Final Report Summary - BONEMIM (A Novel Biomimetic Bone-like Material) BONEMIM (256498) project aims at developing a biomimetic bonelike material with a hierarchical structure that incorporates apatite nanoparticles in a polymer gel. The project also seeks to determine the physicochemical factors affecting the self-assembly of the hybrid material, and to characterize its micro- and nano-structure. Finally, mechanical strength and interfacial characteristics of the self-assembled biomaterial, and effect of bone growth factor incorporation have been planned to be investigated.In the first reporting period, several hydroxyapatite co-precipitation techniques were performed to obtain hydroxyapatite nanoparticles of uniform size and shape. Characterization of the prepared samples showed successful formation of hydroxyapatite despite difficulties in avoiding aggregation. Nanocomposites were prepared based on non-covalent interactions between the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and polymers. Up to 4% (by weight) polymer coating was accomplished on the nanoparticles. In the second reporting period, water soluble polymers were attached to hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by two different synthesis techniques. Modification was proved by characterization through Proton NMR and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The degree of grafting is expected to increase by a better control of hydroxapatite preparation conditions. This project is still on progress through additional grants from other funding agencies. The optimized hybrid biomaterial might be used as an orthopedic implant and dental filling material. Such a novel biomaterial will be significantly crucial in severe bone diseases or bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and renal osteodystrophy.