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Universal Gasification Process Analyser for Bio Mass and Organic Waste Treatment

Final Report Summary - GASPRO-BIO-WASTE (Universal Gasification Process Analyser for Bio Mass and Organic Waste Treatment)

Executive summary:

One of the big current and future problems is the instability and finite nature of fossil fuel supply. Beside the steadily rising crude oil and natural gas prices, in particular the finite nature makes a future use of alternative energy and heat supply inalienable. By now in science and technique new processes for heat and power generation from sustainable energy were investigated with best effort. Photovoltaic and wind parks are state of the art and tidal power plants are well-engineered, but all of them are environment dependent and cannot deliver a continuous energy supply.

To match the energy requirement profile "green energy networks" are needed. These networks can consist of some environment dependent energy sources, but they must have energy sources that are independent of outside influences. One of the most promising "green processes" for power (and combined heat) generation is the production of hydrogen and biogas by gasification of biomass or organic waste.

Very important is here the special treatment which is needed for every kind of biomass or waste. Therefore currently and in future many different gasification processes will be developed. All of these processes are performed under elevated or high temperatures and ambient or elevated pressures. The design and optimisation as well as the process control constitutes a rising demand for laboratory scale gasification process analysers as well as in Situ high temperature concentration sensors for process application.

The aim of this project was to develop a new gasification processes analyser for a wide temperature range as well as ambient and elevated pressures and in Situ high temperature concentration sensors for laboratory and industrial use. The entire apparatus consists of three parts. The first part is a gravimetric analyser that can determine the time dependent reaction rates of gasification processes under process near conditions. Therefore a high temperature magnetic suspension balance (MSB) was optimised, so that it is able to measure in fixed and fluidised solid beds in the whole technical interesting pressure and temperature range. For gas and vapour dosing and pressure regulation a special dosing unit is installed. Second part is a laboratory-scale gas refinery unit for testing different kinds of gas treatment to reduce or eliminate hazardous and dangerous components of the residual gas before entering the power generator. Third part is the high temperature concentration analysis of synthesis gas at different process-steps. Therefor different high-end optic, electro ceramic and piezo electric sensors were developed. But also simple sensors for the calorific value are of big interest where expensive sensors are not reasonable. In this project different in situ sensors were developed that can cover the whole technical interesting temperature range and can be used in laboratory scale analysis as well as for industrial process control. Also a reaction calorimeter as a cheap indication for important changes in composition and a suitable control to keep a stable gas quality for the motor was set-up.

Project Context and Objectives:

The aim of this project was to develop a new gasification processes analyser for a wide temperature range as well as ambient and elevated pressures and in Situ high temperature concentration sensors for laboratory and industrial use.

The entire apparatus consists of three parts.

The first part is a gravimetric analyser that can determine the time dependent reaction rates of gasification processes under process near conditions. Therefore a high temperature magnetic suspension balance (MSB) was optimised, so that it is able to measure in fixed and fluidised solid beds in the whole technical interesting pressure and temperature range. For gas and vapour dosing and pressure regulation a special dosing unit was installed.

Second part is a laboratory-scale gas refinery unit for testing different kinds of gas treatment to reduce or eliminate hazardous and dangerous components of the residual gas before entering the power generator.

Third part is the high temperature concentration analysis of synthesis gas at different process-steps. The most promising sensors for this purpose were optical ones. Additionally electro ceramic and piezo electric sensors are a good solution for this application. But also simple sensors for the calorific value were of big interest for local micro gasification power plants where expensive sensors are not reasonable. In this project different in situ sensors were developed that can cover the whole technical interesting temperature range and can be used in laboratory scale analysis as well as for industrial process control. Also a reaction calorimeter as a cheap indication for important changes in composition and a suitable control to keep a stable gas quality for the motor was developed.

This project educed a prototype of a universal gasification processes analyser allowing an experimental simulation of industrial gasification processes in laboratory scale and providing various kind of high temperature sensors for process use at all scales. This is the essential step to optimise current processes and develop new ways of combined heat and power generation for all kind of existing organic waste and bio mass.

Last aim was measurement data for the participating SMEs to optimise their sensors, process part analysers, processes, plants and services. The sensors and process part analysers as well as the new knowledge gained with the gasification process analyser can not only be used for gasification, but for all high temperature applications in every scale.

Summing up these aims the main objectives of GASPRO-BIO-WASTE were:

I High temperature sensors for concentration measurement and systems for process near high temperature analysis

II A universal gasification process analyser (GPA)

These objectives are specified by the linked project results and are summarized in the following table.

Five SMEs of this project (Avantes, Costech, Rubotherm, Gasera and Inoson) are developers, producers and sellers of a certain measuring technology. These technologies are promoted and sold worldwide by a well developed distributor network. Two SMEs, CARE and Costech, are engineering companies specialised in processes of bio mass conversion.

Avantes produces sensor instrumentation and components for several methods of optical process spectroscopy, which are already used for fluid analysis under ambient and elevated pressures (up to 20 MPa) at ambient and slightly elevated temperatures (up to 200°C).

Inoson produces sensors and instrumentation for velocity of sound measuring in liquids and gases for different applications: mass flow determination, streming velocity, fluid properties.

Gasera produces FTIR spectroscopes and a unique photo acoustic detector for FTIR spectroscopy, the PAS-FTIR, which enables those instruments to detect components in mixtures down to sub ppm level.

The technology and products of these three partners can be used for process and laboratory application.

Costech produces laboratory instrumentation and process plants. Costech is a specialist for sorption measuring, elemental analysis and bio gas testing. Never the less Costechs main business is engineering and design of plants for chemical and environmental processes like exhaust gas cleaning and waste gasification. A recent development deals especially with micro plants for power (and combined heat) production by gasification of bio mass and other organic waste.

Rubotherm produces instruments and measuring plants for laboratory use mainly based on a very special and unique gravimetric measuring technique, the magnetic suspension balance. This technology is applied to many kinds of mass transfer measuring, thermo analysis and fluid density measuring in a broad pressure range from ultra high vacuum to 200 MPa and temperatures from -200°C up to 1500°C.

CARE is an engineering company providing special technical and economic services in bio-energy and waste conversion sector. CARE does not own or offer any particular technology, they design the solution to meet customer project requirements. They specialise in conversion of biomass, wastes and other materials, primarily by gasification, combustion and pyrolysis.

All SMEs have a strong scientific orientation and own R&D resources. Knowledge and capacities provided by these resources are dedicated to the SMEs core business. For the objectives of this project special know-how in high temperature area was needed. This was related to SMEs core business but could not be generated by themselves.

Result of this project are new products and market segments for the SMEs which are on the one hand linked to their core business but perform on the other hand new technology and business fields.

Four of the partner SMEs had no deeper knowledge about a possible high temperature application of their analysis instrumentation. All partner SMEs had and have no capacities and facilities for construction and installation of the GPA apparatus. They needed the knowledge and instrumentation abilities which was made available and transferred by the RTDs.

The RTD partners had the expertise and the capacity to do all developments and measurements' being necessary to achieve the project aims. All three are well recognized experts in their technology field.

The Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany has by far the biggest experience in designing and construction of process and laboratory measuring instruments, especially for fluid properties and gravimetric values, as well as laboratory and process plants. Temperature and pressure of these devices range up to 400 °C at 50 MPa and 1200°C at 10MPa.

The University of Utrecht, The Netherlands uses spectroscopy of heterogeneous catalysts during catalyst preparation and real operation in order to develop structure-activity relationships and expert systems for catalytic processes. The main emphasis is on the use of UV-Vis, Raman, infrared, fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and/or microscopy.

The University of Lisbon, Portugal has developed measuring apparatus for thermal conductivity measuring in a similar broad temperature and pressure range. This partner has a high expertise for research on transport properties and is one of the most recognized scientists in the field of thermal conductivity measuring technology. Moreover they are one of the most recognized specialists for electro ceramic sensors in high temperature use.

These high level RTDs joined together for this project and develop all components and knowledge for the SMEs being necessary for the success of this project.

The methods and instruments developed here allow five SMEs to increase there business more over to do a step in new markets they have not been up to now and CARE is able to improve services in their market field and maybe also to offer services in related but new market segments.

Avantes and Gasera enhance their market fields to the elevated and high temperature applications for optical spectroscopy for quantitative gas analysis and process controlling by getting new sensor cells and optical paths for high temperature. In addition Gasera got their FTIR spectroscope suitable optimised for the new high temperature sensor.

Inoson achieved velocity of sound sensors for elevated and high temperatures, which are applicable for analysis as well as for mass flow measuring, the development of the high temperature pressure sensor failed, but with a new method a combined velocity of sound and (low accuracy) pressure sensor was developed.

Costech got new electro ceramic sensors for thermal conductivity, isobaric heat capacity and reaction calorimetry in high temperature applications. This allows Costech to step in the high temperature detector and process analyser market and to upgrade their micro power plants for optimal usage with bio mass and organic waste. In addition Costech got data to improve the gas refinery at their existing plants and the right for using the new GRU, or parts of it, for their own processes.

Rubotherm achieved impedance spectroscopic sensors for process application which allow Rubotherm to produce process solutions for high temperature applications. In addition it provides a solution for concentration measuring in the laboratory instruments of Rubotherm. They also got a system for fluidised bed and forced flow through analysis in high temperature process near conditions for their core product, the magnetic suspension balance. Moreover they got the right for construction and selling the complete GPA as laboratory instrument, for this all needed sensors must be purchased be the participating SMEs on an OEM base.

CARE and Costech received new knowledge about catalysis and bio mass conversion to improve and enlarge their services concerning this technology field.

Joint property is the GPA apparatus. After the project it will be further used by all partners to test their sensors and to improve know-how about bio mass gasification processes.

The SMEs dealing with process part analysers and sensors own together the high temperature sensor calibration unit to improve, test and calibrate their instrumentation.

Beside the results for the SME-partners the project offered the chance for the RTD-partners to strengthen and increase their scientific leadership they already had in this area of measuring technology.

Project Results:

description of the main S & T results/foregrounds (25 pages)

The results of the GASPRO-BIO-WASTE project are divided in two types. Those which are owned by each single SME (R1-R6) and those which are jointly owned (R7-R10). After an overview of the results each result will be described in detail. Because of the large number of developments and the page limit the description was shortened a lot. The appendix with 30 pages and 54 figures is much longer than the original description here. We recommend to use the appendix to follow the foreground description.

Results by objective I:
R1 (WP2): High temperature gravimetric analyser with multitreatment system (fixed bed, flow through, fluidised bed)
Ownership: Rubotherm

R2 (WP3): Gas refinery unit
Ownership: Costech, Rubotherm

R3 (WP4): Raman and NIR/UV/VIS sensors
Ownership: Avantes

R4 (WP5): FTIR sensors
Ownership: Gasera

R5 (WP6): Electro ceramic sensors for high temperature concentration measurement
-Result 5 consists of four different sensors:
-Impedance spectroscopy: Ownership: Rubotherm
-Isobaric heat capacity: Ownership: Costech
-heat conductivity: Ownership: Costech
-reaction calorimetry: Ownership: Costech

R6 (WP7): Piezo electric sensors (velocity of sound and pressure)
Ownership: Inoson

R7 (WP8): High temperature sensor calibration unit
Ownership: Avantes, Costech, Rubotherm, Inoson, Gasera

R8 (WP8): High temperature enlargement for concentration equation
Ownership: Avantes, Costech, Rubotherm, Inoson, Gasera

Results by objective II:
R9 (WP9): Universal gasification process analyser
Ownership: jointly

R10 (WP9): Data for optimisation of gasification processes, plants, sensors, process part analysers and services
-Result 10 will consist of two types of data, which are shared to the companies as follows:
-Data for optimisation of sensors, process part analysers and services
Ownership: Avantes, Costech, Rubotherm, Inoson, Gasera

-Data for optimisation of gasification processes, plants and services
Ownership: Costech, CARE

R1: High temperature gravimetric analyser with multitreatment system (fixed bed, flow through, fluidised bed)

The balance is connected with the suspension coupling. Both stand on a linear drive, which allows the convenient change of the probe.

To minimize the temperature gradient between the coupling and the measuring area, the suspension coupling gets separately heated by an electrical heating. As a metallic tube links the balance and this heated area, the balance has to be protected against overheating. That is the reason why a cooler is situated upwards the tube.

Thermal Conductivity Sensor
The thermal conductivity sensors use a heating element, in transient regime, which resistance variation with time can be converted, through an adequate calibration of the resistance versus temperature in temperature variation during the heating process.

For this project, it was chosen a hot-strip, compared with a hot-wire, because the hot-strip method has several important advantages, that can be summarized by:
- Minimizes the effects of convection and considers them whenever necessary (radiation)
- Applicable to industrial fields
- Mechanical robustness
- Upholds a wide range of temperature and pressure
- Miniaturization is possible
- Several geometries are possible

In the present case, the heating element is a metal-strip deposited over a flat source, with a small lateral extension but a length assumed infinite (use of a short strip, differing from the long one only in the length contributes to cancel the distortion of the temperature field in the strip-support-lead connection, the so called "end-effects"). They use a dual system, with a long strip and a short strip, of lengths respectively 15 mm and 5 mm (ratio 3), with width of 110 ?m. The resistances at room temperature for both strips are: RL = 47.2 ? before annealing and 31.3 ? after annealing at 900ºC; RS = 129.2 ? and 78.3 ?, respectively. The lengths are lL = 15 mm and lS = 5 mm.

Impedance Sensor

There are many ways of building capacitors. However, the requirements of the project, to have a capacitance of about 200-500pF (at 10 MHz) and being small, rules out many simple forms, like concentric cylindrical shapes or rods. After many attempts to develop capacitors that could obey the project requirements, we were left with single or multi-sheet parallel plates, where the metal part must be made from Monel , Hasteloy , Titanium or Platinum. All these alloys and metal resist to high temperatures (Monel up to 800ºC) without losing their geometric characteristics (like parallelism of capacitor sheets).

The first prototypes involved the construction of one with AlN substrate, with d = 0.500 mm, and a second one made from Al2O3, d = 0.635 mm. Each capacitor was constituted by 2 ceramic plates, with deposition of thin films of titanium on inner sides (+ and – poles). Platinum leads were soldered at the spacing ceramic pads (Titanium).
The capacitance and the conductance of the sensor were measured as a function of frequency and temperature, with a HP wave impedance analyser model LF4192A, and a HP Multimeter model HP3457A. The sensor was placed in air in a high temperature furnace TERMOLAB 1200 ºC), with a EUROTHERM temperature programmer 2408+2404 controller.

Reaction Calorimetry Sensor

The reactions, being exothermic, generate heat of reaction, which will increase the temperature of the gaseous mixture, depending on the heat capacity of the mixture. Therefore it is possible to have a simple reaction calorimeter only by using two thermometers and knowing the mass flow. These thermometers can be T2 of the calorimetric system described above. The calorimetry sensor is therefore already integrated in heat capacity sensor module.

R6: Piezo electric sensors (velocity of sound and pressure)

The nickel cables are glued to the platinum electrodes by an electrical conductive high temperature adhesive. The crystal including the electrical connections is then linked by a ceramic dielectric bond to the nickel based ground plate which is mounted by ceramic nuts and bolts to the topping of the measuring cell. By using ceramic nuts and bolts the risk of diffusion bonding processes is almost impossible.

This way of bringing the piezocrystals into use ensures on the one hand a free way for sound transmitting between emitter and detector as there are no resistances like bezels, edges, etc. in front of the crystals and on the other hand an easy modular exchange of the different set-ups.

Additionally, there are some modifications for the electrical connection.
The crystal is not glued with its whole lower surface to the ground plate as the cable would tend to a not parallel alignment of the crystal which is crucial for emitting and detecting the sound signal. The ground plate has a coaxial clearance under the crystal whereby it is possible to connect the cable and having a plane contact surface between the outer ring of the crystal and the ground plate. Furthermore, the cables are twice carried through the ground plate to have a mechanical protection of the bonds as the friction (between the cables and the holes) and the stiffness of the cables pose a resistance against tension alongside the cables.

The principle for the VOS measuring cell was already explained. Necessary constructive details like the form of the weld seam are added.

R7: High temperature sensor calibration unit

As the sensors have to be calibrated in a wide temperature range from room temperature up to 1473.15°K, an accurate heating concept has to be developed. Therefore the HT-SCU was set-up.

In principle, a controller providing one control loop is enough for a simple temperature regulation. In this case, the temperature sensor which is used for regulation must be positioned directly at the heating wires. Most available ovens offer this kind of regulation. But for sensor calibration the temperature which has to be controlled is the temperature of the gas mixture inside the sensor cells. To add the gas mixture temperature into the control loop cascade control must be set up. For it, another control loop is needed.

To set up a big tube furnace for high temperature sensor calibration, two heating elements in shell form have been ordered from Fibrothal as well as three insulation plates. One insulation plate will become the bottom of the tube furnace. As there is a risk of heat loss when feed-throughs for gas supply and signal transfer are positioned at the top of the tube furnace, almost all feed-throughs will be placed through the bottom insulation. If there are optical cells installed inside the furnace, opposing feed-througs will be necessary in the insulation plate at the top. In case that no optical sensors are in the tube furnace, a top insulation plate without any feed-throughs can be placed on the tube furnace.

The tube furnace must be placed on a desk, as the feed-throughs are situated in the bottom of the furnace. Thus, a rack has been designed and ordered from Aluminium Systemtechnik GmbH. The tube furnace is situated on a plate with low heat conductivity, to avoid heat losses at the contact area with the rack. For feed-throughs from the tube furnace to detectors below, the plate must provide openings. On the plate there is space enough for additional insulation surrounding the furnace. The plate is also wide enough to allow a split of the tube furnace shells, for example to mount the sensor cells inside.

Detectors of the high temperature sensors can be placed near the oven on the shelves. Light signals can be redirected to the detectors on the shelves by prisms that are situated above and below the tube furnace. Beside the detectors, the controller Jumo Imago 500 for temperature regulation of the high temperature unit can also be positioned on the shelf.

R8: High temperature enlargement for concentration equation

Here a Software tool was developed to determine the gas concentration based on thermo-physical properties.
An arbitrary thermodynamic property z of any homogeneous gas mixture is dependent on temperature T, pressure p and composition x ? (Eq. 1).
z=z(T,p,x ?) (Eq. 1)
Thus mixture equations provide a relation between z, T, p and x ? and it is possible to use them for determination of the composition x ?, if T, p, and z are known. If a gas mixture of m components consists of a homogeneous single phase Ph = 1, it will arise from the Gibbs phase rule (Eq. 2) that it must be possible to identify a gas composition, if additionally to temperature and pressure n = m - 1 properties are measured.
f=m-Ph+2 (Eq. 2)

As it is not feasible to solve mixture equations with respect to the concentrations, the calculation of the composition from measured properties using mixture equations must be done iteratively. From a starting composition x ? the different properties z ? which were measured are calculated using suitable mixture equations. The calculated properties are compared with measured properties. If they do not match, the composition must be adjusted and the according properties will be calculated again until either the calculated properties agree with the measured properties according to their combined uncertainty or a maximum number of iteration is reached.

As input parameters for the calculation the measured properties have to be specified, including the condition of measurement (T, p) and the measurement uncertainties.

Furthermore the user has to know which components the gas mixture contains and must estimate their concentrations from which the start composition will be build. These concentrations will not be changed during iteration process.

During the iteration the calculated composition has to converge to the present composition. The difficulty of the iteration arises from the modification process of the concentrations. Thus, a problem of minimization between the calculated and the measured properties must be solved. The mathematical description of the problem is given in Chapter 3.
Before the calculation starts, all property values are divided through their uncertainty of measurement to keep the focus on the well known properties.

Results by objective II:
R9: Universal gasification process analyser

At the beginning of processes inside the gasification process analyser, there is the gas dosing unit (GDU) which doses gases or water vapor into the thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). In this way, well defined atmospheres can be created. By adding an educt of biomass in the TGA the gasification can execute under various specified conditions of temperature, pressure, time and biomass-gas-combinations. The generated syngas is afterwards lead into the functional block of high temperature analytics which consists of the gas refinery unit (WP3) allowing secondary reactions, Optical sensors for NIR/UV/VIS (WP4) and FTIR (WP5) transmission measurements, electro-ceramic sensors for impedance, thermal conductivity, heat capacity and a reaction calorimeter (WP6), piezoelectric sensors for velocity of sound and pressure (WP7), and a high temperature oven for the entity of the sensors (WP8).

Downstream of the high temperature analytics is the group of room temperature analytics comprising a FTIR spectroscope for gas transmission/extinction measurements and a gas chromatograph. Both devices are very well established and mighty instruments to undertake qualitative and quantitative gas concentration measurements.

The gas dosing unit has access to five gas tanks in maximum and a water reservoir. A specially generated gas-vapor mixture leaves the GDU and is able to get into reaction with the biomass inside the TGA. Under recording the gravimetric signal which delivers a first image of the thermo-chemical conversion, the syngas can either be directed back to the GDU or to the functional groups of analytics. The redirection of the gas stream towards the GDU is in anyway necessary to have a closed circuit for pressure regulation. Afterwards the TGA (and not redirected to the GDU), the GPA provides three options:
- leading the syngas to external equipment,
- leading the syngas to the high temperature analytics,
- leading the syngas to the room temperature analytics.

Having connections for external equipment provides an extra degree of freedom and countervails large changes in the ductwork in the future. The normal gas path after the TGA is through the high temperature analytics (combination of components from WP3-WP8). Subsequently the gas can directly go to the GDU or (to get more measurement data) fed to the room temperature analytics.

R10: Data for optimisation of gasification processes, plants, sensors, process part analysers and services

First measurement data were already generated during the project, lots more will follow after the project.

The leafs of the Platanus acerifloia were heated up in a CO2 atmosphere under a constant flow of 35 ml/min and a pressure of 2 bar to convey reaction products away from the base biomass. Up to 400°C pure pyrolysis phenomena take place, afterwards partial carbon oxidation occurred according to the Boudouard equilibrium: C + CO2 = 2 CO

The first mass loss up to the initial temperature level of 290°C is characterized of expelling water. From here on, the mass loss follows a nearly constant rate for the temperature levels from 290°C to 415°C, pyrolytic dissociation takes place. Firstly, hemicellulose with its most common representative of pentose (C5H10O5) dissolves, afterwards cellulose C12H22O11 and finally lignin C9+xH10+2xO2+x. Values of x inside the sum formula for lignin vary normally from 0 to 2. At the next temperature level of 650°C, a more rapid decrease in mass is detectable what is mainly founded in the primary reactions with carbon dioxide or secondary reactions with carbon monoxide what leads to carbon acids.
For the different temperature levels the installed sensors gave good signals

290°C:
The infra red extinction spectra identify two clear peaks: at 2400cm-1 for CO2 and around 3700cm-1 for the OH-bonding. The gas chromatogram shows at this point two clear peaks – peak a at 0,9 min for the permanent gas stream of carbon dioxide and peak c at 2,5 min which could not be clarified. Around 4 and 10 minutes there are very broad peaks which seem to be an overlapping of some smaller ones d-e and f-h. Later on these ones become clearer.

330°C:
At 2100 and 2200 cm-1 two coupled peaks start to rise which is an evidence for carbon monoxide. At the same time a peak b in the gas chromatogram can be detected at a retention time of 1,6 minutes (b = carbon monoxide). Another peak g at 10,2 minutes is very conspicuous. Based on the fact that the infrared spectroscopy detected next to carbon dioxide the C=O and the OH group, it is very likely that g stands for a carbon acid.

650°C:
At this temperature level the strong CH bonding at 3000 cm-1 can be seen which proves the generation of carbon hydrogens like methane (peak d in the gas chromatogram) and ethane (peak e in the gas chromatogram). Furthermore, small peaks at a retention time between 9,6 and 12,3 minutes become visible. Based on the first assumption for peak g and the similar retention times, peaks f and h are probably carbon acids, too.

750°C:
At the stage of 750°C, it can be seen that the generation of methane and ethane is rising.

Potential Impact:

Gasification of biomass and organic waste will play an increasingly important role in providing the EU and the world with stable renewable energy. During the last years the increasing number of processes dealing with gasification of bio mass and organic waste became more and more significant. It can be expected that this trend will accelerate in future.

The conventional bio mass gasification processes are nowadays more and more faced to be critically because of the competition to food agriculture and other environmental reasons. If the tremendous amount of existing organic waste, by the residual organics from food production and consumer goods, can be used for power and heat generation the situation changes. It becomes much friendlier and more economically reasonable for gasification processes.

The new measuring technology developed by GASPRO-BIO-WASTE will decrease the cost of planning and implementing of new chemical processes and of current processes due to the new optimization potential. It will reduce the waste of environmental resources and increase quality of life, health and safety for example by offering much better possibilities for exhaust gas and other waste treatment. Moreover it has a benefit for plant operators as in situ measuring technique to avoid dangerous sampling.

GASPRO-BIO-WASTE will offer one more chance to the EU to strengthen their cutting-edge position in environmental friendly power and heat generation.

Additionally the instruments and data that have been developed here can be an important tool for the implementation of many future technologies in chemical, pharmaceutical, environmental and energy processing.
Concentration measuring on gas/vapour mixtures at high temperatures is not only important for sustainable energy processes but also for many others research themes being aimed within the FP7 and Horizon 2020.

The results of GASPRO-BIO-WASTE will have a significant impact also on the thematic areas Environment, Nano sciences, Nanotechnologies, Materials and new Production Technologies as well as Biotechnology and Energy.

Offering instruments and methods for this future application field, will bring a strong competition advantage to the companies of this project and also their RTD partners. GASPRO-BIO-WASTE creates the peer group of a European network for research on gasification processes and high temperature gas/vapour analysis instrumentation.

The methods and instruments developed during the GASPRO-BIO-WASTE project will allow all six SMEs to enhance their product and/or services and to increase their business. But more over it will enable the project SMEs to do a step in new markets they have yet no access to.

The objectives targeted by GASPRO-BIO-WASTE were:

I Single sensors and systems for measurements in high temperature atmospheres.

II A universal gasification process analyser.

Objective I has been successful reached and resulted for the SMEs individually to new products and/or services belonging to market segments which are related to their current core business, but have not been accessible for them up to now. Exploitation of sensors and process part analysers will start immediately after the end of the project by each SME partner. Here a high benefit can be expected in short and medium term. Market fields will be all kind of processes in every scale for high temperature measuring dealing with gas/vapour mixtures under ambient or elevated pressures, especially the rising market for gasification processes with bio mass and organic waste. The new knowledge for the engineering companies was started to exploit during the project, herewith existing services were improved and new service segments will be reached in near future.

Avantes and Gasera enhanced their market fields to high temperature applications of optical spectroscopy under ambient and elevated pressures. These sensors can independently already be used for concentration measuring on less complex mixtures after having been calibrated for this task in the required mixture. Moreover Gasera got an improved FTIR spectroscope suitable for the new sensors and their core product, the PAS-FTIR.

Inoson achieved new velocity of sound sensors for high temperature applications under ambient and elevated pressures, which are applicable for analysis of binary fluid mixtures as well as for mass flow measuring. The development of new high temperature pressure sensors failed, but a new method for measuring pressure (with lower accuracy) with the velocity of sound sensor was implemented, what is an additional benefit.

Costech got new thermal conductivity and isobaric heat capacity sensors which can be directly used for analysing mixtures in high temperature applications under ambient and elevated pressures. This allows Costech to step in the high temperature process analyser market and to optimise their patented combined heat and power gasification plants. For all direct process application they got the right to use the newly developed gas refinery unit for improving the features of their gasification plants. Their patented method for reaction calorimetry was realised in a reaction calorimeter based on two platinum/ceramic thermometers as cheap indicator for important changes of the gasification process parameters.

Rubotherm achieved impedance spectroscopic sensors for process application, to be used also in their laboratory instruments as an analysis tool. It allows Rubotherm to extend their process solutions for high pressure applications also to high temperature analysis. In addition to this they got a new system for high temperature forced flow through and fluidised bed gravimetry, which is already applied in their core product, the magnetic suspension balance. Rubotherm got the right for producing and selling the GPA as a laboratory analyzer, all required sensors will be purchased from the participating companies on an OEM base.

CARE is not a provider of measuring technique, so they were much more interested in the new know-how they get about gasification processes and reaction catalyses to improve their service engineering and enlarge their business in relation to their core market field. Together with Costech CARE got the right to exploit all results gained by GASPRO-BIO-WASTE for general process use.

The partial ownership on the GPA enables CARE to offer a new experimental process investigation and optimisation service for their clients. They have a direct access to the world's most modern and versatile gasification process analyzer. This allows CARE to perform experimental investigations of processes being currently developed and to gain decisive measuring data their clients are asking for.

The HT-SCU is joint property of the five sensor SMEs, together with the already existing GMG-SC it can be used to test, calibrate and develop new sensors and for reference measurements.

Objective II, the GPA apparatus, is owned by all SMEs together. It will be used after the project by all partners for sensor tests and optimisation as well as for process investigation. Thereby the new GPA will be an extremely useful tool for the development of new sensor modules as well as development and optimisation for all kind of high temperature gas processes.

Moreover the GPA will be commercially optimised and sold by Rubotherm, including the sensor systems on an OEM base, which are owned by the other partners. This apparatus can become a very promising product for a worldwide niche market. It will be an extremely useful tool for all companies and institutions dealing with gasification processes or in general with high temperature gas/vapour mixtures.

The measurements of complete gasification processes allow the partners to optimise their existing plants, processes and services. The data are needed for improvement of bio mass and organic waste gasification, because the special treatment for every kind of gasificated mass is very important for processes optimisation.

Beside the results for the SME-partners this project offered the chance for the RTD-partners to strengthen and increase their scientific leadership they already have in their area of measuring technology.

The highly qualified consortium of this proposal corresponded to the need of a project which had to combine a top knowledge in process engineering, instrumental analysis and high temperature instrumentation with a high experience in high temperature design and construction.
It combined SMEs dealing with different sensors, analysers or plants in different market segments and engineering of gasification processes. Each of the SMEs already owned an excellent worldwide distributing network which will enable them to exploit results directly on the international market.

Each of the partners has already proven to be a technological leader in a certain field. Their leadership in different areas was drawn together by this project to a new European platform to form the peer group of an increasing European network of excellence for gasification processes and the field of high temperature concentration measuring technologies.
To reach the strategic aims of this project a national approach was much too small. Process engineering and manufacturing of this kind of instrumental analysis has to act worldwide to reach a certain success. Concerning the development of such a measuring technology the resources of one company or few companies of one country would also not be sufficient.

In general GASPRO-BIO-WASTE helped European companies (SMEs), scientists and process engineers to do a step in the first line of very promising future technologies in the gasification process market.

The market leaders in instrumental analysis are North American and Japanese companies. European enterprises are here acting in the second row. To attack the well recognised foreign companies for a bigger share of the low temperature concentration measuring market is a hard task. The situation changes completely in case of concentration measurements at high temperature. Up to now no well recognized methods and instruments are available for this purpose worldwide. The rather sophisticated and expensive technology in combination with an, up to now, quite limited market prevents the big companies from investing in this future technology development.

Moreover with FP7-project ProBio-HySens, were four SMEs of this consortium also joined, a first step in high pressure sensor market was done. To further improve this network these companies with very high interest in the steadily rising high temperature sensor market joined again to start an expert group for high temperature concentration measurement.

The current situation offers European SMEs the chance to occupy from the beginning a very interesting niche market with a high future potential. All partners have already demonstrated that a strong advantage in technology enables a European SME to take worldwide leadership in a special market. GASPRO-BIO-WASTE offered the same chance in a much bigger (future) market segment for all SME-partners.

The direct economic benefit of this project can be divided in three parts, where each one has to be looked on differently.
The benefit the SME partners will gain due to this project is caused by the newly developed sensors and measuring instrumentation, the new gas refinery unit for catalytic exhaust gas treatment, the improved micro power generation plants and the measuring data and processing knowledge achieved by the use of the new laboratory measuring plant.

First Commercial results will be achieved in the short and mean term starting directly after the project by selling the new high temperature In Situ sensors (objective I) and the universal gasification process analyser (GPA) (objective II). In this case the economic benefit can be expressed like follows.

Expected turnover for sensor and instrumentation sales worldwide in 3 to 5 years time after the project

In Situ sensors based on optical spectroscopy, electro ceramic or piezo electric effects, FB-TG and GRU (objective I):

Avantes infrared measuring technology ranges from about 5k EUROS per unit (most simple version of NIR spectrometer) to 20k EUROS for a high end NIR or UV/VIS spectrometer and to 30k EUROS for a Raman set up.
Because of the more sophisticated sensor technology the new high temperature optical sensor units will increase the price per unit in case of the Raman spectrometer to about 40kEUROS and in case of the high end NIR or UV/VIS spectrometers to about 25k EUROS. For both sensor types together a newly generated sales amount of 10 per year a few years after the project shall be achieved. Additionally low price optical sensor versions will be made available also for high temperature application. This is extremely sensible especially for the installation in certain versions of the new combined micro power generation plants. For these sensors which's price should not exceed 5k EUROS an additional sales amount of 40 per year a few years after the project shall be achieved. Exploitation of optical In Situ sensors can start immediately after the project and is supposed to reach a yearly turnover of at least 600k EUROS in three years time after the project.

Gasera offers its Pas-FTIR technology for about 20k EUROS as an high end upgrade for already existing standard FTIR spectrometers to enhance their sensitivity drastically. Additionally Gasera developed its own FTIR spectroscope during this project to supply also integrated turnkey solutions (50k EUROS) for their clients.

The new high temperature optical sensor units of GAS will range between 20k EUROS and 30k EUROS and the integrated high temperature FTIR solutions between 60 to 80k EUROS depending on the set-up and pressure and temperature range applied. Exploitation can start immediately after the project and is supposed to reach a yearly amount of more than 500k EUROS (10 sensors and 4 integrated systems) in three years time after the project.

The new VOS sensor units of Ioson will range between 15k EUROS and 20k EUROS depending on the set-up and pressure and temperature range applied. Exploitation starts immediately after the project and is supposed to reach a yearly amount of more than 200k EUROS in three years time after the project.

The new pressure sensor units will range between 1k EUROS and 5k EUROS depending on the set-up and pressure and temperature range applied. Exploitation starts immediately after the project and is supposed to reach a yearly amount of more than 200k EUROS in three years time after the project.

Up to now Costech offers no solely In Situ sensor solution. In their existing measuring solutions sensors are included which are partially own products of Costech like the TCDs used in several of their apparatus. The new thermal conductivity In Situ sensor units of Costech range between 2k EUROS (very simple versions for use in micro power plants a. o. low cost application) and 20k EUROS (high end solution for multi component gas mixture analysis) depending on the set-up and pressure and temperature range applied. Exploitation starts immediately after the project and is supposed to reach a yearly amount of more than 150k EUROS (25 economic and 5 high end) in three years time after the project.

The isobaric heat capacity sensor is a completely new product for Costech. It will range between 2k EUROS (very simple versions for use in micro power plants a. o. low cost application) and 15k EUROS (high end solution for multi component gas mixture analysis) depending on the set-up and pressure and temperature range applied.

In case of the low cost sensors 25 units can be expected a few years after the project. Together with the high end version (6 units per year) a turn over of at least 140k EUROS in three years time after the project will be achieved.

The reaction calorimeter is based on an already by Costech patented method. Its main purpose is the use in micro power plants as a very rough and cheap composition change indicator for the produced gas before feeding in the motor. For this application the target was to produce a low cost sensor with a price of 1k EUROS. This development was successful and this sensor may be used in many small scale gas burning applications. Here 100 units after three years time will be a very conservative expectation. More accurate solutions will range up to 5k EUROS. Exploitation starts immediately after the project and is supposed to reach a yearly amount of more than 200k EUROS in three years time after the project.

The new impedance spectroscopic sensors of Rubotherm will range between 2k EUROS (very simple versions for low cost application, e.g. water content determination) and 15k EUROS (high end solution for multi component gas mixture analysis) depending on the set-up and pressure and temperature range applied. Exploitation starts immediately after the project and is supposed to reach a yearly amount of more than 150k EUROS (30 economic and 6 high end) in three years time after the project.

The new system for high temperature fluidised bed and forced flow through analysis ranges between 2k EUROS and 3k EUROS as an ad on feature for Rubotherms forced flow through MSB and is already in the market. A number of 4 to 6 suspension balances per year where this additional feature is installed can be expected in short term. Nevertheless here we have to distinguish between the direct price increase caused by this MSB upgrade and the additional units of MSBs which can be sold because of the availability of this new feature. The first amount of about 13k EUROS (5 units) additional turnover is marginal. For the second amount it can be assumed that 3 of the 5 MSB are sold additionally only because of the availability of the high temperature forced flow through measuring technique. Here the extra turn over because of the increased amount of sold MSBs (3 units per year) due to the additional features will range to 500k EUROS yearly in the short term.

For the realisation of a ready to sell gasification process analyser a commercial optimisation of the GPA (WP9) will be performed by Rubotherm. This apparatus has the ability of becoming a well recognised measuring device for various kinds of high temperature processes. It can be used by companies and institutions dealing with different processes, especially in the environmental, energy and chemical sector, to optimise processes in any scale and calibrate sensors for concentration measurement. The GPA constitutes a research apparatus with a worldwide user circle consisting of universities, research institutes, process developing companies and large scale industrial laboratories. The price for this sophisticated high end analyzer will range between 200k EUROS and 300k EUROS depending on features provided. It includes about 50k EUROS to 120k EUROS for sensor and instrumental units purchased from GASPRO-BIO-WASTE partners. The estimated yearly sales amount should reach 3 units after 5 years time, which results in 750k EUROS mean turnover including 250k EUROS of OEM purchasing from project partners.

Estimated turnover for the improved micro power generation plants and the catalytic exhaust gas treatment in 5 years time after projects end

Economic benefit for exploitation of this kind of project result is definitely more difficult to evaluate. Depending on the application and scale, pricing can show huge differences in this part dealing with the sales of process plants or certain parts of it.

Due to GASPRO-BIO-WASTE Costech is able to optimise and further develop their patented micro power generation plants. Especially the possibility of process parameter adaptation for rather all kind of waste input shall drastically increase the sales results for these process plants. Depending on size and the waste treatment being necessary, pricing for the MPGs ranges between 20k EUROS (simplest version to be sold for smallest scale agriculture use) up to 500k EUROS for medium scale urban waste applications. Nevertheless COS owned already the principle technology and respective patents and started already with the production of first MPGs. The additional benefit due to this project may be estimated conservatively with 10 simple smallest scale versions and one medium and more sophisticated solutions to a sales amount of 500k EUROS after 5 years.

Beside the benefit for its direct use in Costechs MPGs the GRU manufactured by Costech offers good sales chances for various kinds of gasification or gas burning processes. GRU pricing ranges about 2k EUROS for lowest cost version up to 20k EUROS for bigger scale solutions. Sales amounts of 100 and 10 can be expected after 5 years time which results in an annual turnover of 300k EUROS

The realised measurements apart have no commercial value, but the benefit of using them to optimise existing and develop new sensors, finding optimal sensor combinations for concentration measurement modules and optimisation of existing plants, processes and services bear an economic benefit due to the technological advance mainly for the two processing companies CARE and Costech but in reduced extent also for the other SMEs of the GASPRO-BIO-WASTE consortium. This is all related to the SMEs core business and will result in rising long term sales amounts. Because of the jointly owned GPA and the measurements that will be done even though the project ends the long term effect for increased business will be very huge, even if it is not sizable in a yearly amount at this point.

GASPRO-BIO-WASTE directly leaded to a higher employment due to the partners activities. More scientists and other technical and administrative assistants were employed directly as a result of this project by the partners. Indirectly in the midterm after the project an increase of the SME partners by 20 - 100 % is expected.

list of Websites:

http://www.gaspro-bio-waste.eu

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