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ENEN COOPERATION WITH RUSSIA IN NUCLEAR EDUCATION, TRAINING AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Final Report Summary - ENEN-RU (ENEN COOPERATION WITH RUSSIA IN NUCLEAR EDUCATION, TRAINING AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT)

Executive Summary:
The ENEN-RU project addressed the development of a common ground for cooperation in nuclear education, training and knowledge management between the European Union and the Russian Federation. It consists of two parallel two-year projects “ENEN Cooperation with Russia in Nuclear Education, Training and Knowledge Management” on the EU side and “Innovative Nuclear Education towards Peace, Prosperity & Sustainable Development” on the Russian side. They were respectively coordinated by the European Nuclear Education Network Association and the National Research Nuclear University.
As the first objective of the project the current status of nuclear education curricula in the EU and the Russian Federation has been evaluated and compared with the purpose to define an action plan and recommendations for the extension of the Bologna Process and its tools, ECTS and mutual recognition, to the Russian universities. The nuclear curricula, in particular nuclear engineering have been analyzed on both sides with respect to their structure, the course content and the expected competences acquired after bachelor, master and PhD degrees.
On the basis of the respective situation and expected developments of nuclear energy and applications in the EU and in the Russian Federation, a vision on the long-term cooperation has been developed together with recommendations for its realization. The structure and characteristics of PhD studies on both sides have evaluated and recommendations for PhD student exchange have been agreed. The implementation of the recommendations for cooperation has been tested by the organization of joint pilot courses in the EU and in the Russian Federation and the participation of Russian PhD students to EU PhD Events.
A knowledge pilot course on “Engineering Aspects of Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing” was organized in the “Central Institute for Continuing Education and Training” in Obninsk accommodating 8 EU students among the participants. A training pilot course on nuclear reactor operation was conducted at the VR-1 reactor of the Czech Technical University in Prague, accommodating 10 Russian students. The evaluation of the both courses turned out to be very positive and the lessons learned from the feedback provided important information for the organization of future exchange courses in a follow-up project.
The ENEN-RU project further addressed the identification on the EU and on the Russian side of nuclear facilities, laboratories and equipment accommodating the exchange of post-doctoral researchers, PhD students, master thesis opportunities, and faculty members. The technical characteristics, access modalities and contact points have been collected and organized in a searchable database. From the EU side 23 facilities and 38 equipments have been recorded in the database. From the Russian side the data for 7 facilities have been recorded in the database.
The management of the project, the dissemination of the results and the exchanges between the EU and Russian project partners were very good. Overcoming the expected language barriers was easier than expected, thanks to the fluent communication of the East European partners with the Russian colleagues. Participation from EU side to meetings and events in Russia proved to be definitely easier than vice-versa, but the presence of both groups was always assured. Good communication and personal contacts between the partners from both sides are very important. The number of pilot courses and students’ exchanges was lower than the project budget would have allowed, because of the difficulty to find short modular courses of interest and the practical and logistic issues related to their organization. However, the results are promising and further development of the cooperation will be beneficial for both sides and for maintaining a competent work force in the nuclear sector. This will have to be achieved in a follow-up project.

Project Context and Objectives:
4.1.1Concept and objectives, contribution to the coordination of high quality research, quality and effectiveness of the coordination mechanism and associated work plan

4.1.1.1 Concept and project objective(s)

The entire project of cooperation with Russia in the development of a common ground for cooperation in nuclear education, training and knowledge management consists of two parallel two-year projects, i.e. the ENEN-RU project, described here, on the EU side and the project titled “Innovative Nuclear Education Towards Peace, Prosperity & Sustainable Development”(provisionally) on the Russian side.

The objectives of the entire project are:
- to define a common basis to allow effective cooperation between the European and Russian networks for nuclear E&T;
- to define the needs of cooperation in the long term;
- to establish a framework for mobility of teachers and students;
- to conduct some pilot items for Education and Training (E&T);
- to launch the knowledge management framework; and
- to list up and promote further use of E&T facilities, laboratories and equipments.

The work will start by analysis of the present situation on both sides, define opportunities and barriers for cooperation, carry out pilot exercises and define a road map for the expansion of the cooperation. The project will lead to the mutual recognition of the E &T programmes on both sides and lead to the expansion of the exchanges. These would offer to nuclear research and industry a broader basis of human resources and foster cooperation in nuclear power development. All work will be done, most preferably, in English.

The scope of the project is:
- Master level and postgraduate education and Training for young professionals
- The focus is on nuclear engineering, due to the nature of the ENEN and its Members, but it does not exclude any contribution on other subjects.

The representatives of the two projects’ partners will sign an agreement to launch the entire project. By launching the entire project the described works have to take place between the two nuclear E&T networks in EU and Russia. A joint EU-Russia Project Committee is established to make a final review and decisions.

The Russian side project “Innovative Nuclear Education Towards Peace, Prosperity & Sustainable Development”(provisionally) consist of six Work Packages, in addition to the management of the project. The Work packages in the Russian project correspond to the respective work packages in the ENEN-RU project.

The organizations involved in the Russian side project are:
ROSATOM as the coordinator in the Euratom-Rosatom cooperation

For Education, Ministry of Education & Science, Russian Federation
- “National Research Nuclear University (NRNU)” led by the Moscow Engineering Physics Institutes (MEPhI), Moscow
- Obninsk State Technical University for Nuclear Power Engineering, Obninsk

For Training, State Corporation for Atomic Energy “ROSATOM”
- Central Institute for Continuing Education and Training (CICET), Obninsk
- SSC – Research Institute for Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad

4.1.1.2 Quality and effectiveness of the coordination mechanisms and associated work plan

Seven out of eight partners of the consortium are members of the ENEN Association and have been involved already in the FP5 ENEN coordination project and ENEN-II coordination projects. Together with the eight partner they have been involved in the FP6 NEPTUNO project. Structures and communication channels have therefore been established and formalised to a large extent within the ENEN Association and will support the quality and the effectiveness of the coordination mechanisms in this project.
The ENEN Association itself is a legal entity with statutory structures and meetings, including the General Assembly and the Governing Board chaired by the President. Contacts, interactions and information exchanges between the members are firmly established and facilitated by the ENEN Secretariat located in Saclay, France, and the ENEN web site www.enen-assoc.org. The ENEN Secretariat will be in charge of the overall coordination of the project.
The activities of the ENEN Association are organised in working areas, covering the activities of working groups, whose members will be involved to the necessary extent in this project. The Teaching and Academic Affairs Area (TAAA) establishes the equivalence between nuclear education curricula, awards the ENEN Master of Science Certification, promotes exchanges and organises International ENEN exchange courses. TAAA is represented in the consortium by UPB, who is leader of Work Package 1 dealing with the introduction of an equivalent of the ECTS in the Russian Federation Network and the harmonisation of quantification units for academic education. The Advanced Courses and Research Area (ACRA) facilitates the interaction between ENEN members and research laboratories in the European Community. It is represented in the consortium by UPB and SCKCEN and is very well suited to establish exchanges with other networks and has tight relations with research centres, universities and industry to identify and exploit opportunities for suitable topics for internships, Masters' Thesis and PhD's research. They will be involved in the search and identification of suitable infrastructures and laboratories for hosting researchers in Work Package 5, the organisation of advanced courses and seminars at the postgraduate level in Work Package 3 and the organisation of joint sessions for PhD students at selected conferences. They will draw on the experience of successful PhD sessions organised by the ENEN Association. The Training and Industrial Projects Area (TIPA) identifies the industrial needs for continued professional development and hosts a working group entirely dedicated to this project with representatives of CTU, REZ, UPB and STU. The working group will be mainly active in Work Package 4 with the organisation of training sessions and continual learning courses for young professionals. The Knowledge Management Area represented in the consortium by STU, IKE and ENEN will be responsible for the documentation of the experience and the best practices acquired by the consortium in the framework of the project and for the dissemination of the results. The coordinator ENEN will charge its Quality Assurance Working Group to apply quality assurance processes to the project, its pilot items and its deliverables. The networking established for several years through the ENEN Association and its working committees provides a solid basis for an effective coordination and for the quality of those coordination mechanisms.
The ENEN Association has developed an evaluation system for reviewing educational programmes and curricula according to the Bologna agreement to implement the mutual recognition of courses related to nuclear disciplines and nuclear engineering in particular. This evaluation system will be exchanged with the Russian Federation counterparts and applied in a test phase to explore and probe the potential for mutual recognition of curricula in nuclear disciplines and to draw the specifications for a supporting structure. From the results of the activities and pilot tests described above, the opportunities for long term cooperation will be captured and the requirements and modalities for the exploitation of those opportunities will be identified and quantified.


4.1.1.3 Strategy of the Work Plan

Following-up on the structured dialogue established between ROSATOM, the Russian State Corporation, and Euratom, and several preparatory meetings with the Russian counterparts, the Work plan has been constructed to develop a common ground for cooperation in nuclear education, training and knowledge management. The Work Packages (WP) reflect the different items identified as being the basis for such a common ground of cooperation. In a cascading analysis those items have been deployed into objectives, tasks, deliverables and milestones. The objectives of the Work Packages have been formulated to indicate the pathway to be followed for establishing the basis for cooperation. The different tasks to be implemented for achieving those objectives have been identified and documented in the description of the Work Packages. The progress of each task will be monitored along a series of milestones, leading to a deliverable, which documents the final completion of the task. The structure is intended to be simple and transparent in order to facilitate the monitoring of progress made and its communication to the Russian counterparts.
As a result of the achievement of all the objectives of the entire project described in 4.1.1 a sustainable framework of cooperation with Russia will be established for nuclear Education and Training.
The first step is to analyse the present situation and to define the needs and opportunities for cooperation in the long term (WP1 and WP2). This analysis is carried out against the background of the current trends and future plans for the use of nuclear energy in the EU and Russia will provide the key elements for defining the strategy for the development of the human resources.
The analysis also includes, for Education, the current status and further suggestions for the installment of the Bologna process and the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) in Russia since it will definitely ensure the enhancement of future exchange of students. To start this process at the beginning of 2010 is the best timing taking into account the fact that the NRNU is expected to be launched officially at the end of 2009. Since the new approach over Russia is applied to NRNU for the field of nuclear energy, the introduction of the Bologna process and the ECTS concept in nuclear energy disciplines at NRNU might be a good introduction and test before expanding them into to other disciplines.
Both Work Packages are focusing on the collection and exchange of information, on the processing and categorisation of information and on drawing conclusions and recommendations. Also WP5 is addressing the systematic collection of information. This information, however, is meant to be compiled in a database on facilities, infrastructures, laboratories and equipment, accessible to students, trainees and fellows for practical work, development of skills, research, internships and demonstrations. The database will include information on access rules, prerequisites and modalities. Obviously the collection, presentation and dissemination of this information have to rely on good communication channels and easily accessible interfaces as well from the EU side as from the Russian side. To establish, operate and maintain those communication channels is the role of WP6 on the basis of an efficient web site.
The correctness of the conclusions and the relevance of the recommendations formulated in WP1 and WP2 will be tested in pilot items to be developed under WP3, for education and research, and WP4 for training. In WP3, suitable courses will be identified for testing the exchange of students and the participation of PhDs to advanced courses or to PhD events as they are organised by several partners, e.g. ENEN and SCKCEN. Performance evaluations of the courses and events based on comments by participants, both students and teachers, will provide feedback into the conclusions and the recommendations. A similar approach will be followed for training sessions, seminars and workshops for young professionals under WP4.
The overall management of the project will be assured by the ENEN Association, in close cooperation with the Work Package leaders in the Project Committee and with the Russian counterparts through the EU-Russian Project Committee.
An important component of the strategy of the Work Plan is of course the installation and operation of good communication channels with the Russian counterparts and the careful selection of the Russian counterparts to ensure the continuity of the cooperation during the project itself and its sustainability in the long term after the terminbation of the project. This strategy has already been initiated by participation to important bilateral meetings between the European Commission and the major Russian organisations involved in education and training in the nuclear disciplines. The presentation of the ENEN Association, its members and its activities has always been on the agenda of those meetings and communication channels have been considerably strengthened with respect to the initial exchanges taking place during technical meetings organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Good contacts have therefore already been established and have been maintained during the preparation of this proposal.

Project Results:
4.1.2.1 The Current Status of the Implementation and the Compatibility of the Bologna process in Russia

4.1.2.1.1 Introduction

Following-up on the structured dialogue established between ROSATOM, the Russian State Corporation, and Euratom, and several preparatory meetings with the Russian counterparts,the Work plan has been constructed to develop a common ground for cooperation in nuclear education, training and knowledge management.
The main objective of the first Work Package is to analyze the implementation and the compatibility of the Bologna process and the ECTS concept in Russia as a basis to enhance future exchanges of lecturers and students, and to promote the implementation of the Bologna process within the new NRNU in Russia.
As a start, the EU side provided the basic information on the Bologna process, the mutual recognition and the ECTS concept (Deliverable 1.1) mainly based on the experiences and practices of the ENEN Association and its former Teaching and Academic Affairs Committee (TAAC).
During the common workshop of project partners, in Obninsk were presented the current status of nuclear education in EU and Russia and were analyzed the possibilities for mutual recognition (Deliverable 1.2).
The present deliverable aims to define a common basis to allow effective cooperation between the European and Russian networks for nuclear E&T, based on the actual needs expressed by Russian partners, regarding:
- Preserving and further developing existing scientific schools and the high standard of research conducted at universities and research institutes,
- Preventing the loss of talented young scientists to the field of science and education and training top quality research, teaching and management staff
- Concentrating intellectual and material resources on the key areas of science and technology
- Creating a system which would help to apply the potential of science and higher education in industry, mostly through innovation
- Enhancing the role of universities both in Russia as a whole and in their respective regions, in particular, as institutions responsible for developing the intellectual resources of society and for enhancing its cultural level.
A specific goal of partners is to develop general requirements to nuclear education in nuclear engineering in order to find the place (position) of Bachelor and Master graduates in Nuclear Corporate structure.

4.1.2.1.2 Current status of nuclear education in EU countries

The Bologna Process – Towards the European Higher Education Area

The Bologna Process aims to create a European Higher Education Area by 2010, in which students can choose from a wide and transparent range of high quality courses and benefit from smooth recognition procedures. The Bologna Declaration of June 1999 has put in motion a series of reforms needed to make European Higher Education more compatible and comparable, more competitive and more attractive for Europeans and for students and scholars from other continents. Reform was needed then and reform is still needed today if Europe is to match the performance of the best performing systems in the world, notably the United States and Asia.
The three overarching objectives of the Bologna process have been from the start: introduction of the three cycle system (bachelor/master/doctorate), quality assurance and recognition of qualifications and periods of study. At this stage of the Bologna Process, the new three-cycle structure is either fully in place or has at least been extensively introduced in all countries. However, several study fields, particularly regulated professions such as medicine and related fields, remain outside these new structures in nearly all countries.
Looking at the combination of first and second cycle programmes, the 180 + 120 ECTS credit (for information on ECTS, see Bologna Tools below) two-cycle structure is the most commonly adopted model. It is the most prominent model in 16 countries and is also used in a further 21 countries where no unique model is established.
Establishing of curricula is a prerogative of high education institution, which most commonly is related with the labor market, industry needs and existing research facilities.
Detailed description on this topic was included in Deliverable 1.1 and was presented at the Obninsk workshop (Deliverable 1.2)

4.1.2.1.3. The Bologna tools: European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and Diploma Supplement (DS)

ECTS makes teaching and learning in higher education more transparent across Europe and facilitates the recognition of all studies. The system allows for the transfer of learning experiences between different institutions, greater student mobility and more flexible routes to gain degrees. It also aids curriculum design and quality assurance.
Two long established elements of the ‘Bologna toolkit’ are the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and the Diploma Supplement (DS). ECTS is a student-centered credit system, initially developed to facilitate mobility in the Erasmus programme, and is based on the student workload required to achieve defined learning outcomes. The Diploma Supplement is a document attached to a higher education diploma that describes the nature, level, content and status of the studies successfully completed. An example of diploma supplement is given in Appendix 1.
Institutions which apply ECTS publish their course catalogues on the web, including detailed descriptions of study programmes, units of learning, university regulations and student services.
Course descriptions contain ‘learning outcomes’ (i.e. what students are expected to know, understand and be able to do) and workload (i.e. the time students typically need to achieve these outcomes). Each learning outcome is expressed in terms of credits, with a student workload ranging from 1 500 to 1 800 hours for an academic year, and one credit generally corresponds to 25-30 hours of work.
A series of ECTS key documents help with credit transfer and accumulation – course catalogues, learning agreements, transcript of records and Diploma Supplements (DS).
Although ECTS can help recognition of a student’s studies between different institutions and national education systems, higher education providers are autonomous institutions. The final decisions are the responsibility of the relevant authorities: professors involved in student exchanges, university admission officers, recognition advisory centres (ENIC-NARIC), ministry officials or employers.
The European Commission has established a network of Recognition experts (ECTS/DS) and developed the ECTS and DS labels to odernize excellent application of either system.
ECTS is closely related to other efforts to odernize higher education in Europe. In particular, it has become a central tool in the Bologna Process which aims to make national systems converge.
A large majority (34 signatory states) fully implement the two instruments in their higher education systems. Among the 12 countries that have fully implemented only one of the two tools, all but Turkey have implemented the Diploma Supplement whereas ECTS implementation still lags behind. Overall this widespread use indicates that these two instruments have played an important role in embedding aspects of the Bologna reforms and facilitating the understanding of national higher education systems.
The combination ‘180+120’ credits (or in years of full-time study ‘3+2’) emerged as the prominent model in Europe, while there is flexibility to accommodate variations of the model. However, the percentage of learners studying in two-cycle programmes was below 50% in six systems, including two large countries (Germany, Russia). Partly this reflects ongoing transition, especially in the four countries that joined the Bologna Process recently.
Full description of the documents mentioned above is provided in Deliverable 1.1 and the documents were discussed at the Obninsk workshop (Deliverable 1.2).

4.1.2.1.4. University Programmes in Nuclear Engineering

Engineering education has been offered for many decades along several different tracks. One approach is the Bachelor’s, or undergraduate degree, based on approximately three to four years of study at the university level. This is followed by a second more advanced degree, the Master’s, which involves two years of study beyond the Bachelor’s. Another approach that has been widely used, especially in Europe, is the Diploma. It typically involves five years of study. A third approach is the Engineer degree consisting of five to six years of study. This has been the tradition in, for example, France, Russia, Romania, Bulgaria and the Ukraine. This picture is, however, changing. In June 1999, the Ministers of Education in the European Union entered into the Bologna Process. This has led to the adoption of the Bachelor’s and Master’s degree programmes at most European universities, which replace the Diploma or the Engineer degree. France focuses the nuclear engineering education either at the Engineer degree (5 years usually, 6 years in some instances) within its specific “Grandes Ecoles” approach, or as a Master’s degree (5 years) in harmony with the Bologna Process. Russia is taking a two-tier approach in which the Bachelor’s/Master’s programmes will be implemented. This is a key part of the strategy for international engagement. However, the degree of Engineer will be retained in Russia and the Ukraine to satisfy the needs of the domestic industry.
The expectations of degree recipients at each level are the following:
• On completion of a Bachelor’s degree level qualification, it is expected that the student will have comprehension and knowledge of nuclear engineering systems.
• On completion of a Master’s degree level qualification, it is expected that the student will be able to analyze, synthesize and evaluate knowledge gained, and apply this knowledge to nuclear power plant systems.
Beyond the expectations, it is further recognized that there are a set of specific learning outcomes that should result from the completion of the curriculum. For example, at the Master’s degree level (or Engineer’s degree), graduates should be able to demonstrate the following:
• Identify, assess, formulate and solve complex nuclear engineering problems creatively and innovatively,
• Apply advanced mathematics, science and engineering from first principles to solve complex nuclear engineering problems,
• Design and conduct advanced investigations and experiments,
• Use appropriate advanced engineering methods, skills and tools, including those based on information technology,
• Communicate effectively and authoritatively at a professional level, both orally and in writing, with engineering audiences and the community at large, including outreach,
• Work effectively as an individual, in teams and in complex, multidisciplinary and multicultural environments,
• Have a critical awareness of, and diligent responsiveness to, the impact of nuclear engineering activity on the social, industrial and physical environment with due cognizance to public health and safety.
In terms of specific technical areas, the Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in nuclear engineering bring together a number of key areas that are integrated into a nuclear engineering academic degree programme. This scope is depicted in Figure 1.
The areas shown in the figure generally represent the key fields of study required to prepare a nuclear engineer for employment in a nuclear power plant. For the nuclear engineer, it is important that these topics are well integrated together to produce a well-prepared graduate who can enter into the training programmes for a specific nuclear power plant and reach the required level of competence to successfully carry out his or her responsibilities for safe, secure and economical operation.
In the two following sections, the competencies are defined at both Bachelor’s and Master’s degree levels. In addition, requirements of the graduate are given in more detail, and involve what each student should know a specified level of knowledge (Knowledge), be able to demonstrate application of the knowledge (Skills), and know when to implement the knowledge (Attitudes).

4.1.2.1.5. Competencies of Graduates with the Bachelor of Nuclear Engineering for Nuclear Power Plants

The graduate with the qualification (degree) of Bachelor of Nuclear Engineering for nuclear power plants must have the competencies shown below. These are divided into two categories. General Competencies describe those basic and fundamental areas in which all engineers should have capabilities. Specific Competencies are more directed to the field of nuclear engineering

The graduates must have the following abilities:

General Competencies

BC-I. Written and colloquial communications and reports in their national language and possibly English.
BC-II. Work effectively as part of a team, and to sustain creative collaboration with their colleagues.
BC-III. Work independently within the framework of their professional qualifications, and have a commitment to professional development throughout their career.
BC-IV. Understand the basic laws of natural sciences including classical physics, chemistry, atomic and nuclear physics.
BC-V. Understand the basic approaches for acquiring, storing and processing information and data, be familiar with standard computer code packages, including computer-aided graphics and design.

Specific Competencies

BC-VI. Conduct mathematical analysis and numerical simulation, and theoretical and experimental investigations in nuclear engineering.
BC-VII. Conduct mathematical simulation of processes in components of nuclear power plants, apply standard methods and computer codes for design and analysis.
BC-VIII. Perform radiation protection and measurement experiments, and analyze resulting experimental data.
BC-IX. A commitment to safety and an understanding of safety culture.
BC-X. Understand the regulatory process and the role of the regulator in power plant licensing and operation.
BC-XI. Participate in the design process of the principal system and components of nuclear power plants or other nuclear facilities, accounting for environmental and safety requirements, and incorporating new requirements and technologies.

Learning outcomes of a Graduate with a Bachelor’s Degree in Nuclear Engineering for Nuclear Power Plants are presented in Annex 1. They were discussed at the Obninsk workshop and during the project progress meeting

4.1.2.1.6. Competencies of Graduates with the Master of Nuclear Engineering for Nuclear Power Plants

The expectations and requirements for the graduates holding the Master’s degree are higher than for the Bachelor’s degree and are shown in fig.2.

The purpose of this diagram is to highlight the fact that at the Master’s level, the graduate should be able to integrate experimentation, computation and synthesis. This is a key for the higher expectations of an individual holding the Master’s degree.
As with the case of the Bachelor’s degree holder, students who will be employed in nuclear power plants will have to undertake plant specific training.
The graduate with the qualification of Master of Nuclear Engineering for nuclear power plants must have the competencies shown below.

General Competencies

MC-I. Written and spoken English in professional and international settings, employing technically advanced terminology used in the nuclear power industry.
MC-II. Work collaboratively within a team and to exercise effective leadership of that team with good management skills while working towards a well-defined goal.
MC-III. Work independently, identify new directions, and demonstrate decision making capabilities within their sphere of expertise, and to have a commitment to professional development through their career.

Specific Competencies

MC-IV. Understand thoroughly the basic and advanced laws of atomic and nuclear physics, chemistry and the relevant engineering sciences applicable to nuclear power plant technology.
MC-V. Advanced mathematical analysis and numerical simulation of the various physics and engineering processes and systems in a nuclear power plant.
MC-VI. Understand data acquisition, storage and processing using recognized and accepted computer codes in the nuclear industry.
MC-VII. Theoretical, numerical and experimental methodologies for analysis of thermophysical processes.
MC-VIII. Use reactor experiments to characterize the basic physics in a nuclear reactor, by understanding and analyzing the resulting data..
MC-IX. Understand nuclear power plant systems, with all the principal components.
MC-X. Design relevant systems by synthesizing the collective knowledge gained in all relevant disciplines.
MC-XI. A commitment to safety and an understanding of safety culture.
MC-XII. Understand the regulatory process, the role of the regulator in nuclear power plant licensing and operation, and the main regulatory requirements for a nuclear power plant.

As noted above, the Master’s degree recipient is expected to have additional capabilities beyond the Bachelor’s degree. Upon completion of the degree of Master of Nuclear Engineering for Nuclear Power Plants, the student must have the learning outcomes presented in Annex 2.

4.1.2.1.7. Sample Curriculum for BS and MS in Nuclear Engineering

Based on the competencies and criteria outlined in the previous sections, the following are examples of curricula for programmes at Bachelor’s and Master’s Degree level. The curricula shown are not necessarily used at any one university, but represent current approaches. A two semester system making up the academic year is assumed in these examples. Activities during the summer period including courses, projects or internships may be used. Some universities will also offer “mini-masters” between semesters to expand the offerings for the students. The “credit” for the various courses are not shown, since there are a number of approaches used in various countries ranging from semester hours, European Credit Transfer System (ECTS), lecture or contact hours, and other systems of assigning academic credit.
The curricula below are meant to be illustrative. No descriptions are given for the individual courses. So that each university can “map” the requirements as needed by the individual university and national need.

Bachelor of Nuclear Engineering for Nuclear Power Plants

Curriculum of Bachelor of Nuclear Engineering is structured on two 2-years segments. The first is dedicated to General Engineering and the second to Nuclear Engineering.
The curriculum from the University Politehnica Bucharest for BSc in Nuclear Power and Technology is probably one of the most ambitious and is as follows:

Year I-II General Sciences/ Engineering Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Computing Science, Science of Materials, Electronics, Sustainable Development, Electricity and Electrical Machines, Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics etc.

Year III-Power Engineering
Heat Transfer, Strengthen of Materials, Control Theory and Automation, Measurement and Instrumentation, Power Equipment etc.
Year IV- Nuclear Engineering
Nuclear Processes, Radioprotection and Dosimetry, Reactor Theory, Nuclear Materials, Reactor Engineering, Nuclear Power Plants, Nuclear Equipment and Installations, NPP Control and Instrumentation, Nuclear Safety, Radwaste Management, Numerical Methods, Reactor Physics Experiments.
Other European universities have partially nuclear courses from the listed above.

Master of Nuclear Engineering for Nuclear Power Plants

The Master’s programme typically takes two years, but in some countries can be completed in one year. Usually a Master’s project or thesis may be required. Within a degree programme, the university may choose to offer elective courses focusing on options or themes so that students can develop a stronger background in a technical area. A typical Master’s degree in nuclear engineering for nuclear power plants would encompass the following courses:
Year 1
First Semester Second Semester
Nuclear and Radiation Sciences Neutronics of Nuclear Systems
Nuclear Reactor Theory Reactor Thermal Hydraulics
Nuclear Materials and Chemistry Radiological and Environmental Impacts
Radiation Detection and Measurement Nuclear Reactor Laboratory

Year 2
First Semester Second Semester
Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Nuclear Regulation and Licensing
Probabilistic Safety Analysis Nuclear Security and Safeguards
Reactor Systems and Safety Nuclear Systems Design

Master’s Thesis or Project

An example of curriculum for Master degree in Nuclear Engineering is presented in Annex 3.
The choice of curriculum structure is upon university and is related with the needs of industry, the existing academic staff and research infrastructure. For comparison purpose below is presented the structure of curriculum at Politecnico di Torino.
The master’s degree on energy and nuclear engineering at Politecnico di Torino is organised on the basis of a set of courses required for both the energy engineering track and the nuclear engineering track. Each track includes a set of specific courses. Part of the nuclear content is offered to both tracks, while most characteristic topics are offered only in the specific track. The following table reports the structure of the program.
Details on the structure of the program and content of the courses may be found at:
https://didattica.polito.it/pls/portal30/gap.a_mds.espandi?p_a_acc=2012&p_id_cdl=&p_sdu=32&p_cds=36&p_header=&p_anno=0&p_info=&p_lang=EN

4.1.2.1.8. European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering
Starting 2005 the ENEN Association delivers the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering degree as a recognition of the studies carried out at the association members.
The objectives of the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering framework are:
- to educate students towards analytic, resourceful and inventive nuclear engineers by combining the joint state-of-the-art know-how of the participating universities;
- to train these students by making full use of the unique nuclear research and industrial facilities throughout Europe;
- to develop a common safety culture throughout Europe;
- to develop an international network of nuclear engineers and scientists by participation of students of different nationalities, by contact and collaboration with local students, and by education in several countries with different educational views, different nuclear reactor concept and technologies, and different nuclear policies.

The Board of Governors of the European Nuclear Education Network Association has approved the by-laws for the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering ENEN Certification (EMSNE-EC) issued by the European Nuclear Education Network Association.
The by-laws reflect the high quality and the objectives set out by the European Nuclear Engineering Association.
The main requirement for awarding the EMSNE-EC is that the applicant has obtained a Master Degree in Nuclear Engineering, or equivalent, delivered by or in co-operation with an academic institution which is a member of the ENEN-Association, called the home institution.
The additional requirements for awarding the EMSNE-EC are:
- the total load of the study programme of the applicant leading to the degree of Master in Nuclear Engineering, or equivalent, is at least 300 ECTS credits at university level;
- of which at least 60 ECTS credits (which may include the master thesis project) are in nuclear sciences and technology, preferably engineering, at master level;
- of which at least 20 ECTS credits (which may include the master thesis project) are taken at one or more academic institutions or clusters of such academic institutions, that are effective members of the ENEN-Association, other than the home institution and in a different country than the home institution;
- the applicant has successfully defended a nuclear engineering master thesis project;

The courses topics cover at least the following fields of study:
• Nuclear Power Plant Technology & Reactor Engineering,
• Reactor Physics,
• Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics,
• Safety and Reliability of the Nuclear Facilities,
• Reactor Engineering Materials,
• Radiology and Radiation Protection,
• Nuclear Fuel Cycle and applied radiochemistry.

The decision whether to award the EMSNE-EC to an applicant, or not, is autonomously made by the Teaching and Academic Affairs Committee in accordance with the rules and requirements set out by the by-laws.

4.1.2.2. Current status of nuclear education at NRNU-MEPhI Russia

Main problems to be solved by the educational process in the nuclear field refer to:
- increase emphasis on nuclear in physics and applied physics courses; organize seminars on nuclear in parallel or in liaison with the existing curriculum using speakers external to the university.
- call attention to the environmental benefits of nuclear (energy from fission, fusion, and renewable in comparison to fossil resources).
- include advanced courses (such as reliability and risk assessment).
- broaden the program to include topics such as nuclear medicine and plasma physics.
- assure that the education covers the full scope of nuclear activities (fuel cycle, waste conditioning, and materials behavior).

Requirements for engineers trained in the field of Nuclear Power Plants and Facilities refer to the skills engineers must have:
- developing flow-charts and mathematical models of processes and equipment for converting the nuclear energy of the fuel into heat and electrical energy;
- applying mathematical models and computer codes to perform numerical analysis of all the processes occurring in the NPP power equipment;
- performing thermal-hydraulic, neutron-physical and strength analysis of equipment components under development by using state-of-the-art tools and methods;
- performing a comprehensive assessment of the economic efficiency of engineering and organizational solutions based on a deep knowledge of nuclear power and business economics, fundamentals of production planning and management, quality management, occupational health and safety principles and environmental protection.
The specific of Russia is that, compared to western education system, there is a university specialization “Nuclear Power Plant and Installations” (Diploma of Engineer) especially focusing the staffing of Nuclear Power Plants. (Obs.: a similar specialization but at BSc level exists in University Politehnica of Bucharest).

4.1.2.2.1. Nuclear education activity

Russian universities developed specific competence related to a specific area of nuclear technology.
Nuclear Power Plants and Facilities specialty has 3 specializations:
- Water Chemistry headed by the Department of Chemistry,
- Maintenance and Commissioning, headed by Department of Commissioning and Radiation Safety and Environmental Physics, heade by Department of Nuclear Physics.

At the level of Bachelor the 4-year structure (in hours) of the curriculum is shown in figure 3.

Nuclear undergraduate courses address:
- Methodology and history of nuclear power
- Recent developments in nuclear power
- Problems of nuclear power
- Nuclear reactions and reactors
- Advanced nuclear power systems
The learning objectives for some nuclear course at BSc level are presented in Annex 4.

Graduate Courses
The structure of Master curriculum (in hours) is presented in figure 4.

Nuclear graduate courses address:
- Physical protection, control and accounting of fissile materials
- Status and trends of nuclear power development
- State of-the-art software for forecasting of nuclear power development and NFC analysis
- State of-the-art IT in scientific research.

Topics of PhD Studies
- Foresight and feasibility studies on nuclear technology
- Development of competitiveness assessment methodology for nuclear technologies
- Development of expert support system on nuclear technology
- Development of physical process models in nuclear technology

Material and technical support offered to students consist of:
• Specialized library
• Computer Class
• Specialized software

All courses feature an extensive set of lecture notes, a complete set of laboratory materials and assignments with solutions.
Some topics of lecture courses which cover the area of study are:
1. The Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
2. The Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
3. Nuclear Fuel Design and Manufacturing
4. Reactor Design Criteria
5. Objectives of Reactor Analysis
6. Reactivity and Burnable Poison
7. Fast Reactor Physics
8. Advanced Thermal Reactor Concepts (HTGR, ACR, etc.)
9. Hybrid Reactor Concepts (ADS, FNS, etc)
10. Safety Aspects of Nuclear Power
11. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies
12. International Cooperation in the Nuclear Power
13. Thorium as a Nuclear Fuel
14. Nuclear Non-proliferation
15. Non-proliferation, Safeguards, and Export Controls
16. Proliferation-resistance of Nuclear Energy Systems
17. Pu and minor actinides Recycle
18. High Level Wastes
19. Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste
20. Economics of Nuclear Power
21. Fuel Cost Calculations
22. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Economics.

These topics include:
- Uranium supply, enrichment, fuel fabrication, in-core physics and fuel management of uranium, thorium and other fuel types, reprocessing and waste disposal.
- The principles of fuel cycle and nuclear power economics are covered as well as the applied reactor physics.
- Nonproliferation and safety aspects, management with excess weapons plutonium, transmutation of actinides and fission products in spent fuel are considered

Educational process of methodical support used at NRNU MEPhI consist of:
1. Hardcopy and electronic training aids and monographs
2. Specialized software
3. Virtual labs, electronic aids and simulators for courses
4. Electronic bank of tasks on different courses
5. A set of freely distributed computer modules, electronic templates, basic software component, which students could immediately use in their educational and research activities

Under development are:
- Nuclear fuel cycle simulators
- Computer courses on energy system analysis software
- Knowledge base on nuclear science and technology, film library
- An information infrastructure to support the educational process (portal, intellectual testing environment.
An example of a Multimedia Course is on “Introduction in Nuclear Technology”.

4.1.2.2.2. Joint workshop in Obninsk

A joint Workshop was organized in Obninsk-Russia, at the Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering (IATE) together with the Central Institute for Continuing Education and Training (CICET) and ROSATOM.
The objective of this Workshop was to share the experience of ENEN members in harmonizing curricula and mutual recognition as well as to realize a deeper understanding of the Bologna process, to capture and review the general situation of the Russian nuclear education process, and to provide a list of concrete steps for the future implementation of the Bologna process at NRNU.
Information on the workshop is provided in the Deliverable 1.2.

Another opportunity to exchange information on Work Package 1 among the project partners was te Project Progress meeting held in January 2012. During the meeting presentations were made on behalf of Rosatom, CICET, Obninsk IATE.

4.1.2.3 Needs for Cooperation in the Long-Term

4.1.2.3.1 Introduction

Before addressing a vision on long term cooperation it is worthwhile to review the information about peaceful use of nuclear energy in the world, in the European Union and in Russia.

4.1.2.3.2 Current situation in use of nuclear energy

The nuclear energy is used for peaceful energy production since the fifties of the previous century. Typically, it is used for electric energy production. But there are also some minor applications for transportation systems, characteristically for ships.

4.1.2.3.3 Nuclear energy worldwide

Massive building of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) started in the seventies and continued to the end of eighties of the last century. The building of strong NPP fleets in that time was supported by the oil crises and many countries wanted to diversify their energy source by the use of nuclear energy. The development the nuclear area and confidence to the nuclear safety was first disturbed by the Three Mile Island accident (1979, INES level 5). But a much more significant influence on the trust in nuclear safety brought the very serious Tschernobyl accident (1986, INES level 7). After the Tschernobyl accident, some unfinished power plants were not completed, and number of new projects was then very limited. The building of new NPPs shifted from the USA and Europe to the Far East Asian region. The situation can be documented by the graph in Figure 1, which represents the number of operating reactors by age worldwide.

Because of the aging of existing nuclear reactors and the safe operation of NPPs worldwide after the Tschernobyl accident, many countries started to plan the building of new reactors either to replace old ones or to increase the utilization of nuclear energy. This period is referred to as the nuclear renaissance. This situation was again strongly affected by the Fukushima accident (March 2011, INES level 7), which was caused by a strong earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. In Japan, operation of many nuclear power plants was stopped; maintenance and safety improvements are being carried out. Many states revised their plans regarding nuclear energy. The situation in Europe is described in next paragraph.

Nowadays, 435 nuclear reactors are used worldwide and provide the power of 368279 MW (e). The USA operates the highest number with 104 nuclear power reactors but the share of nuclear energy to the total production of electrical energy is only 19.59% (2010). France operates 58 nuclear power plants, Japan 50 and the Russian Federation 33 reactors. The nuclear energy share on the worldwide electric energy production is estimated to about 15%. The highest number of reactors under construction now is in China (26), followed by Russia (10), India (6) and Republic of Korea (5).

The majority of today’s reactors is from the so-called second generation. New built reactors (e.g. EPR, AP1000, and VVER1200) are specified as the third or the third plus generation with enhanced safety features and an increase of the passive systems to guarantee nuclear safety. For the future, generation four reactors are now under development. These reactors promise to provide inherent safety, use of passive safety systems, higher efficiency of electricity production, and higher technological output parameters (e.g. output temperature) to be usable for other uses than only electricity production (e.g. hydrogen production).

4.1.2.3.4 Nuclear energy in Europe

There are 187 operating nuclear power reactors in Europe and their power is 171932 MW (e). The highest number of operational reactors (58) and the highest share or nuclear electricity in all production (74.1%) is in France. High numbers of nuclear power reactors are also operating in the Russian Federation (33), United Kingdom (18) and Ukraine (15). An overview of the current situation on the use of nuclear energy in Europe is shown in Table 1. The development of nuclear energy in Europe suffered strongly from the Tschernobyl and Fukushima accidents. The Tschernobyl accident almost stopped the development in the western part of Europe, and strenghtened the green movement against nuclear energy in Europe. The Fukushima accidents forced some European states (e.g. Germany, Switzerland, Belgium) to promise phasing out the use of nuclear energy in the near future (in approximately one decade). The European commission ordered to carry out stress tests of the existing NPPs to evaluate their response to critical situations and the proper provisions and implementation of nuclear safety features.

The problem of reactor aging in Europe is similar to the situation worldwide. The average age of the reactors is about 28 years and many reactors need to be replaced by new ones. Some countries reduced their plans (e.g. Italy), some continue their activities (e.g. Czech Republic, Poland). It is possible to see a big generation gap between NPPs builders in seventies and eighties and today. Many specialist have retired before long time, many younger people from this time period changed their professions and do not continue their activities in the nuclear branch. The situation can be followed on the Fig. 2 which presents the number of reactors by age. A big gap is shown between the end of eighties and today. In Europe, 10 reactors are now under construction in Russia. Next, 2 reactors are being build in each Bulgaria, in Slovakia and in Ukraine, and 1 reactor each in France and in Finland.

The keyword of nowadays is knowledge management, to preserve practice and experience in the field of the nuclear industry. It is necessary to retain experience, to prepare new specialist to be ready to build, operate and maintain NPPs. Even these states that would like to stop the use of nuclear energy in one decade will still need many, many nuclear specialist for safe decommissioning of existing NPPs.

4.1.2.3.5 Nuclear energy in Russian Federation

In the previous chapter it is observed that after France the second largest number of reactors in NPPs operating in Europe is in the Russian Federation, and the Russian Federation produces the second largest amount of power from NPPs. Next, contrary to the Europe Union, the Russian Federation plans to continue the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and even expects a rapid development in this field. In the Russian Federation there are 10 new reactors now under construction now. The Russian Federation acquired much experience from projecting, building and operating the NPPs, so Russian Federation can provide much experience in both education and training for interested persons abroad. This situation provides the basis for the vision expressed under paragraph 4.1.3.

4.1.2.4 Recommendations for the Pilot Courses in Education and Training

Regarding the pilot items for education and training (E&T), one item for education and one item for training are expected to be carried out during this phase of the ENEN-RU project. The intention is to carry out one item (e.g. education) in Russian Federation and the other one (e.g. training) in European Union. The possible education and training activities were in detail discussed during ENEN-RU meetings in Obninsk October 2011 and January 2012.

According to the above mentioned meetings, following educational items are proposed:
- Engineering aspects of nuclear fuel manufacturing - from initial raw materials to fuel assemblies to be held in CICE&T Obninsk, Russian Federation, May 2012
- International Workshop on Reactor Physics and Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle to be held in MEPhI (Volga-seminar), Russian Federation, September 2012.

Training items are suggested follows:
- Production of radio-pharmaceuticals at research reactor, Nuclear Research Institute in Rez, Czech Republic, June 2012
- Training course in reactor physics, Training reactor VR-1, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic, September, October 2012
Finally, the Russian participants are invited to the PhD Event that will be held during the conference Nuclear Energy for New Europe, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2012.

4.1.2.5 Pilot course in Nuclear Education - Pilot education item in Russian Federation

The first education item was organized in Russian Federation. The name of the course was “Engineering aspects of nuclear fuel manufacturing - from initial raw materials to fuel assemblies”. The program of the course was following:
- Introduction
- Behaviour of fuel under irradiation
- Modern technical requirements to nuclear fuel
- Manufacturing techniques of nuclear fuel
- Quality monitoring in manufacture of nuclear fuel
- Metrological maintenance of nuclear fuel manufacture
- Maintenance of quality and reliability of nuclear fuel in the course of manufacture
- Perspective fuel types
- Issues on infrastructure Development to establish National Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Industry
The Human Resources Department of the Rosatom State Corporation in association with European Nuclear Education Network Association realized the «ENEN-RU project for Development of Common Ground for Cooperation in Nuclear Education Training and Knowledge Management» having the objective to identify the unique platform for cooperation in the field of nuclear education and training. Within the framework of this project on the 21st – 26th of May, 2012, the training course for the European students on «Engineering Aspects of Nuclear Fuel Fabrication, from Initial Raw Materials to Fuel Assemblies» had been held in Central Institute for Continuing Education & Training (CICE&T), Obninsk. The course was developed in close cooperation with TVEL Fuel Company of Rosatom within the framework of “Rosatom-Euratom”. The course was aimed at the creation of a positive opinion of the European nuclear programme future management on technological equipment of the nuclear fuel cycle in Russia and the promotion of Russian nuclear products to the European markets.
CICE&T is a member of the ENEN Association and the course mentioned before is officially recognized as a part of an educational trajectory for trainees. Eight students from the European institutions (Politecnico di Torino, University Politehnica Bucharest and Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava) by results of the final testing will receive credits according to the system existing in the European Union - ECTS. The Certificate issued by the CICE&T according to the results of training is the reason for this issue. Together with representatives of the European Union young specialists from the Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering – the branch of Moscow Engineering Physics Institute and from Institute for Physics and Power Engineering passed through the course. This kind of combined training of the Russian and European experts on the base of CICE&T platform is a significant step to capacity-building of the International Campus in Obninsk. The course participants evaluated the education item very positively; the course brought them new important knowledge regarding fuel elements manufacturing, equipment requirements, maintenance, etc. The course was prepared very professionally by the Russian side. The participants appreciated the course quality very much.

4.1.2.6 Pilot Course in Nuclear Training - Training on the VR-1 Reactor at the Czech Technical University in Prague

The training item in European Union was carried out at training reactor VR-1 in Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic from 1st to 5th of October 2012. Nine Russian PhD students together with their
supervisor (Dr. Yugay from Rosatom) took part in the training. The training consisted of two parts. Two technical visits were the first part of the program. First, the Nuclear Research Institute in Rez (NRI - also ENEN-RU project partner) was visited. During the visit, operation of both reactors of the institute - LR0 (1kW) and LVR15 (10MW) – was attended. The NRI staff provided much information regarding both reactors. The second technical visit was to Skoda Nuclear Machinery Company in Plzen. Skoda Nuclear Machinery manufactures components of NPPs (reactor tanks, internal parts of reactor vessels, control cluster drives, etc.), acts as general contractor during the building of NPPs, produces casks (e.g. Castor type) for intermediate storage of spent fuel elements. Next, it provides services and maintenance for existing NPPs. During the visit, standard workshops, testing equipment were visited. Finally, a large reactor hall for manufacturing of big components like reactor vessels or casks was visited.

The second part of the program was the training at the VR-1 reactor. The following tasks were carried out by the course participants:
- visit of the VR-1 reactor; welcome information; basic information about the VR-1 reactor; excursion in the reactor hall; design of the reactor VR-1; nuclear fuel IRT-4.
- properties of neutron detectors for nuclear reactor control; neutron gas detectors; dead-time and differential characteristic; distribution of the thermal neutron flux in the reactor.
- measurement of delayed neutrons and dynamic experiments; measuring the delayed neutrons; studying the nuclear reactor dynamic; determination of reactor void coefficient.
- measurements of reactivity by various methods and control rod calibration; measurements of reactivity by various methods; Rod Drop method; Source Jerk method; Positive period method; calibration of control rods.
- critical experiment; approaching to the critical state at the VR-1 reactor;
- safety and control equipment of the reactor VR-1; starting up and operating the VR-1 reactor; control equipment design and operation; demonstration of control equipment functions; training of reactor control by students; safety experiments

The participants received text books for carried out tasks. The course participants appreciated both parts of the training – technical visits and training at the VR-1 reactor. The PhD students work at different fields of nuclear engineering (project, operation, calculations, etc.). For some of them, the tasks at the reactor were relatively easy, for other ones appropriate. Generally, they positively evaluated the VR-1 reactor as a proper equipment for training of students or other applicants. For future trainings, it would be necessary to choose participants with a more similar knowledge background to have a more uniform training level, and it would be fine to provide more in advance the list of participants and their skills to the course organizer in order to prepare a proper selection of training tasks. Finally it would be necessary to inform better on the economic issues of the course to avoid some misunderstanding with respect to payment of accommodation, living costs, etc.

4.1.2.7 Participation of Russian Students to the PhD Event

In the framework of the 21st International Conference Nuclear Energy for New Europe in Ljubljana, Slovenia, 5-7 September 2012, the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association organized the 6th ENEN PhD Event 2012.
The objectives of the ENEN PhD Event are:
- to provide a forum for PhD students to present their research work to their fellows and colleagues in a friendly but competitive spirit
- to promote the research work of PhD students in the nuclear filed
- to set up a bridge between PhD students and professionals in the nuclear field.

The Event consists of 12 presentations by the PhD students nominated by ENEN Members and selected by the ENEN PhD Event Jury. All presentations are judged by the Jury members on the submitted paper as well as on the quality of their presentation and on the clarity in the discussion while answering the questions and discussions. The ENEN Prize is given to the three best presentations. In 2010 it was the first participation of a Russian student to the PhD Event. The paper “Deuterium trapping in Carbon Fiber Composites under high fluence” by A.Airapetov was selected to be presented at the 4-th PhD Event in Barcelona-Spain.
At the 6-th PhD Event in Ljubljana, in the framework of ENEN-RU project, participated Artem Dogov from Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering of NNRU MEPhI with the presentation “Software for Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation Studies”.

4.1.2.8 Report on the Education and Training Facilities, Laboratories and Equipment for Student, PhD and Faculty Member Exchange Purposes

4.1.2.8.1 Facilties in the European Union

Collection of the required information

To collect the required information about facilities, laboratories and equipment a template has been defined and approved during the mid-term project meeting in Obninsk. The template consists of several global sections like:
- General information
- General area of use
- Technical data
- Education & Training
- References

General information contains the general description of the facility, technical data or parameter the more detailed information like operational conditions, etc. Under the topic Education & Training the questions concerning its use for education and training should be answered. This topic also includes information about access rules and procedures. The template has been send to all ENEN-RU partners. Table 1 contains the overview information of the received forms from the European side. From the European side, 23 facilities have already been identified that can be used for exchange purposes.

4.1.2.8.2 Development of the ENEN-RU database

In order to display the collected information in an efficient way, a database was developed in MYSQL and PHP by the colleagues of TUM. The database is web-based, meaning it is accessible via a web browser. This offers the advantage that project partners as well as other registered users have easy access to the information and can modify or add new facility data in the future. The database is accessible from the following webpage: http://enenru-db.net/index.php. Only registered users can enter the database. In order to get access the first time, a registration form needs to be submitted.
Upon successful completion of the registration process, one can enter the user credentials on the home page.
On the overview screen, a user sees some general information on the ENEN-RU project and a number of links that are clickable. The institution profile page summarizes all the information of a specific institute that has been uploaded to the database.On the search page the user can browse the database by looking for a specific institution, country, facility or entering any other keyword. All the received templates from the European side have been uploaded into the database. Additional facilities should be introduced continuously as the information becomes available. In a later stage, the database will have to be reviewed, based in the input of all users. This could be subject of a follow-up project.

4.1.2.8.3 Facilties in the Russian Federation.

From the Russian side, 7 facilities have already been identified that can be used for exchange purposes.
Remarks:
- It was very difficult to receive information from the Russian side. After several reminders, the information on the 7 facilities was received.
- Five of the seven templates are provided in Russian. The Russian side had promised to provide a translation, but this was not received until now.
- The Russian facilities still need to be introduced into the database. This will be done once the translations have been received. Additional facilities should be introduced continuously as the information becomes available.
In a later stage, the database will have to be reviewed, based in the input of all users. This could be subject of a next project.


Potential Impact:
4.1.3.1 Recommendations on the implementation and the compatibility of the Bologna process in Russia

Extensive discussions and exchange of information showed that:
- Both in EU countries and in Russia the learning outcomes are shaped after the industry needs.
- International cooperation (especially with countries planning to introduce nuclear power) requires development of new teaching packages, easily mutually recognizable.
- Exchange of students should be based on “Learning Agreements” which stipulate for each student the courses to be taken, the work load (in ECTS and/or in hours), thus facilitating the recognition of the academic activity. An example is presented in Appendix 1. Similar documents are provided in other EU- other countries exchange programmes, e.g. EUJEP (see www.enen-assoc.org).
- Different academic institutions (universities, institutes, education and training facilities etc.) have different programmes- duration, topics, target audience- in close connection with the end-users’ needs. This raises the question of how to consider and weigh the teaching requirements and the learning outcomes for a certain programme.
- Access to data bases containing information about the existing courses should be facilitated.
- In the EU universities the work load is expressed in ECTS while in Russian universities the work load is expressed in hours of teaching (course, seminary and other applications). This is not an obstacle as long as an equivalency between the two “unit systems” could be reached by bilateral or multilateral agreements. An example of Transcript of records, agreed between two universities (from EU and Russia) in order to facilitate the recognition of academic activity of the exchange students is presented in Appendix 2. This document, presented by Julia Rastopchina, is very similar to the “Diploma Supplement “, required by the Bologna process.
- A future project of cooperation between EU and Russia should address the analysis of different curricula, course topics and learning outcomes. This could lead to a formalization of procedures of mutual recognition. As an example was presented the path used within ENEN Association to mutually recognize the curricula and courses of the Association members and to establish the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering.
- The leading role in the future cooperation should be played by the ENEN Association and NRNU-MEPhI as experienced organizations. This way bilateral learning agreements between universities wouldn’t be no longer necessary and the cooperation will be promoted at the level of E&T networks.

4.1.3.2 Vision of future cooperation between EU and Russian Federation in Nuclear Education and Training.

Cooperation between Russian Federation and European Union in nuclear education and training can play an important role in future progress in peaceful use of nuclear energy, its safety and effectiveness. Both partners
got much experience in projecting, building and operation of nuclear power plants, education of specialists for all branches of nuclear industry, manufacturing of nuclear fuel and management of nuclear waste. Rapid
development of nuclear technology was in Europe reduced after Tschernobyl accident. Then, stagnancy continued for long time. In the new 21st century, nuclear renaissance was expected, and it seemed that this
renaissance would really start. But Fukushima accident brought again scepticism to nuclear energy in many European countries, some of them (like Germany) plan to stop use of nuclear energy approximately in one decade. Other countries revised their plans to develop existing nuclear technology and to build new NPPS. Because of stagnancy after Tschernobyl accident, number of nuclear specialist in Europe is decreasing, they get older and retired. Interest of students for nuclear study courses (but generally for all technical study courses) declined. No new NPPs were built in European Union for decades. So, the skill for projects, building and putting into operation was almost lost. The knowledge management got a keyword because of previously mentioned reasons.

In the Russian Federation, there was a completely different situation. Despite of Tschernobyl accident, they continuously developed nuclear technology, built and put into operation new NPPs. So, the situation in the field of knowledge management seems to be more optimistic in Russian Federation than in European Union.

The project ENEN-RU was established to support education and training in the field of nuclear engineering for students of master and Ph.D. levels. It is expected to organize educational courses in both counterparts – European Union and Russian Federation. The project members offer many study programs (Deliverable 2.1) in the field of reactor physics, thermo hydraulics, nuclear fuel manufacturing and storage, NPPs building, start-up, operation and decommissioning. It is expected that education courses would be quite different for master and Ph.D. students. In the case of master students, it is expected standardized courses for larger groups. More individual access would be possible for Ph.D. students. They could find according to their dissertation themes proper lectures independently alone or in small groups.

Generally, it is recommended not to organize educational courses for standard lectures that are available on many universities but to search special lectures and courses that are unique among the cooperating organizations. Regarding the courses in English, there could be a problem for universities where English is not a native language (majority of partners in ENEN-RU program). It is advisable to select interesting lectures for many program partners and prepare these lectures in English.

In the case of nuclear training, there are many facilities available in European Union countries and Russian Federation. Many of them got much experience in training for international applicants in English language. Unfortunately, no reasonable data about the use of Russian nuclear facilities (research reactors, critical facilities) were given from Russian side. According to the available literature (N.V. Archanglesky, I.T.Tretiakov V.N.
Fedulin: “Nuclear Research Facilities in Russia”, OJSC NIKIET, 2012), there are many very interesting facilities, but there is few information about their programs, training courses and mainly about accessibility for students from abroad. It would be necessary to provide more effort to clarify this matter with Russian Partners.

Finally, it would be appropriate to mention the Joint Institute for Nuclear Resarch (JINR) in Dubna, Russian Federation that is not member of the ENEN-RU project but many European countries cooperate with this institute individually. This institute offers many interesting experimental facilities (e.g. IBR-2M fast pulsed reactor, accelerators, neutron production targets for ADTT). It would be advisable to join this institute into the ENEN-RU folow-up project.

Conclusion
This document contains a survey of the use of nuclear energy worldwide and in Europe, experience from pilot items in education and training carried out in Russian Federation and in European Union in the framework of
the ENEN-RU project. Next, it provides a vision of the future cooperation in nuclear education and training between the European Union and Russian Federation. We believe that thanks to the mutual understanding of the partners from the European Union and the Russian Federation, experience from pilot education and training items carried out during first stage of the ENEN-RU project and common interest on future cooperation will start standard activities in nuclear education and training between the European Union and the Russian Federation.

4.1.3.3 Recommendations for the Pilot Sessions on Education and Training

A second objective of Work Package 2 is to prepare recommendations for the pilot items for E&T to be implemented during the project by Work Package 3 and Work Package 4. The pilot items in Work Package 3 are intended for education, the pilot items in Work Package 4 are adressing training. Therefore a document was prepared containing the list of cooperating organizations of the ENEN-RU project. Next, the courses and lectures in education for each of the organisations are provided. Also, a list of nuclear facilities for training with typical tasks for acquiring practical experience is included. Finally, proposals for pilot items for training and education are introduced. It is intended that this document would help the organizers to prepare pilot items for training and education in both areas of the project – Russian participants in the European Union and European participants in the Russian Federation. Thanks to the experience from the pilot education and training items carried out in the framework of the ENEN-RU project future standardised long term cooperation in nuclear education and training between the European Union and the Russian Federation can be started.

4.1.3.4. Recommenadtions on joint PhD Projects in Nuclear Engineering

Recommendations on the common organization of PhD projects emerged from the established procedures of the organization PhD study at these universities which are listed below.

Organisation of PhD study in the university
1. Prerequisites of study
Admission to a PhD study for the universities addressed is a successful completion of university master level or 10/11 semesters magister study finished before the Bologna convention implementation of natural science,
physic, mathematics, chemistry or engineering (Mechanical, Electrical, Chemical or Civil) with excellent or good ratings.

2. Modalities of the application process.
At list two moths prior submit the relevant documents to dean’s office like: diploma, master theses, list of publications, if possible a confirmation of professional practice.

3. Duration of study
Duration of full time PhD study at majority of universities is three year with the possibility of one year prolongation. Some universities have four years normal duration of PhD study also with possibility of one year prolongation. Duration of the external form (part time) of a PhD study is usually five years with the possibility for its prolongation.

4. Financing of study (scholarship, themselves sources, external support)
Scholarship for PhD students is usually for full time students, especially for those who perform study in national languages, for normal duration of study. In some countries/universities students should obtain scholarship from 2nd year of their PhD study (upon successful completion of exams on the required subjects). There is also the possibility for themselves financing of PhD study or use external support from a company or research institutions. Tuition fees for foreign PhD students fulfilling the study in English language at CVUT Prague is 6200 €/year and at the STU Bratislava 6500 €/year. If foreign students are fulfilling a PhD study in the national language there is no tuition fee or possibly in the future there can be low fee. This is especially for external PhD students. For the extended time of external study (over five years) PhD students, in some cases they have to pay a tuition fee (some kind of penalty). For external (part time) PhD students at University of Ljubljana the tuition fee 2700 €/year paid by the organization that employs the student.

5. Possibility of joint PhD programs in conjunction with other universities and/or research organizations.
The majority of research council funding for engineering and science PhD programmes is currently awarded to university consortia which is natural platform for the organisation of joint PhD study programmes. In the individual case it is also possible (welcomed) to organise joint a PhD study between university and a research organisation or other university in the country or cooperation with a foreign university as well as research institutions like CEA Cadarache, CEA Saclay, Joint Institute for Nuclear research in Dubna, JRC Petten, Kurchatov Research Centre in Moscow etc. The supervisor of the PhD programme can also be outside of the university, but it is usually necessary to have an approval of scientific board of the faculty if the supervisor is not an associate professor or professor, with experience in nuclear research. In some countries formal joint PhD programmes do not exist but cooperation with foreign university or research institution in nuclear engineering is welcomed. Usually the foreign students internships are used to be an organic part of the PhD programmes evaluated by ECTS (15 -20).
Recommendations:
A joint PhD study programme between an ENEN member University and MEPhI can be organised, the problem is only funding the study.

6. Proposed list of subjects (number of mandatory subjects)
Usually it is necessary to pass exams of three subjects related to the field of PhD study and a foreign language as well during the first year of study.
List of selected recommended subjects:
- Safety and operation of the research nuclear facilities
- Digital control and safety systems (I&C)
- Selected chapters from reactor physics
- Selected lectures from ADTT
- Advanced statistic physics
- Deterministic and stochastic methods in reactor core simulations
- Economical evaluation of fuel cycles
- Advanced course in heat transfer
- Advanced fuel under irradiation
- Safety assessment of fuel configuration
- Advanced nuclear reactors
- Computer driven experiments
- Programmable logical devices
- Decommissioning of NPP
- Detectors used in nuclear reactors operation
- Degradations of material properties caused by irradiation

7. General topics of PhD themes are coupled to sections: reactor simulations, NPP decommissioning; Defectoscopy; Accelerator systems; Material science in nuclear engineering; Nuclear techniques
applications in medicine etc.

4.1.3.5 Recommendations on the Organisation of Joint Training Courses - Training Course on Fast Reactor Systems and Advanced Fuel Cycles

Recommendation 1
With respect to the expertise of the ENEN-RU partners, the focus of the training course should be on SFR and LFR reactor systems. The project partners that will organise the course will have to set up a working group, assigning one representative per institution. Based on the location of the training course, the coordinator shall be from the host organisation. All lectures and training material will be provided in English.

Recommendation 2
The training course needs to be developed according to the systematic approach to training (SAT)
The SAT is a useful concept initially introduced for the preparation and implementation of training programmes and the evaluation of training programmes and trainees at nuclear power plants. Its approach can also be used for the design of training courses for different target audiences.
The SAT includes the following five phases:
Analysis – Design – Development – Implementation – Evaluation

Analysis. The analysis phase comprises the identification of training needs and of the competences necessary to perform a particular job.
Design. In the design phase, the identified competences are converted into training objectives. These objectives are organized into a training plan.
Development. The development phase comprises preparation of all training materials so that the training objectives can be achieved.
Implementation. In the implementation phase, training is conducted using the training materials that have been developed.
Evaluation. In the evaluation phase, all aspects of the training programme are evaluated on the basis of the datacollected in each of the other phases. This is followed by suitable feedback, leading to improvements in the training programme.

Recommendation 3
The areas of interest as defined for research scientists and engineers working on GEN IV reactors in the ENEN-III project can be used as a reference when designing the content of the training course. The ENEN-III project has defined learning outcomes in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes for the training of engineers that are involved in the development and pre-conceptual design of GEN IV nuclear reactors. The areas of interest should be considered as elementary modules to be assembled in an optimized manner. The work represented by the definition of the learning outcomes covers to a large extend the design phase of the SAT.
Course modules will be prepared by the working group and have to be described using learning outcomes. Depending on the expertise of the project partners, lecturers will be identified for the different modules.
When the partners do not have expertise in a certain module or area of interest they can:
- Look into the overview of offered training courses listed in Deliverable 2.1 in order to identify suitable partners.
- Extend the group with one or more members (for example from the ENEN association)

Recommendation 4
Theoretical course modules should be complemented as much as possible with practical sessions, laboratories and/or technical visits. In the next section, an overview of the E&T facilities, laboratories and equipment for exchange purpose in Europe and in Russia has been made. All these data has been collected into a web-based database, in which the project partners can search for the different facilities. In particular, access procedures have been included as this is often an issue when trying to offer practical sessions.

Recommendation 5
Careful attention should be paid to the selection of trainees in order to make sure that the level of the participants is homogenous. When the participants of the training course have similar experiences and background, the training course will be most effective. Therefore, all applications will have to be reviewed by the working group responsible for the organisation of the training course. To ensure an effective screening of the participants, each participant will have to provide a Europass CV or equivalent document, which clearly describes his qualifications and experience. The qualifications of the applicant will have to be evaluated against the learning outcomes of the training course.

List of Websites:

http://www.enen-assoc.org/en/activities/for-universities/coopbeyondeu/enenru.html

European Nuclear Education Network Association
Centre CEA de Saclay – INSTN – Bldg 395
F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
Tel +33 1 69 08 97 57
Fax +33 1 69 08 99 50
E-mail sec.enen@cea.fr