Hydroxyapatite is used extensively in orthopaedic implants, and has benefited from the known biocompatibility of apatites within teeth and bone. Continual material development is hindered from several factors. One of these is the unknown influence of structural modifications on the properties. The variability of properties is, in part, attributed to the flexibility to permit atom vacancies and accommodate lower hydroxyl contents. This project will assess the impact of dehydroxylation on material properties (mechanical properties, solubility, charge) and cell response. The range of solid solutions from hydroxyapatite to oxyapatite will be studied to show the effect on the properties. Dehydroxylated hydroxyapatite will be studied and the most suitable technique (X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, microRaman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy or luminescence) applied as a new quality control technique. This will pave the way for also developing hydroxyapatite as a new heat sensor. The concentration of remaining hydroxyl ions and the positioning will be an indicator of the heat environment and the mixing within the droplet at high temperatures. Attention will be directed to hydroxyl ions in the structure to provide a charged surface. The hydroxyl ions will be oriented to impart a surface charge. A new technique will be generated for providing new in-situ charge generation during coating formation with thermal spraying. This project will introduce a new quality control technique for measuring hydroxyl content and orientation, introduce a new tool for monitoring the high temperature environments and fnally produce a new approach for imparting a charge on coating surfaces.
Fields of science
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