manufactured by APCT for cross checking with their own results was carried out by IMDEA.

Simple and fast test procedure was defined by IMDEA (Task 4.1). At the measurements performed in APCT for the stacks with different configuration, this procedure had the next features:
Peak operating voltage is determined at constant charge current 0.5 mA/cm2 for gel electrolyte and 0.8 mA/cm2 for Ionic liquid. The total duration of one measurement is from 2.5 to 3.0 hours.
Capacitance is determined at constant current discharge: from 0.6 V to 0.5 V for gel electrolyte and from 1.8 V to 1.5 V for Ionic liquid. Series of measurements for each stack was carried out at different amperage (1.3; 2.6; 5.0; 10.0; 20.0; 50.0 mA/cm2. Total duration of one series measurement is from 6 to 7 hours.
Internal resistance is determined at switching on/off at electrical load with resistance 1, 10 or 100 O.

Based on results of WP2 the ultracapacitor cells of approximately 25F developed in Task T4.2 as one alternative to the APCT proposed technology were assembled and tested by ST in wide temperature and current ranges.
Significant achievements

As the results of APCT investigations the following achievements have been obtained:
1. The stacks on both activated carbon powders from different sources and on carbon forms with perfect structure. The size of electrodes of these samples meets the requirements of the HESCAP project.
2. The stacks with the use of the aqueous solutions of alkali, salts, gels and Ionic liquid PYR14TESI;
3. Working voltage of the stacks depends on the electrolyte nature and is in the range from 1.2 to 3.0 V;
4. The stacks electrical capacity depends on the nature of activated carbon, content and concentration of electrolyte and is in the range from 13 to 630 F.

Task 4.4: Final Optimization of the stacks. (Months 25-32 (April 2012- November 2012))
Progress towards objectives
One analysis in order to detect problems in the integration of new materials proposed by IMDEA, ST and APCT in the manufacturing process of stacks have been done. In this line, different materials have been analysed in order to find their advantages and disadvantages like for example: stainless steel mess for the preparation of current collectors. In this particular case for example this study demonstrated that it will be necessary to find other materials for SC with aqueous electrolyte like for example nickel grids obtained by galvanic deposition. In this line other subsystems have been studied: separators, powder of activated carbons, etc.

Speaking about the preparation method, in order to obtain reproducible results for the mass deposited material the deposition of the AU on the collector has been proposed.

Significant achievements
As the results of APCT performed investigations have been:
1. Analysis of the results of materials and technologies testing for the stack manufacture (from IMDEA and APCT) was carried out.
2. A comparison of two stack production technologies (from IMDEA + ST and APCT) and their correspondence with the essential requirements to HESCAP technology was carried out.
3. The most probable causes of the difficulties in stack making were identified and possible solutions have been proposed.
4. ACFM technology is proposed to use for the stack manufacture in HESCAP project.
5. Optimization of the stack based on ACFM technology was carried out.
6. Identified key issues for further stack optimization and the conditions necessary for this
Finally one Ultracapacitor stack for HESCAP prototype has been designed based on the results of electrochemical evaluation of test cells under WP 2 (IMDEA + ST). Energy storage component for HESCAP prototype was proposed which parameters almost reach the targets of the project

2.4 WP5: Integration and testing supercapacitor devices
To design and develop the energy storage system prototype.
To develop connectivity and integration strategies to configure modular Energy Storage Systems, attending to end-user specifications from IAP members.
To develop a supercapacitor module through the integration of the different subsystems and its energy management unit will be implemented.
To integrate and test the HESCAP energy storage system.
Task 5.1: End-user specifications and ESS system modeling.(Months 1-18 (April 2010- September 2011))

Progress towards objectives

In the following the progress towards objectives in this task are summarised:
A first pre-configuration of the HESCAP module has been defined in collaboration with the companies that form part of the IAP group. This pre-configuration fix the maximum and minimum values of some physical properties like the output voltage, the available energy that shall be stored and the power capability of the module.
All the sub-modules that shall be designed in order to overcome the objectives of the HESCAP project have been defined. Each sub-module have been studied in a preliminary stage. This sub-modules are:
Communications and Control Unit

Energy Management Unit

DC/DC converter
Voltage Balancing System
A simulation model has been designed in order to study different configurations of serial and parallel stacks in order to prepare a tool able to be used in the design of the HESCAP module. This simulation tool has been programmed in "Matlab/Simulink" and some possible topologies for the HESCAP module have been defined by using the information about the cells and the stacks obtained from WP2 and WP4.

Significant achievements
One pre-configuration of the HESCAP module has been defined taking into account all the subsystems that will be integrated: SC stacks, energy management unit, Voltage Balancing System, etc.
The simulation software able to be used in order to study different physical configurations of SC stacks has been developed.
Task 5.2: Connectivity and integration strategies.(Months 12-18 (March 2011- September 2011))

Progress towards objectives
During the first month of this Task some work about the integration of gas sensors in the HESCAP module has been made in collaboration with CEA-Leti and APCT.

In order to integrate the HESCAP module in real applications, a smart-grid and a transport example have been studied. In the first scenario the objective of the SC module shall be to compensate the harmonic currents generated by non-linear loads and power electronic devices. In the second scenario the simulation model developed in T5.1 has been integrated into the ADVISOR software for Advanced Vehicle Energy Analysis.

Significant achievements
One study of the best oriented software simulation products has been prepared. One ESS based on supercapacitor modules has been developed.
Two different application scenarios have been studied in order to demonstrate that the HESCAP electrical simulation model is able to be integrated into other computational systems.

Task 5.3: Supercapacitor module design.(Months 12-24 (March 2011- March 2012))
Progress towards objectives
In order to study and to prepare a future HESCAP stacks production phase, APCT has calculated the possible configurations of HESCAP module with optimized technology stack for optimal current, power, energy and design. This work, similar to the pre-configuration that was made in T5.1 by CEIT, takes into account more real configuration parameters that APCT has generated as Background during the last years.

Significant achievements
One more realistic configuration of HESCAP module has been developed by APCT taking into account their supercapacitor stacks production experience.

Preliminary designs of the DC/DC power converter and the voltage balancing system were presented in a simulation way.

Task 5.4: ESS energy management. (Months 19-30 (October 2011- September 2012))
Progress towards objectives
This task has been postponed due to the lack that we are experienced in the final definition of the HESCAP stack's figures.

Significant achievements
One supercapacitor ESS based on commercial stacks have been developed in order to test the ESS energy management estrategies developed during the project.
Task 5.5: Prototyping and Testing.(Months 25-42 (April 2012- December 2012))
Progress towards objectives
CEA-LETI:
The gas sensor prototype has been designed to be transportable and can be easily used. The prototype is a sealed-box in which one there are two QCM devices for hydrogen and carbon dioxide and one commercial sensor for CO detection. A microfluidic channel transports the gas mixture on the three components. The prototype is independent and runs on batteries. QCM signal is recorded by a computer which is connected to the prototype by Wi-Fi or via USB.

ST
ST has studied the performance of 25V supercapacitor module comprising prismatic cells, which were considered in WP 2 and WP 4 as one of the options for HESCAP energy storage unit. The module was built of 9 supercapacitors (500F, 2.85V) connected in series and equipped with the active cell voltage balancing system to avoid overvoltage of the individual cells.

CEIT
A testing plan for the several stages of the HESCAP module has been presented: DC/DC converter testing procedure, Voltage balancing circuit testing procedure , voltage balancing circuit attached to the main control testing procedure, DC/DC converter attached to the main control testing procedure, communication unit attached to a computer testing procedure, gas sensor communication and internal stack test.

Significant achievements
A prototype was developed in order to detect CO2, H2 and CO. The software is developed under Labview and manages the data acquisition/transition and the possible post-treatment. This device has been tested in laboratory conditions showing a performance in line with the technical specifications that were fixed during the development stage.

2.5 WP6: Ecodesign towards a green ESS
Table 5. Work Progress and Achievements of Work Package 6 (WP6)
Objectives
To identify optimal materials to be used for the HESCAP system.
To identify real production costs of the HESCAP system.
To calculate the environmental impacts of the HESCAP system.
To examine all alternatives for the end-of-life management of the high energy supercapacitor ESS and identify the optimal.

Task 6.1: Materials selection.(Months 4-14 (July 2010- May 2011))
Progress towards objectives
All objectives of WP6 have been met. The last deliverable D20 which was due the 1st of April has been completed taking into consideration all the material that has been used. Data about materials selected to build cell components have been provided to NTUA by IMDEA according to specification documents.

Significant achievements
A complete environmental analysis of all the materials used has been performed. The comparison of material using the life cycle assessment leads to the most ecological choice of material from the designer for the supercapacitor.

Task 6.2: Production process.(Months 7-33 (October 2011- December 2013))
Progress towards objectives
Requested from NTUA, IMDEA has issued a document describing the mass balance of the main synthetic methods used for metal oxide preparation. The document includes a qualitative and quantitative description of the raw materials, physicochemical treatments, products, and residues generated in each synthetic method. The document issued includes information related to the sol-gel procedures for the synthesis of Base-Hydrolyzed Silica (SiO2), of Bohemite (AlOOH), Manganese Dioxide (MnO2), Titanium Dioxide (TiO2), and Nickel Oxide (NiO). For each case the information provided covers: list and quantities of chemical reagents, description of the experimental procedure, list and quantities of products, list and quantities of residues and/or effluents, and quantities required per electrode or per cell.

Related with the gas sensor development, CEA-LETI determined that gas sensor should be localized inside each sub-module, the final product will be easy to use and will be independent. The prototype is design to be in a sealed-box of reasonable size so that it can be placed and moved anywhere. In addition, this module does not require the use of consumables.

Related with the NTUA this is the description of the work done taken into account deliverables:
Report D6_WP6 (m14): HESCAP materials selection - Selection of materials for the HESCAP subsystems (Task 6.1) which deals with the material selection for the HESCAP subsystems has been completed. The subsystems of HESCAP have been analyzed and all the various parts involved have been laid out.
Report D9_WP6 (m18): HESCAP system simulation. Life Cycle Inventory Study -Life Cycle inventory study of the HESCAP subsystem (Task 6.2) is completed. It is based on the Deliverable D6_WP6, a Life Cycle Inventory of all the parts and materials of all the subsystems of HESCAP will be put together
Report D13 (m24): Life Cycle Assessment of the HESCAP subsystems (Task 6.2) has been completed. A complete and accurate identification and quantification of air emissions, water effluents, and other life-cycle outputs is performed for the build-up of life cycle databases. The emissions analysis is extended to the production of the primary energy carriers. This enables the formation of a complete picture for the life cycle of all the supercapacitors' components described in the study. In order to obtain concrete results from this study, the specific working tools used are the Eco-Indicator '95 and Eco-Indicator '99 as being reliable and have been widely applied within LCA community. A process that relates inventory information with relevant concerns about natural resource usage and potential effects of environmental loadings is attempted. Any product or service needs to be represented as a system in the inventory analysis methodology.
Report D14_WP6 (m28): HESCAP materials selection - Selection of materials for the HESCAP subsystems has been completed.
The environmental profile of capacitors is of crucial importance, especially when considering manufacturing and release of innovative super-capacitors. HESCAP project research team has undertaken the responsibility of implementing life cycle analysis environmental tool in order to satisfy the need of providing an environmentally-sound proposal for this new capacitor.
Hitherto, reports D6, D9 and D13 have been referred to the usable material alternatives for super-capacitor's subsystems manufacturing. For each one of these categories of components, and for the purposes of the current research, the materials that constitute them have been determined by IMDEA ENERGIA and Skeleton Tech.

Significant achievements
A simple design for prototype is realised and can be easily integrated in each sub-module. The cost of production of this module will soon be felt. For example, a request for a purchase price of a lot of QCM (over 100 units) was started.

Task 6.3: End of Life Management.(Months 18-36 (September 2011- March 2013))
Progress towards objectives
Report D20_WP6 (m36): End-of-Life management of the HESCAP system, has been completed. The end of management practices for HESCAP system were investigated and analyzed according the usage, the technological capabilities and the nature of the product itself.

Best management practices dictate that the waste is processed in the most environmentally desirable method. Environmentally desirable method means that none of the waste will be handled in such a way as to contaminate the environment.

The waste management options that can be possibly used:
1.Reuse of some of the HESCAP subsystems.
2. Reuse of components, or disassembled items.
3. Recycling equipment or components for material recovery.
4. Recycling of components for energy recovery.
5. Disposal of material resources via incineration
6. Disposal of material resources via land filling

Significant achievements
An analysis of the end of life management of all the material that are used in the HESCAP.

2.6 WP7: Results exploitation and dissemination
Objectives
This work package will study the result exploitation and business model that are appropriate for the proposed system. It will also coordinate the publications and patents resulting from the project. Additionally, it will study the business possibilities of the different subsystems of the HESCAP system.

Task 7.1: Dissemination. (Months 1-42 (April 2010- September 2013))
Progress towards objectives
According to the planning a Webpage fully dedicated to the HESCAP project was implemented after 3 months of project. Additionally, a project leaflet has been issued in order to promote a wider dissemination of the project objectives, structure and partnership.

Initial dissemination activities were essentially focused on publishing news and press releases, and giving interviews in general public newsletters, magazines, websites and media, particularly at the beginning of the project, to create awareness about the technology in general and the project in particular. Details can be found in sections 3.3.1 and 3.3.2 of this report. Although presentations in national or international meetings were initiated in the first year of the project, but this activity was consolidated mostly in the second year. Details can be found in sections 3.3.2 of this report.

Significant achievements
Dissemination activities have been carried out according to the planning. In the first year of the project the emphasis was made on creating a dedicated webpage for the project and on publishing news and press releases, and giving interviews in general public newsletters, magazines, websites and media to promote awareness about the project. From the second year of project, the focus was placed on making presentations in national or international meetings and publishing articles in specialized research journals. As a result of this effort, 3 papers have been published in peer reviewed journals, 9 oral and poster presentations in scientific conferences have been made, and 2 general presentations about the project have been given.

Task 7.2: Technology and Market survey. (Months 1-42 (April 2010- September 2013))
Progress towards objectives
The work in this task started with an initial market survey that was based on the assessment of 5 potential applications in 3 different sectors: industrial, transportation and consumer electronics. Despite this was not at all a comprehensive assessment, and that the Market size estimations for supercapacitors vary considerably depending on the sources. The applications evaluated in the survey cover 33% of the estimated potential market in 2014-2015. However, it must be highlighted that this figure could be as low as 11% in the pessimistic case or as high as 50% in the optimistic.

The main conclusions are that:
- Koneika as a company that produces and sells very robust supercapacitors based on KOH aqueous solutions is essentially interested in applications that require high-power and extremely long cycle life. Such interest is mostly motivated by the technical limitations of their technology, so if a new technology able to provide higher energy densities would be available new applications would be addressed. Their main restriction is that they would not accept an increase in energy density if they have to pay the price of significant reductions in their power density and cycle life specifications of their products, because in their opinion they are a major competitive advantage against batteries.
- The nickel battery business of SAFT and the lead-acid battery business of EXIDE are mostly driven by prices, because reliability and safety are not a problem. Their potential interest in high energy density HESCAP supercapacitors would depend mostly on providing very competitive costs. Higher investment costs could be acceptable if the cycle life is long enough to reduce replacement costs significantly.
- The lithium-ion business of SAFT is totally different. In this case safety and reliability are big issues while price, although being important, is not so critical. The energy density of these devices is so high compared to supercapacitors that the only possible niche for them will be in the business of power batteries, if their cycle life could be extended far away from the usual values in power batteries.

Task 7.3: Exploitation. (Months 1-42 (April 2010- September 2013))
Progress towards objectives
LETI has developed gas sensors for detection of CO2 and H2 based on functionalized microporous silica. LETI has been also working on detection of gas (CO2 and H2) with functionalized QCM. This process of functionalized microporous silica can be used for detection of CO2 or H2 for healthcare application or environment detection for a large variety of micro sensors.

Significant achievements
During the execution of the project different exploitable results have been identified for CEA-LETI, IMEDA and CEIT. These exploitable results are presented in the IPR Final report that has been included in this report as one Annex.

Potential Impact:
3 POTENTIAL IMPACT AND MAIN DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES AND EXPLOTATION OF RESULTS
3.1 SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPACT
According to most of the market surveys reviewed, the market of supercapacitors is still very limited. However if all the targets of the HESCAP were fulfilled a significant increase in the spectrum of applications would have occurred. Together with this, a major market projection could have been expected. Specific capacity increases and cost reductions in the order of the HESCAP objectives would have made supercapacitors to become an advantageous alternative to some battery technologies such as lead-acid.

3.2 THE WIDER SOCIETAL IMPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
In general, the potential market of supercapacitors is estimated from their application as devices that will be used for storage purposes in small capacity and medium power applications, both stationary and mobile. Stationary applications are mostly oriented to use supercapacitors to compensate transient phenomena in electrical grids. For example, frequency regulation, reactive power compensation and bridging power supply in grids where power quality and reliability is required. Mobile applications are mainly associated to complementary storage systems for kinetic energy recovery, particularly regenerative braking, and for cranking of engines.

3.3 MAIN DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES
This information has been electronically submitted to the WEB repository information.

3.4 EXPLOTATION OF RESULTS
A general strategy for exploitation of these results has been established in three steps:
Identification of the exploitable result
Protection of the IPR associated to the result
Definition of a specific exploitation plan for each result

3.4.1 Identification of the exploitable result
During the last three years five possible exploitable results have been detected. These exploitable results are the following:
Ultracapacitor Stack design features, including quantitative information (size of details, specifications, etc.) Owner party: APCT
One model based on Excel-based program "parameter estimation" able to estimate some parameters like: electrode thickness, single electrode pair thickness, number of electrodes, electrode mass, collector thickness, number of double side collectors, number of one side collectors, etc. It also calculates the estimated mass of all the subsystems that are necessary in order to build one stack: electrode, collector, leads, separator and electrolyte.

Multigas sensor module (H2, CO, CO2) Owner party: CEA_LETI
The multigas sensor module consists of a multi-sensors fluidic chamber mounted with a wireless data acquisition module powered by a 15V battery giving to the device autonomy of 12 hours. The fluidic chamber is designed and optimized to guaranty an efficient fluidic repartition on each sensor to assure the suitable response of sensors: 2 QCM and a CO sensor by AlphaSense. The counter is a 4-channel, bidirectional digital input module NI CompactDAQ wifi chassis. The device has two operating modes: in laboratory mode gas can be pushed into the fluidic chamber, in the outdoor mode, a pump and a flow rate control module has to be added.

High current supercapacitor voltage equalization system. Owner party: CEIT
One high current, low cost supercapacitor voltage equalization system has been developed in order to assure that the module can work with its maximum operative voltage value. This exploitable foreground includes the power electronic hardware oriented to make the energy compensation (microprocessor, low cost buck/boost converter, high frequency coils, analog filters, etc.), the embedded software needed in order to make the primary control of each equalization device and the error control. Finally it includes also the communication channel and protocol that is necessary in order to identify which device is not working properly.

100 kW DC-DC resonant converter (Vin 50V, Vout 420V). Owner party: CEIT
In some applications, depending on the number of supercapacitor stacks, the output voltage of the supercapacitor module can be very low (typically in transport applications). In these situations it is necessary to connect in series one DC/DC converter able to increase the voltage up to the level that is required by the addressed application. When the voltage is very low, it is possible to use as power semiconductor the MOSFET technology. This technology can work with a very high commutation frequency. When the DC/DC converter works at high frequency the power density is very high (lower volume and weight). The addressed exploitable Foreground consists in one DC/DC high frequency modular converter. It includes the specific design methodology developed for this topology, the embedded primary control software and the power electronic hardware of the converter. As an evaluation example one DC/DC converter that uses this technology has been built and tested. (Vin 50V, Vout 420V, 100 kHz, 100 kW).

100 kW DC-DC bidirectional boost converter (Vin 300V, Vout 700V, 15 kHz, 100 kW). Owner party: CEIT
When the volume is not a hard restriction, it is possible to build supercapacitor modules with a high operating output voltage. On the other hand if the nominal voltage of the addressed application is very high (higher than 600 VDC or 400 VAC) it is not possible to use the MOSTEF technology and more traditional IGBT semiconductors shall be used. These semiconductors can't work with commutation frequencies higher than 20 kHz. The addressed exploitable Foreground consists in one DC/DC medium frequency modular converter based on a full bidirectional back/boost converter. It includes the specific design methodology developed for this topology, the embedded primary control software and the power electronic hardware of the converter. As an evaluation example one DC/DC converter that uses this technology has been built and tested. (Vin 300V, Vout 700V, 15 kHz, 100 kW).

Use of mixtures of an Ionic Liquid. Owner party: IMDEA
A new electrolyte made of a blend of an Ionic Liquid (PYR14TFSI) and an organic solvent (Acetonitrile) has been identified as a potentially exploitable result. To make this electrolyte fully useful it is necessary its marriage with activated carbon electrodes pairs, with tailored mass loadings of each electrode.

3.4.2 Protection of the IPR associated to the result
Throughout the project, the IPR Office of the project has identified the foreground generated in the project. Annex A.1 presents the final report of the IPR Office where the ownership of the generated foreground is identified. Annex A.2 summarizes he publications declared as foreground by each partner of the consortium.

3.4.3 Definition of a specific explotation plan for each result
This section presents the explotation intentions and strategy of the HESCAP partners according to the rules established by the IPR the ownership of some exploitable results. The objective is to incentive some actions from partners and launch possible commercial initiatitives.

CEIT is a non-profit research centre whose core mission is to serve the industrial sector by carrying out R&D projects. Therefore, CEIT will exploit the knowledge gathered within HESCAP in the Power Electronics area by means of research and development projects with the local industry. This will ensure that this knowledge is transferred to the industrial sector.

4 USE AND DISSEMINATION FOREGROUND
4.1 SECTION A- PLAN FOR DISSEMINATION
The dissemination plan that was described in the DoW document is summarized in the next Table where four of the five key elements for a dissemination plan are included with the exception of the Messages, which had to be customized for each specific case.

List of Websites:
http://www.hescap.eu/

Related documents