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New European WAtcher

Final Report Summary - NEWA (New European WAtcher)

Executive Summary:
NEWA Project started in 2010 following a proposal submitted at the end of 2008. At those times the European contest was strongly oriented to the individuation of Space contribution to the Security of citizens and all possible methods were investigated. NEWA (New European Watcher) dealt with the implementation of a Moving Target Indication (MTI) System to be used for Maritime and Land applications.
Till 2008 several activities were conducted for the dimensioning of single platforms on which different sensors and techniques were integrated (Naval, Ground, Avionic, etc) but the Space contribution was relegated to "archives" for the detection of changes in Earth and /or Seas conditions.
The active contribution of Space to the improvement of Security by means of cooperative sensors and techniques in Civil environment was investigated by NEWA for the first time. In parallel one other project, SeaBILLA (Sea Border surveILLAnce), was funded by the FP7 in the same call in the Theme "Security". SeaBILLA aimed at integrate a more wider contribution of Space to the European Security of the Border, even if restricted to the Sea case. The demonstrated strong impact on the Space contribution on the Surveillance of the border and more generally on the patrolling of the territories, allows the start of several projects for the development of SW tools in the answer to the Users and Stakeholders needs and requests. One among these tools was a software for the validation of the NEWA results, devoted to the MTI system configuration.
NEWA started from the evaluation of the concrete Civil Community needs and evaluate the on going and planned activities to fulfil such requests both in a European and International frame. The analysis led to the individuation of specific needs that can be satisfied by an MTI System. These operational frameworks were named "Operational Scenarios". For each operational Scenarios, different technique for measurements with best mission configuration approach and performing instruments are evaluated. The study ended with a Roadmap and a resuming document on the impact of NEWA results on the European scene.
Project Context and Objectives:
1.2 Project Contest and Objectives
In 2008, when the NEWA proposal was submitted, the international community was confronted with a rapidly evolving strategic environment shaped by globalization. In this context, the EU acknowledged that it was challenged by complex and asymmetric threats, stretching from terrorism to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), from regional conflicts to organized crime. In addition, other global challenges, directly or indirectly, were becoming more and more relevant to both internal and external security of the EU: climate change and natural disasters, poverty, diseases, energy dependence, competition for natural resources. As a major global actor, the EU has engaged in a process of adaptation of its institutions, policies and capabilities to address both regional and global security threats and challenges. Facing these multifaceted and trans-national threats led to the conceptual widening of the notion of security, and therefore to the adoption of a comprehensive approach to it, gradually abandoning the traditional separations between safety and security, as well as between security and defence. For a more secure Europe, it turned out necessary, among the others, to focus and invest more significantly on research in the fields of security and technology, space included. Indeed, space capabilities are recognised as strategic assets serving the security needs of Europe and its citizens . As a result, research and development (R&D) in new useful systems and cooperation among existing infrastructures in a "System of Systems" approach were thought to offer faster and more appropriate answers to urgent and complex needs. Space applications, such as navigation and positioning, satellite communications and Earth Observation (EO), can indeed deliver relevant data for a wide range of activities, from crisis prevention and early warning to active support in safety and security operations.
The NEWA project addressed these security challenges and evaluated the possibility of complementing an active System of Systems in the field of EO adding capabilities for detection and tracking of moving objects in marine and land environments. In the following a brief description of performed activities is presented.

1.2.1 User Engagement and Methodology
The main objective of the first phase of the Project was the identification of policies and operational drivers for the establishment of a Moving Object Capability at EU level, to understand how similar capabilities, and for which services, have been addressed in existing or past European R&D projects, pre-operational services development for the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), Contributing Missions to GMES, and other European Earth observation (EO) services. Indeed, initiatives funded at the European level by the European Commission (EC) within the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programmes (FP6, FP7), by the European Space Agency (ESA), and by other agencies (i.e. national space agencies, European Maritime Safety Agency - EMSA) provide a solid background for this preliminary NEWA investigation. Reference to GMES is both essential and necessary, since it represents the EU flagship programme for an EO system functional to the protection of citizens with respect to environment, security, emergences and climate change, while supporting the implementation of a number of EU policies.
The survey served as an input for consequent efforts within other activities: more specific synergies and relationship between GMES and NEWA, both in terms of concepts and services, was investigated during the project (GMES Liaison). In the same way, Contributing Missions to GMES and other national programmes was taken into consideration in "Synergies with space and defence programmes" to explore the potential for their exploitation by NEWA. The analysis of both GMES liaison with NEWA concepts and of synergies with national programmes (civil and military) additionally fed the definition of Operational Scenarios.
The first task was looking at these projects and services, in order to understand how to exploit existent knowledge on the utilization of space radar satellites for detection and identification tasks in public safety and security missions by identifying assets available and assessing current capabilities.
Furthermore, some of these programs provide useful insights into methodological approaches to identify and involve end-users, and then to get relevant information from them.
When surveying existing projects and services, this study principally considers public documents available on official websites. In fact, the team chose to restrict the review of existing projects and services to the official reports appeared in public sources.
The deep analysis of the GMES components as reported in the figure 1.2.1-1 supports the identification of the main reference scenarios and methodology.
In order to identify policy and operational drivers for the establishment of a Moving Object Capability at EU level, the analysis aims at identifying some reference scenarios in which public safety and security actors might benefit from the use of space-based radar systems. Accordingly, the consortium's methodological approach to this research was primarily end user-oriented. Indeed, through a deep involvement of relevant end-users it was possible to gather operational information, details and criticalities emerged during field missions.

Figure 1.2.1 - 1 GMES Core Services. The GMES Program embrace all the possible available missions already operative, and poses the basis for the future Services to the European Citizen

The methodology used in NEWA was thus focused on a direct engagement of key operational end-users and takes advantage of high-level contacts handled by the consortium during past experiences and similar projects (ASTRO+, SENTRE, LIMES, MAGES, G-MOSAIC, SPEED). Personal interviews with relevant end-users, carried out through a questionnaire purposely designed, were the selected tools to engage security actors and map their operational experiences. Due to the wide spectrum of potential activities covered by the NEWA system, actors involved belong both to institutional decision-makers (EU and national) and public civilian operational entities, as well as non-governmental organizations and military corps. All these actors provided various (and different) points of view, according to their distinct operational activities and exigencies; this variety considerably strengthens the comprehensiveness of this study.
Thanks to Partner's background, the consortium had at its disposal a set of international public safety and security end-user contacts (Italian, EU MS, third countries) belonging to different communities. Among them, and contact those administrations and/or organizations directly involved in operational activities within the scenarios considered by the project were identified. After having approached relevant end users by phone and e-mail, those of them that showed an interest in contributing to NEWA project were involved, circulating a questionnaire accompanied by an official letter, and setting up personal interviews to discuss and comment the survey content.
The questionnaire was divided into two parts:
a) "General and organization-oriented questions" ? general aspects of the actor engaged, in order to identify himself and the organization he works for; general operational features of the end-user activity.
b) "Scenario and operation-oriented questions" ? explanation of operational and technical aspects.
Results were processed by the team, which identified Reference Scenarios which may create drivers for technology developments. Scenarios are described and schematised, posing emphasis on those operational and technological aspects which strongly correlated to detection and identification capabilities.

1.2.2 EU Scenario
"EU Scenario" activity aims to critically review the European state-of-the-art concerning Moving Object Indication techniques in the light of future space-based NEWA establishment. This analysis covers the three fundamental sources for NEWA concepts derivation:
? Current operational and/or planned space techniques and technologies
? Airborne assets for ground and air surveillance
? Terrestrial and naval systems with MTI capabilities.
Techniques and architectural solutions have been identified and described in order to clearly define the scientific baseline for NEWA Concepts definition. Alternatives have been considered in terms of the three fundamental keystones that will compose the NEWA technique concept: Space Mission, Electronic components and Data Processing and techniques. The main reviewed processing techniques were: Displaced Phase Centred Antenna (DPCA), Along Track Interferometry (ATI) and Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP)

The state of the art in airborne and ground based MTI system was reviewed and an approach was made to the concepts of a space based MTI solution (NEWA concept). A review has been made of the electronic components required for a spaceborne MTI mission. In both cases the availability of technology at European level has been assessed.

1.2.3 Operational Scenarios and International Scenarios
The purpose of the "Operational Scenarios" task was to produce the building blocks that could be used in a rigorous Operational Analysis. Specifically the methodology applied is consistent with that used when undertaking a Combined Operational Evaluation and Investment Appraisal (COEIA).

The "International Scenarios" task provided an overview of non-EU surveillance applications with MTI capabilities.
COEIA is a fundamental step in the process of many large-scale UK MoD procurements. A complete COEIA provides a formal comparison of acquisition options on a "Cost vs Effectiveness" basis, to satisfy a specified capability.
"Effectiveness" is typically determined by some form of simulation of specific operational scenarios. In order to focus the simulation effort on those parts that are relevant to the analysis operational scenarios are typically presented as a series of "Vignettes"
Vignettes depict use cases of interest for applications of space-based MTI technology in order to contribute to the overall assessment of future NEWA design implementation solutions, aiming to provide real-life examples of what specifications and parameter values the NEWA-related technology might have to meet.
Having established a set of vignettes, we need to identify the "Critical Measurable Parameters" (CMP) relevant to the performance of the space-based MTI, and present two "threshold" figures for these parameters:

- "Useless Pd Limit" - This is the Minimum Probability of Detection for the MTI system to provide any significant contribution to the vignette under analysis.
- "Good Pd Limit" - This is the Probability of Detection necessary for the MTI system to be the Difference between Success and Failure in the vignette under analysis.

For example, when considering a particular vignette for tracking smugglers, we may consider the CMP to be:

"Ability to determine heading and velocity of rapid, small rubber vessel, in rough seas
"Useless Pd Limit" to be 20%, and the "Good Pd Limit" to be 70% probability."

A table is presented in section 1.3.2 which provides a synoptic overview the scenarios identified and analysed under NEWA, with their proposed CMP.

1.2.4 Synergies with Space & Defence programmes
It has been identified a growing interest in the cooperation between civilian and defence programmes at European Level in Earth Observation. In particular, a joint task force by European Commission, the European Defence Agency (EDA), the Council Secretariat General and the European Space Agency has already triggered the initiation of survey projects related to civilian, defence and dual ground segments for satellite Earth Observation. The EDA is positioned as a reference organisation in the task to seek for potential synergies between Defence and Civilian Programmes.
The European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) -a PPP between ESA and Astrium- arises as an important opportunity for shortening the data ageing in MTI applications. The EDRS is a geostationary satellite which creates a telecommunications link between a satellite in LEO (a typical EO satellite) and its ground segment enabling real time data download. NEWA should definitively be a user of the EDRS. The availability of such a big communications bandwidth (1.8Gbps) from space to ground should trigger the debate on the need for on-board processing vs. the transmission of all the original information to ground.
The GMES programme has significantly evolved in the Security component during the last year. This refers to the completion of the G-MOSAIC project in March 2012 and the inclusion of 8M€ of FP7-Space budget for continuation activities to be initiated at the end of 2012 having the External Action Service from the EU as a reference user. This means that Security (and emergency) applications are finding their gap. GMES picture has to be completed with all the activities related to maritime security, where a major progress is being conducted having EMSA as a reference user and a potential beneficiary of MTI technology.
Finally, we have to remark that in the field of maritime security, there is an important trend for the fusion of satellite data (typically SAR) with in situ information for from collaborative vessel detection identification systems such as. AIS (in the coast) and LRIT (open sea). The usage of Space based AIS has already started and the integration of space based AIS within SAR satellites will be achieved for the first time with the launch of PAZ satellite (Spanish SAR mission). The synchronisation of the capture of AIS data with SAR imagery will be a breakthrough and it is likely that most future SAR missions will integrate an AIS receptor. We expect that this will benefit NEWA concept since the availability of AIS information concurrent with MTI data will make easier the extraction of higher value information.
Project Results:
1.3.1 Study Logic and Consortium Organization
To better introduce the performed work the Study logic and the Consortium organization is introduced. The required activities and the role in charge to all the partners are presented. Study Logic
It is important to highlight that NEWA was the first project within the 2008, in charge to analyse the real European capabilities in manufacturing and maintaining an MTI system as dedicated Space mission or as a cooperation of different sensors and/or mission. In this view the first steps of NEWA were devoted in the identification of the real User needs, the State of the Art both in Technology and Techniques and compare the European environment with the International scene. The second part of the Project was devoted to a deeper technical analysis of the techniques capabilities and the algorithms useful to extract the MTI data from instrument measurements. In parallel the optimization of satellites orbits and mission configuration together with the technological assessment, identify the best configuration(s) for an MTI system. The third and last phase was devoted to the conclusion and the recommendations for future developments. In the figure below the Study logic is reported with the work packages and the meetings/check points of the Project.

Figure 1 Study Logic - The development of the Project required a fine realignment of the activities and the purposes of the meetings in order to respect the different requests of the Community and the obtained results. Consortium Organization
The organization of the Consortium followed the standard rules of the Program Management. Considering the specific heritage of each partner, the leadership of each work package was assigned at the beginning of the Project and all the partners were represented in an consortium's Committee devoted to the monitoring of the activities and the compliance with rules. In the reported Table the roles of each partner is reported.

The communications were assured by the very closed cooperation among the partners. Frequently meetings assured the alignment of each partner's activities and the correct exchange of information and discussions. At the beginning of the Project the Consortium signed a Consortium Agreement containing all the contractual and financial issues, including the IPR management, and the Non Disclosure Agreements on the obtained results.
In the figure below the Consortium Organization is reported:

Figure - Consortium Organization. The Consortium was small and flexible, all the Partners were involved into every activity of the Project and the cooperation was assured

1.3.2 NEWA Activities Results
In the following the WP activities are reported with the main results.

WP1 - Overall Management and Project Coordination:
The Project followed the standard approach of the Project Management identifying at the beginning of the Project, the main achievements in the different phases of NEWA:
? measurable and achievable Technical milestones were identified and controlled,
? the overall schedule of the Project corresponded to technical coordination and detailed schedule within the WP activities
? Contractual and Financial issues were routinely monitored, in order to avoid risks and Partner's misalignments

Technical check points were clearly identified in correspondence to specific achievements, each of one corresponded to internal financial milestones. Main Objectives of these internal milestone were:
? Identification of Users Requirements and Operational Scenario (WP2)
? Survey of MTI Techniques and Technologies and Synergies with Defence Projects (WP3)
? Identification of Sustainable Techniques and Technologies for European MTI system (WP4)
? Assessment of Techniques and Technology GAPS (WP4 and WP5)

The very last step of the Project was the completion of the activities with the submission of a second issue of the Roadmap that resumed all the performed activities and give the recommendations for future development in Technology and Techniques in Europe. This last step completed the issuing of the Deliverables and of the Project.

Due to Consortium internal unpredictable inconveniences, the Project suffered an initial delay that was recognised and approved by the Commission in an extension of the duration of the Project of two months. In the schedule the new schedule is reported.

Figure 1.3.2- 1 NEWA Schedule. During the Activities the need of two additional months was justified to the Commission and the extension of the project was agreed. A very tight rearrangement of the activities and the final meetings and their purposes was needed.

WP2 - Applications:
The Consortium was deeply involved into the exploration of capabilities in Space support to Security and Safety of European Citizen but a systematic and quantitative analysis of the User Needs, finalized to required applications, was not available. This constituted the first step of NEWA projects.

WP2.1 - Policy Drivers for a Moving Object Capability

The WP objective dealt with the identification of policy drivers for the establishment of a Moving Object Capability at EU level. The activity has been completed by performing tree main tasks:
? survey of the existing projects/programs/services in the field of radars;
? submission of a Questionnaire to relevant European stakeholders and end-users;
? preliminary scenarios definition.

The WP activity results have been included in the deliverable D21.1 Methodology Report.
The very initial part of the WP2 research activities was carried out; the activities have been devoted to the identification of potential policy and operational drivers to support the establishment of a space-borne Moving Object Detection capability for the European public safety and security needs.
From a methodological point of view, these drivers have been identified through two separate phases. During the first one - in order to exploit existent knowledge on the utilization of space radar satellites for detection and identification tasks in public safety and security missions, and to narrow the options available and focus the investigation on a limited but relevant number of potential scenarios - IAI has carried out a comprehensive overview of similar capabilities addressed in existing or past European R&D projects, missions and services.
During the second phase, thanks to an accurate engagement of relevant operational end-users, IAI been able to identify those public safety and security context - the Reference Scenarios - in which the availability of a space-based Moving Object Detection capability would add value to operational activities. In this task, stakeholders and end-users - engaged through a semi-guided questionnaire and personal interviews - provided fundamental insights to define current operational practices, to identify strengths and weaknesses in terms of detection and identification systems.
Five different Reference Scenarios have been identified among the broad set of public safety and security missions carried out at the EU and Member State level:
- Maritime Security, Search and Rescue Operation (S&R);
- Maritime Security, Oil Spill Response;
- Terrestrial Security, Protection of Critical Infrastructure (Energy Assets);
- Iceberg Monitoring and Surveillance of the North Atlantic Shipping Lanes;
- Military evacuation of European citizens from a hostile environment.

After being identified, the Reference Scenario have been systematized by IAI, in order to provide the technical partners with general information concerning end-users' practices and potential needs (what information, when and where), and to characterize them in terms of mission objectives and tasks performed, players involved, geographical and logistics constraints, detection and identification capabilities. It has to be stressed, however, that the objective of IAI task was not the definition of end-users requirements - to be categorized in the following Work Packages - but the identification of the most promising fields of application for these capabilities.

WP2.2 - Operational Scenarios

The WP objective was the identification of realistic Operational Scenarios for a space-based moving target indication (MTI) radar system. According to the WP description the deliverable D22.1 Operational Scenario Report Is. 1 has been issued. This document has been prepared in accordance with WP 2.1 Questionnaire and Methodology Report resulting from a scoping study across a number of potential stakeholders and users of a NEWA system. The identified scenarios have been analyzed into "vignettes".

The results of the analysis of operational scenarios are presented in Table 1, which presents an overview of the most significant use cases analysed, and proposed the "useless" and "good" limits for the Probability of Detection (Pd) to be applied to each Critical Measurable Parameter. These use cases, CMP and Pd limits together provide the basis for comparison of the performance of different potential configurations for the NEWA system, when undertaking a Combined Operational Effectiveness and Investment Appraisal.

Table 1: A synoptic overview of all scenarios taken into account

WP2.3 - GMES Liaison

The WP objective was the retrieval of information about the ongoing activities performed in GMES program in the framework of Security domain.
Within NEWA activities the possible interactions between an MTI system and GMES System of Systems was analysed and the complementarities of the "S" in GMES and the NEWA achievements was evidenced.
More specifically GMES program (comprising satellites, ground stations, airborne and ground based ancillary support data, data standardizations,..) is aimed at providing services based solely on MONITORING & FORECASTING capabilities, working on six thematic:
? Marine Services,
? Land Services,
? Atmosphere Services,
? Emergency Services,
? Climate Change Services,
? Security Services.
Security services, as monitoring illegal activities, border control, nuclear capabilities and infrastructures, critical assets, etc., are probably the less mature within GMES domain even if during last two years projects as G-MOSAIC, MARISS; DOLPHIN, SIMTISYS, SeaU, etc, allowed:
? to define a service portfolio, agreed with the involved users, and consolidate service specifications and level agreement;
? to exploit and develop advanced technologies in support to security issues (detection, extraction, MTI solution, etc), mainly thanks to the advantages due to the new satellite missions characteristics.
NEWA allows to identify main recommendations in accordance with the GMES scopes as exploit new operational technologies to improve service level. Projects implemented in last years gave different contributions to the evolution of Security services: some of them, as G-MOSAIC, allowed the definition of a "first issue" of service portfolio to be tested and pre-operate, some others continue working on technologies and improvement of technique to define new products and increase service quality level. NEWA demonstrated both these two last aspects: the achieved results in the Space Technology Readiness Level must be increased in order to reach the required compliance to perform the MTI measurements, and demonstrated that all the aspects that have a role in determining the Service Quality Level, including the target observation geometry, the communication channel, the sea state, the processing approach, the sensors that can be useful for the detection from Space, etc. are fundamental for the correct implementation of Security Service. All these aspects are not mature enough to meet the User requests, but the European Institutions and Stakeholders are well oriented. As a proof the GMES Program will offer a big opportunity with the development of the five sentinels mission, providing datasets for GMES Services, embarking heterogeneous remote sensing payloads.
- Sentinel 1 is a LEO polar-orbiting all-weather, day-and-night C-band SAR payload with a data storage capacity of 1410Gb and a 520 Mbit/s X-band downlink throughput to be embarked on two satellites (Sentinel 1A, 1B).
- Sentinel-2 is a LEO polar-orbiting multispectral (visible, near infra-red, short wave infra-red) high-resolution optical imaging payload to be embarked on two satellites (Sentinel 2A, 2B).
- Sentinel-3 is a LEO polar-orbiting multi-instrument payload comprising a radiometer, a Ku and C band altimeter, a GNSS receiver, and a spectrometer to be embarked on two satellites (Sentinel 3A, 3B).
- Sentinel-4 and Sentinel-5 are a geostationary and LEO payloads respectively comprising IR spectrometers to be embarked on Eumetsat meteorological satellites.
Even if with different timeline, data value will increase, exploiting the capability to provide operational services with a relevant cost-benefit analysis. Clearly SBRs providing both images of the Earth's surface using SARs as well as detecting moving targets on the ground (GMTI) would represent an augmentation of the possible GMES services for the Emergency and Security Services as well as for Land and Marine Services especially for the surveillance of ground vehicles, vessels, and general traffic.
A report, the D21.1 Report on GMES Liaison with NEWA concepts, includes all the analysis results.

WP2.4 - Coordination with EU initiatives

The former WP objectives aimed at suggest eventual readdressing of topics discussed within the Project in comparison with on-going activities within EC framework. In particular these activities were conducted with exchange of information, possible contribution and guidelines with the on-going Projects and EC initiatives.
During the Project, the need to have a more close cooperation with the on-going Institutional Projects and Initiatives arose. In this view the participation to the initiatives, taken as reference (as MARSUR) and deeper investigations with the Users were retained crucial for the final results of the Project. To this purposes the scopes of the Industrial Round Table and of the final Workshop were slightly readdressed in order to benefit as much as possible of the foreseen interaction. In particular, in the last meeting, a questionnaire was compiled by the Consortium and filled by the guests of the Workshop. This allowed the have a wider view of the European Users and Stakeholders perspective; infact a different orientation of the Users needs and priorities emerged for the first investigations conducted at the beginning of NEWA. The small gap evidenced, was already known by the Consortium and the readdressing of the purposes of NEWA were already taken into account.

The WP activities results are included in the deliverable D24.1 Contribution to EU Scenario.

WP3 - Review of the EU State of the Art:
The first collection of the state of the art of Techniques and Technologies useful for the MTI system implementation was performed in order to better individuate the synergies among the different Technological environment and to cross fertilize the results obtained in other Security environment.

WP3.1 - Review of MTI techniques

The WP objective was the critical review of the European state-of-the-art concerning Moving Object Indication Techniques in the light of future space-based NEWA establishment. The performed review covered three different application areas:
? Spaceborne techniques;
? Airborne assets for ground and air surveillance;
? Terrestrial and naval systems with MTI capabilities.

Moreover, in order to identify the scientific baseline for NEWA Concepts definition, three fundamental aspects have been identified and analyzed:
? Space Mission
Mission key aspects, in terms of system configuration, sensors & downlink capabilities, number of satellites and relevant orbits, have been analyzed in order to support NEWA concept definition.
? Electronic components
A comprehensive review of the electronic components needed for MTI Space systems and an analysis of the EU current availability of electronic components for NEWA.
? Processing
A review of MTI data processing techniques (DPCA, ATI, STAP,...)

The WP activity results have been included in the deliverable D31.1 EU Scenario Review Report (Issue 1)

WP3.2 - Review of enabling technologies

The WP activities have been focused on the review of the enabling technologies that allow NEWA precursor operations. This technological study includes the identification of the NEWA key components, the identification of their performance and limitations, the assessment of their availability in the EU, and the identification of on-going developments regarding such components.
Starting from the WP 3.1 outputs (i.e. D31.1) an analysis of the current availability of electronic components for NEWA has been added. The study analyses the state of the art, the on going technological programmes and includes a technology snapshot. Moreover, a performance comparative analysis among DPCA, ATI and STAP techniques has been performed. The WP activity results have been included in the deliverable D32.1 EU Scenario Review Report Is. 2

WP3.3 - Synergies with Space & Defence programmes

The WP activity was aimed at identifying the on-going institutions, programs, and references within the Defence environment that can represent a synergy with the NEWA analysis, focussing on the issues highlighted in this Project. The WP activity results have been included in the deliverable D33.1 Synergies with Space and Defence Programmes. After the Final Review the document was augmented with a dedicated section on dual missions (civil and military) for Earth Observation programmes in Europe.

WP4 - International Relation:
The aforementioned synergies were inserted into a European and an International Scenario. It was retained fundamental the check with the European Defence actors by means of a Round Table discussion and Workshop involving the interviewed Users at the beginning of the project.

WP4.1 - Organizational Aspects

During NEWA Project two separate events were organized, the Industrial Round Table (IRT) and the Final Workshop (FW) held, respectively, in October in Rome and in February in Paris. The objective of both the IRT and the FW was to present and discuss the main NEWA findings with qualified interlocutors.
During the IRT - aimed at fostering a dialogue with the consortium and relevant industrial stakeholders from European companies, R&D departments and institutional actors (i.e. MoDs) - have been discussed the potential application of and the perspectives for the industrial development of MTI technologies. After having discussed the preliminary results concerning operational scenarios, MTI techniques and the missions characteristics presented by the NEWA partners, the participants actively contributed to the elaboration of the Roadmap by providing a set of specific indications and recommendations.
The FW, which gathered industrial representatives and institutional officials together with some of the operational end-users engaged during the initial phases of the project (WP2) aimed at getting feedbacks on the NEWA research activities but also at creating a network that could be exploited for current and future projects in the domain of GMES security/SBR surveillance and to support policy-making processes at the EU level. During the FW, the consortium has brought forward to the audience both the final results achieved by project and the presentation of the EU roadmap for NEWA. Then, a questionnaire specifically prepared for the FW has been submitted to the participants to validate (or not) the outcomes emerged from the different NEWA activities. The questionnaire resulted useful also to collect informed opinions, remarks (and even criticisms) on the security and financial environments in which MTI applications could be eventually developed.

WP4.2 - Scenarios

The WP objective was the identification of realistic Operational Scenarios for a space-based moving target indication (MTI) radar system. According to the WP description the deliverable D42.1 International Scenario Review Report Is. 1 has been issued. This document has been prepared in accordance with the non-EU scenarios identified within WP 2.1 activity. The D42.1 document also includes a brief overview on non-EU surveillance applications with MTI capabilities.

WP4.3 - Technical and Technological Issues

The WP activities were focused on the analysis of the techniques and technologies that represent the basis of non-EU MTI capabilities, both in operational system and planned R&D programmes. The analysis was oriented to information collection and comparative performance assessment in order to gain knowledge on EU current gaps and potential evolution. The deliverable D43.1 International Scenario Report was submitted to the Commission. From the evaluation of non-EU surveillance applications with MTI capabilities the following systems were identified as relevant to the NEWA project and their capabilities presented within the study report:

Military Applications
? RQ-4 Global Hawk (U.S.A.) an unmanned aircraft able to provide high-res SAR images
? TecSAR (Israel), a satellite equipped with an high-res X-Band SAR
? E-8 Joint STARS (U.S.A.) a modified Boeing 707 airplane equipped with radar
? Lacrosse/ONYX (U.S.A.) a series of recognition S/Cs equipped with high power SAR
? RISAT-2 (India), a satellite similar to the Israeli TecSAR (X-Band SAR)
? E-3 AWACS (U.S.A.) a modified Boeing 707 airplane equipped with an S-Band radar
Commercial Applications
? RADARSAT (Canada), a series of EO S/Ls equipped with C-Band SAR
? Yaogan (China), a series of EO S/Ls equipped with an L-Band SAR

WP5 - Gap Assessment:
The Technologies and Techniques analysis combined with the purposes of the users regarding the implementation of a European MTI system focalized on the assessment of the needed technology and the individuation of possible algorithms that can support a sustainable design approach. The evidence of the gaps was also outlined.

WP5.1 - Required Techniques

This WP was devoted to the identification of the techniques that are required for NEWA concept establishment. The activity was aimed at analyzing NEWA-related techniques and identifying sustainable NEWA concepts. Starting from the operational scenarios, the state-of-the-art review (EU and non-EU) of the NEWA candidate architectures and operation concepts were outlined in terms of Mission Aspects, Payload Architecture, and Processing Techniques.
The Mission Aspects comprised the definition of a system configuration related to the user requirement as well as a trade-off analysis for the definition of a baseline system configuration optimized for the management of all scenarios. The Payload Architecture comprised architectural design features for spaceborne payloads for SAR & GMTI along with the key subsystems. The processing techniques comprised the state-of-the-art GMTI techniques for spaceborne applications. The deliverable D51.1 NEWA Sustainable Concepts was submitted to the Commission.

WP5.2 - Assessment of technological gaps

This WP was devoted to the analysis of technologies required for NEWA concepts establishment and characterization of existing gaps.
The activity was aimed at identifying gaps for sustainable NEWA concepts. The Mission Aspects, taking into account the NEWA Operational Scenarios, an assessment on the gaps for space-borne radar (SBR) Low Earth Orbit (LEO) constellations was outlined. Moreover possible functional partitioning of the payload architecture subsystems was described in order to cope with the technological constraints of a feasible SBR payload whereas a proper distribution of the Processors functionalities between the Space Segment and Ground Segment was taken as a reference. Extensions on the current state-of-the-art GMTI techniques were selected in order to provide further insight on the feasibility of improved schemes.The deliverable D52.1 GAP Assessment Reports was submitted to the Commission.

WP6 - Roadmap:
This is recognized as one of the most important WP of the entire project: the output of the considerations contained into the relative deliverables will directly impact on the beyond activities and will support the European Commission with a concrete and quantified picture of the European capability of Space assets in Security and Safety field. During this last stage of the project the Consortium comes back to the initial phase of the project and offers in a European and International Scenario the correct impact of the MTI capabilities and future activities.

WP6.1 - Roadmap for technological R&D

Aim of this WP was the first identification of a sustainable roadmap for future technological development, considering the NEWA activities performed and the analysis of the status of technology development in Europe together with the techniques applicable to MTI systems. The activity comprised the action identifications for endorsing the engineering lifecycle of a constellation of European satellites feeding a large heterogeneous (i.e. ground-based, ship-based, airborne, and spaceborne) System of Systems (SoS) for modern Data-Fusion-based surveillance. The document was based on harmonizing the overall NEWA project results in terms of mission aspects, processing techniques, payloads architectures, and enabling technologies.
The deliverable D61.1 NEWA Roadmap (Issue 1) was submitted to the Commission in due time.
WP6.2 - Recommendations for future programmes

The activity augmented the WP6.1 results with a set of recommendations taking into account public IEEE proceedings, peer-to-peer exchange of ideas within the technical community, end-user workshops feedbacks comprising GMES actors, space agencies, defense institutions, think-tanks, as well as current R&D programs of large aerospace & defense contractors. The scope of the WP was an aid to future actions identifications in order to support European R&D programs.
The deliverable D62.1 NEWA Roadmap (Issue 2) was submitted to the Commission, but during the Final Review some comments arose and the document needed additional refinements. An additional augmentation-activity was tailored to the GMES framework eventually identifying market developments and synergies as well as funding priorities among the selected recommendations.

1.3.3 NEWA Foreground
NEWA Project was a Study aimed at identify the State of the Art of Techniques and Technologies available in Europe, useful for an MTI System in Security environment. MTI technique was recently considered as a useful application of Space data in the measurement of moving targets on Ground. The experimental implementation of useful algorithms for the extraction of the information from the images of recent launched SAR instruments, increases the interest in the real capability of European Community to improve Security of citizen both on Land and on the open Seas. In the last decades the performances of the SAR instruments increased drastically and MTI measurements are concretely evaluated as a real capability reachable in the near future.
Till 2008 no systematic approach in Europe was used to evaluate such capabilities, nor the steps to complete the full design process of an MTI system were known. NEWA offered an analytical approach both to the identification of the real user's needs and the consequent identification of the MTI system architecture.
From the Kick Off of the Project till nowadays several parallel EC Initiatives both at Institutional and Stakeholder level have emerged and the NEWA foreground combined with such on-going activities paves the way to the next generation of Instruments and End to End Systems, useful also for MTI measurements.
In particular the NEWA foreground can be addressed in the three main central sections individuated during the Study:

Figure 1.3.3-1 The links among the areas in which the NEWA foreground can be addressed. The Scenarios analysis led to the main three parallel topics of interests and the resulting analysis and the merge of the most promising architecture, led to the MTI Architecture(s).
In particular the addressed areas can contain:
- Measurement Techniques and Algorithms
o The nowadays Techniques applied to the evaluation of images and the extraction of useful information are mainly experimental and the obtained results cannot be considered as a proof of evidence for the validation of the technique; the number of independent parameters are reduced, in the most of cases the results are known by comparing with other ground based sensors, the scenarios are not fully representative of the real cases. The complexity of the algorithms is very high and additional effort must be spent on their optimization.
o The resources for the processing are actually not dimensioned and the huge of data processing can be shared on board and on ground. The two possibilities imply several additional analysis that must be faced with the actual state of the art of the processing techniques and management architecture (multi-processor, multi-core, etc.)
- Mission Configuration analysis
o The mission analysis performed in NEWA demonstrated that a simple approach of a dedicated MTI mission is not feasible in terms of costs and times; the application of a dedicated mission cannot complete justify the very high cost of implementation. This implies that additional evaluation must be made and the final arrangement can be the result of a System of Systems, exploiting the combination of several different sensors
- Instrument Architecture
o The actual flying instruments are not dimensioned to comply with the MTI techniques useful to indicate all the needed parameters of a moving target. The architectures are individuated, during the project and the best reachable performances are already analysed. Moreover the maturity of the European technology strongly limits the development of the next generation of instruments. Several activities across the Europe are on-going to overcome the actual low TRL. The next SAR generation can embark the well dimensioned technology even if the processing techniques and resource can limit the reachable performance.
- Cost effectiveness
o This aspect was not included into NEWA project at the beginning but, during the survey and during the technology analysis emerges as a very important aspect that cannot be forget: the costs for the development of the useful technologies must be shared among different applications (also dual); the application itself must be correctly addressed and shared, where possible, among different users, to maximise the usage and minimise the maintaining costs; the final MTI architecture should not avoid the concept of operation in order to better exploit the obtained data and to maximize the final performances.
Potential Impact:
1.4 NEWA Impact & Exploitation of Results
As a Coordination and Support Action, NEWA project was considered as Technical justification of recommendation for future development and R&D activities in Europe. During the project lifecycle the Technical evaluations, i.e. mission aspects, enabling technologies, payload architectures, and processing techniques, were analysed and the final recommendations on future development and R&D activities were inserted into the complex European framework. In what follow the Impacts and the Exploitation of the obtained results are reported.

1.4.1 Impacts of NEWA Results
The NEWA Sustainability Study has identified technical and technological gaps to be filled in order to provide the European Union (EU) with spaceborne GMTI capabilities. It is worth noting that such an assessment has been performed taking into account a preliminary set of operative scenarios defined by potential final users where high officials within governmental institutions have envisaged the possibility to exploit services for the homeland protection. Spaceborne Radars (SBRs) aimed at providing both images of the Earth's surface using SARs and the detection of moving targets on the ground (GMTI), are a technical challenge similar to the amount of efforts required for the analysis, design, development, and testing of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This results from the fact that SAR imagery from LEO spacecrafts has a well defined, mature and flight proven system engineering framework whereas MTI techniques are manifold and, for SBRs, are still experimental. Mathematical analysis and computer stochastic simulation appeared as the cornerstone for addressing this low-TRL engineering-framework and eventually for simplifying solutions.
It is also worth addressing the links of the NEWA Sustainability Study with the sprouting of GMES services. A preface is necessary in order to outline such a connection within a neat operative framework. More specifically the GMES program (comprising satellites, ground stations, airborne and ground based ancillary support data, data standardizations,..) is aimed at providing services based solely on MONITORING & FORECASTING capabilities related to six remote sensing thematic areas. In synthesis the capabilities of the GMES services are related mostly to IEEE IGARSS communities developments where geoscience and remote sensing topics are discussed. On the contrary radar surveillance (and related services) are related mostly to IEEE RADARCON communities developments where MTI and pulse Doppler radars topics are discussed. Clearly SBRs providing both images of the Earth's surface using SARs as well as detecting moving targets on the ground (GMTI) would represent an augmentation of the possible GMES services for the Emergency and Security Services as well as for Land and Marine Services especially for the surveillance of ground vehicles, vessels, and general traffic.
An endorsement for fostering the evolution of SBRs capabilities with respect to the NEWA project has also been outlined taking into account public IEEE proceedings, peer-to-peer exchange of ideas within the technical community, end-user workshops feedbacks comprising GMES actors, space agencies, defense institutions, think-tanks, as well as current R&D programs of large aerospace & defense contractors. More specifically the type of endorsement for the engineering lifecycle of a satellite constellation providing both SAR mapping & GMTI capabilities was provided as an aid to future actions identifications in order to support European R&D programs.
The following table reports a clarifying note on the recommendations types for the NEWA Sustainability Concept, i.e. on whether they encompass aerospace & electrical engineering R&D Boundary Conditions and/or if they represent R&D Funding Schemes.

Recommendation Clarifying Note
Grasping acquaintance of the core engineering issue and related R&D methodology R&D Boundary Conditions
Applying a dual-use approach R&D Funding Scheme
Funding coherently R&D Funding Scheme
Fostering centers of excellence R&D Funding Scheme
R&D Boundary Conditions
Exploiting/augmenting in-situ capabilities R&D Boundary Conditions
Assuming a global vision for operative geo-scenarios and orbital constraints R&D Boundary Conditions
Endorsing electrical engineering fields R&D Funding Scheme
R&D Boundary Conditions
Relaxing early warning responsiveness R&D Boundary Conditions
Considering formation flying constellations for surveillance as a second priority R&D Boundary Conditions
Adopting other performance criteria for SBR constellations R&D Boundary Conditions
Table 1.4.1 -1 - Clarifying Note on the Recommendations

With no claim to exhaustiveness, the following table reports a preliminary set of key R&D areas to be funded. As a final clarifying note only the key areas that need to be further developed with benefits for GMTI SBRs will be highlighted as a specific funding priority while those key areas whose further developments for SBRs encompass a general benefit also for navigation, telecommunication, and other scientific missions will be indicated, as a general funding priority.

R&D Area Funding Priority Type
Multi-Channel Phased Array Antennas General Funding Priority
Digital-Based Payload Architectures General Funding Priority
On Board Digital Processing Enabling Technologies General Funding Priority
On Board Storage Enabling Technologies General Funding Priority
Adaptive Coded Modems (ACM) General Funding Priority
Surveillance MIMO SBR Techniques Studies Specific Funding Priority
SAR-GMTI Techniques Studies Specific Funding Priority
Experimental Data Fitting to Models Specific Funding Priority
Aerospace Mission Studies Specific Funding Priority
Aerospace Satellite Studies Specific Funding Priority
Table 1.4.1 - 2 - Funding Priorities

For the sake of completeness it must be stressed that the consolidation of spaceborne MTI processing techniques and related studies is definitely a temporal priority as it shall be the driver for the requirements on the payload architecture and related allowed diversity. However the required amount of funding and the related development time for the hardware/software breadboarding activities for these techniques represent the most significant funding burden.
Both Multi-Channel Phased Array Antennas and Digital-Based Payload Architectures represent the most structural funding priorities for the NEWA sustainability study since these two areas allow "harmonizing" the available enabling technologies and "instantiating" feasible results of the studies.

Figure 1.4.4-1 - Structural funding Priorities for the NEWA Sustainability

A preliminary timeline for the development of a scalable flight model for a SBR aimed at both EO and Surveillance can be roughly foreseen as shown in the figure below.

Figure 1.4.1-2 - Preliminary SBR Constellation for EO & Surveillance Timeline

Accordingly both aerospace and electrical engineering departments within centers of excellence should be involved for R&D efforts on a SBR Constellation for EO & Surveillance purposes. The "preliminary" attribute has been included in order to clarify that such a a timeline roadmap is providing a rough order of magnitude alone whereas technical difficulties and bottlenecks as well as simplifying solutions are often inevitable events that could enlarge or shrink the timeline respectively.

1.4.2 NEWA Results Exploitations
The overall MTI system architecture results as a merge of all the analysis and considerations and the most performing MTI system architecture(s) can be designed on the basis of NEWA recommendations. Before the effective design, however, the NEWA Consortium individuated additional questions:
- Is it possible to correctly dimension an End to End MTI system, before the design?
- Are the data coming from one sensor enough or the final measurement or the MTI measurement can be composed by several individual measurements made up by several cooperating different instruments?
- Are the data fusion techniques mature enough to allow such measurements?
- Is the processing technique mature enough to allow a correct MTI result?
- Are the technology mature enough to allow such high volume data management?

As heritage NEWA left several questions that surely help to find the development way in order to better focalise the final solution and arrive to the MTI system design.
European Community is well approaching the answers to the above questions with a plenty of activities in the development of product that can be used into a dedicated MTI mission.

Following the common standard engineering process, the NEWA Consortium believes that before going in details in the design of the most promising MTI system Architecture, a simulation of the reachable performance and the best 'tricks' and solutions to overcome predictable development's problems should be made. With this approach the simulation for the most critical areas individuated during NEWA activities is envisaged. The composition of such SW tools simulator into an overall MTI system architecture will surely help the answer to the above questions.

NEWA Consortium is already engaged to Study such product: SIMTISYS (SImulator for MTI SYStem) will be a SW simulator for an MTI systems and will be built in a modular approach allowing the plugging of different SW modules each simulating instruments, techniques, processing algorithms, mission configuration, etc. The correctly dimensioned functional flow allows the simulation of the measurements required in specific conditions or Operational Scenario. The modular approach allows to add a posteriori cooperative sensors as a module simulator and the associated algorithm for the MTI measurement, extending the diversity of sensors and cooperative missions.
Presently SIMTISYS is composed of the basic architecture in order to validate the NEWA choice and quantitatively justify the gaps found in technology developments evidenced by NEWA project.

The final exploitation of SIMTISYS is envisaged on several fronts:
- The User: the simulator will offer an easy and immediate tool to quickly evaluate the possibility to merge data coming from different cooperative missions, in a cost- and time- saving approach. Moreover the simulator offer immediate answer to the requests in terms of feasibility of measurements.
- The Service: the simulator quickly identifies the correct data to supply to the User by investigating the available mission and by correctly interface the Service with the request in a standard format. The approach allows the Service to quickly evaluate the requests in the correct format and rearrange the data deliver operations.
- The European Research Entities / Industrial Community: the simulator allows to evidence possible gaps in information or data and possible technology areas where the research must be improved.

Other active projects funded in the European and International Agencies include studies on the possible implementation of MTI systems as future daily tools or Space data application in support the Security and Safety monitoring. Actually none of them foresees development of demonstrators in the short term.

NEWA started a systematic study on the GMTI discipline by combining the Industrial and the Research activities for the common goal of improvement new Satellite Earth Observation applications and by fostering the interests of the User community in Security and Safety improvements.
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