Final Report Summary - EVOKES (Explosive Volcanism in the Earth System)
Explosive volcanic eruptions are a continual pulse of materials and energy into the Earth system whose dimensions can reach the global scale. Their impacts, local, regional and global, are direct consequences of the physico-chemical chain reaction of processes that accompany and drive the ascent, phase separation, eruption, injection, and deposition of pyroclastic materials in the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, pedosphere, etc. An increasingly sophisticated view of the major triggers, feedbacks and switches within the volcanic system has been obtained as a result of this project. We have learned that each material domain, from multiphase fluid flow through fragmentation through hot dusty gas to sedimented ash, contains essential switches in behaviour and variably efficient chemical interactions that yield first order consequences for the nature of each eruptive event and the impact it has on the earth system. The main benefits of the research are in the areas of the interpretation of volcanic unrest, the prediction of volcanic material failure, and the nature and impact of ash in the earth system.