Single-material micro-structured photonic crystal fibre (PCF) has allowed many new research opportunities for better future communications, sensing and optical instrumentation technology underpinning the information technology field, which has benefited fr om the development of conventional optical fibre over the last four decades. It is an area where Europe has a considerable lead and this proposal would contribute further to the technological base, and compliment other activities in Europe to maintain this present lead. To design a complex PCFs with optimised optical properties may require a fibre with holes of different shapes, sizes, materials, orientations and arbitrary placements. However, the arbitrary choice does not allow for the use of methods from the conventional electromagnetic field theory and to date a wide range of methods have been considered. However, for the modal solutions of uniform PCFs, the full vectorial finite element method (FEM) is one of the most accurate, versatile, and numerically efficient methods. However, the existing FEM approach cannot obtain the leakage loss and bending loss of PCFs, where computationally more intensive BPM approach is often being used. The major objective of the proposed project is to produce an accurate yet more efficient model by introducing a perfectly matched layer (PML) to absorb the radiating power out of the orthodox computational window. However, the introduction of the PML layer with its complex refractive index would also make the eigenvalue equatio n complex Hermitian, requiring a complex eigenvalue solver exploiting the efficient subspace iteration techniques. Basic modal parameters like mode shape, dispersion, polarization hybridness, birefringence, radiation loss of leaky modes, and bending loss, and associated fabrication tolerances will be studied and design optimisation will be carried out using the models developed.
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