Skip to main content

Air Quality Monitoring Technologies for Urban Areas

Final Report Summary - AIRMONTECH (Air Quality Monitoring Technologies for Urban Areas)


Executive Summary:

AirMonTech is an EU FP7 project compiling knowledge and information needed to harmonize air pollution measurements now, and to guide decisions about monitoring technologies and strategies in the future.

The AirMonTech project is implemented by a consortium of air quality monitoring experts, measurement technique developers and health effect researchers from various institutions and public bodies. Strong links to both urban and regional monitoring networks and European standardization institutions existed via direct links to AQUILA, EMEP and CEN.

The goals defined by AirMonTech were

1. to assess the current and near-future state of air quality instrumentation and monitoring practice, and
2. to make recommendations regarding instrumentation, monitoring practice, and necessary research in the context of future regulatory monitoring (with emphasis on automatic instruments for urban monitoring).

This work was done to support the revision of the Ambient Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC and beyond.

Information collected by the consortium during the project concerned Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), equivalence reports, type approval reports, etc. The experts in the AirMonTech team further produced descriptions and overviews on pollutants, proxies as well as recent and new monitoring technologies. All this information was processed and made publicly available in a specifically database (http://db-airmontech.jrc.ec.europa.eu). A scenario of future urban air quality (AQ) monitoring was developed based on the technical review and a series of workshops in which all relevant stakeholders participated.

AirMonTech recommends that the focus of networks required by the Air Quality Directive should include the assessment of compliance with limit values and that of population-based exposure appropriate for health effect studies. Online monitoring devices became more flexible, versatile and multi-component oriented which is not reflected in the current design of the monitoring networks. Therefore a monitoring strategy allowing the use of other resources supplementary to the fixed measurement sites is recommended. Additionally, explicit supplementary monitoring aims of e.g. addressing scientific questions about sources, pollution control measures and monitoring for specific studies on health effects should be addressed.

To establish such a comprehensive AQ Monitoring system dedicated research is needed which is described in a Research Roadmap. The research roadmap and the production of recommendations was a systematic process involving all relevant stakeholder groups and European countries. It considers aspects like health effects of specific pollutants, capabilities of available or recently-developed technologies, new monitoring strategies, experience gained in monitoring networks and EU environmental strategies.

Project Context and Objectives:

In spite of considerable improvement during the last decades, the ambient Air Quality (AQ) remains a major issue on the political agenda in Europe. In particular, the polluted air in urban agglomerations, where most of the European population lives, is believed to have adverse effects on human health in terms of increased mortality and morbidity. The necessity for continuous measurements of various pollutants in Europe is therefore still unchallenged. However, the revision of the AQ Directive coming up after 2013 raises several questions of interest in this respect, for example: How to monitor air quality in Europe in future? Which measurement technologies will be available? Should the monitoring in networks be extended to other pollutants or health-related characteristics that yield data valuable for health effect assessments? And, if so, which instruments are best? Where do we find all relevant information? In addition, with increasing requirements for air pollution monitoring, and a rising number and complexity of available instruments, harmonisation and innovation of air pollution monitoring in Europe is of vital importance.

Against this background, the Coordination & Support project “AirMonTech” compiled up-to-date information on existing and new automated monitoring technologies, health effect information for regulated pollutants and new emerging metrics and proxies, and evaluated this information with respect to the future needs and possibilities of AQ monitoring in Europe. The ultimate objective was to provide a set of recommendations to further develop the AQ monitoring strategies in Europe and to define the necessary research activities needed for their realization.

More specifically, the objectives were to

- collect or produce information on existing air quality monitoring technologies, including type approval (TA) reports, standard operation procedures (SOPs), equivalency reports, manufacturer’s data etc.,
- collect or produce information on new and emerging air quality monitoring technologies,
- build a database with free internet accessibility through which the collected and produced documents can be disseminated to all interested parties and stakeholders,
- evaluate the information with respect to the potential of introducing new technologies as addition or replacement for the existing instrumentation into the urban air quality networks,
- hold international workshops in order to discuss the findings and conclusions with all relevant stakeholders (network operators, scientists, manufacturers, air quality agencies, public health experts, policy makers, NGOs),
- formulate recommendations based on the collected and produced information and the workshop results with respect to the future urban air monitoring strategy, network structures and tasks, and related instrumentation,
- propose a Research Roadmap which describes necessary research efforts in order to achieve the envisaged future urban air quality monitoring system.

Project Results:

1. AirMonTech Database

As a first S&T result AirMonTech produced a public accessible database containing about four hundred documents which provide information on air quality monitoring technologies. The database is hosted by JRC in Ispra, Italy and will be maintained active beyond the project’s duration.

Technically the database may be considered as a document server with an integrated powerful search engine which provides three ways to access the documents: a full text search, an advanced search using filtering techniques and a quick search making use of a pre-defined Metric/document type matrix which provides direct access via assigned links.

The documents stored in the database on the one hand comprise descriptions of monitoring technologies and metrics which have been compiled by the AirMonTech team. This information is organised in three types of documents:

- Metric Basic Information (MBI)
- Metric Measurement Technology Overview (MMTO)
- Metric Measurement Technology Information (MMTI)

The Metric Basic Information document gives information on

- the metric in detail
- health relevance
- current regulation
- standard monitoring methods
- relevant references

The Metric Measurement Technology Overview is a brief summary on the identified monitoring methods in tabular form for quick access to the most important method features and performance data.

The Metric Measurement Technology Information is a detailed description for each identified monitoring method.

The metrics considered comprise gaseous pollutants and particulate matter descriptors (e. g. mass, surface number concentrations and proxies (like black carbon) as well as particle-bound compounds).

The three types of documents (MBIs, MMTOs, MMTIs) have been produced for existing technologies being currently employed in the AQ networks, and for new and emerging technologies which may either being already marketed or in an early phase of development.

Furthermore, so-called “Model SOPs” have been drafted for carbon monoxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, benzene and for automated monitoring of particulate matter. They aim at giving support to network operators in setting-up or updating a SOP for specific monitoring purposes. While the model SOPs provide example text for the necessary points which need to be addressed in the SOP, it however only serves as an extended template. The actual circumstances of a network (site locations, exact type of an analyzer, organization and planning of the maintenance procedures etc.) have to be formulated for each monitoring network individually and in a specific way.

Beside the AirMonTech-produced documents, complementary external information provided by manufacturers, network operators or other bodies has been uploaded to the database. Such information comprise e.g. Standard Operation Procedures, Type Approval Reports and Certificates, product leaflets, brochures and manuals.

All documents are freely accessible via the internet and can be downloaded from http://db-airmontech.jrc.ec.europa.eu/.

2. Monitoring Technology Evaluations

Based on the information collected and stored in the database, trends in AQ monitoring technology have been identified, all with relevance for the design of future urban AQ monitoring networks.

In the case of gaseous pollutants, recent air quality monitors will enable urban networks to measure with less interferences, higher selectivity and at lower concentration levels. Miniaturised AQ stations allow for enlargement of networks as well as monitoring under severe spatial constraints.

Long-path absorption methods (DOAS) have been developed which may enable a complete scan of the rooftop air of parts or eventually a whole city thus providing the possibility to produce an “air pollution tomography”.

New instruments are also available for some not (yet) regulated compounds of known environmental and likely health impact (e.g. ammonia or VOCs). Additionally, miniaturisation of gas monitors down to pocket or chip size has come into sight. However, detection limits are not sufficiently low yet and the reliability of these measurements is questionable. Nevertheless, new AQ monitoring strategies are foreseen to incorporate a network of myriads of micro-sensors distributed over an urban area.

Aerosol research produced a variety of instruments for the physical characterisation of particles down to the nanometre scale. Many of these are well established in research but have limited application in AQ monitoring, mainly due to rather complex operation and data treatments. However, considerable effort has now been invested in the development of instruments able to fulfil the needs of AQ networks and at the same time delivering the information needed by the scientific community. As a result, an upgrading of standard AQ stations with particle size classifiers and particle number counters can be done today at reasonable cost.

Moreover, newly-developed multi-component monitors can be useful at research platforms or supersites where urban air pollution is not only monitored for regulatory purposes but scientifically investigated in more detail, e.g. to identify and apportion pollution sources or support health effect assessments.

Also, various instruments have been developed to quantify the black carbon (BC) content of the aerosol, by means of measuring light absorption and attenuation. Several of these instruments appear to be suitable for urban AQ monitoring networks, provided that their output is sufficiently standardised. Some specific features of airborne particles with known or suspected health relevance have led to the development of innovative monitors measuring proxy indicators, such as the lung deposited particle surface area and particle reactivity.

Breakthroughs have been achieved with regard to time-resolved chemical speciation of particles as well as for the detection of bio-allergens (pollen). Recently developed instruments are available that allow near-real-time analyses of particle chemical composition with respect to elemental composition and organic species. Such information is needed in particular to identify and apportion particle sources and processes. These instruments also provide time-resolved concentrations of metals, some of which are associated with significant health effects. Time-resolved determination of pollen concentration, on the other hand, might have direct impact on public health through short term information, facilitate the identification of allergen emission hot-spots and thereby may support urban spatial planning.

The following challenges needing increased research activities have been identified:

- Gaseous pollutants are well-described chemical compounds which can be measured with high selectivity using spectrometric methods. This characteristic allows remote sensors and in-situ open-path instruments to be used for pollution monitoring. While the general applicability of such approaches for urban AQ monitoring and pollutant mapping has already been demonstrated, further research is needed to facilitate the use of such instruments for AQ networks.
- Microsensors have been developed for a number of AQ relevant gases but still often suffer from insufficient detection limits and reliability. Recent advances in sensor technology have allowed the first demonstration projects to be carried out.
- Most aerosol measurements inherently assume simple particle morphology and shape, as spherical particles are used for instrument calibrations. Microscopic images of airborne particles show that in reality particles rarely support this assumption. It appears likely that these observable differences also cause different behaviour with respect to human health. However, the morphology and shape of micron and submicron-size particles can still only be assessed through labour-intensive laboratory procedures which provide insufficiently resolved exposure assessment for epidemiologic investigations.

Similarly, epidemiology studies suffer from the lack of sufficiently speciated chemical composition and particle characterisation data to identify those “silver bullets” that might be given priority in future air quality control. One option to tackle this problem is the “Areas for Research and Monitoring of Air Quality (ARMAQ)” approach, which means to carefully select sites located in areas with good epidemiology research opportunities, equip those areas with the most comprehensive instrument array possible, and to establish exposure-response functions for any potential health relevant and measureable metric. This will enable the comprehensive study of additional or alternative exposure metrics that integrally reflect the synergistic and antagonistic effects of the multitude of chemical and particle characteristics. If such proxy metrics can be found, and suitable monitoring instruments can be built, the effort spent in AQ networks may be reduced considerably. Current research on intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS), overall oxidative capacity and chemical speciation can be considered as first steps into this direction.

3. Recommendations and Research Roadmap

The second S&T result of the project is given by a set of recommendations for future AQ monitoring and a related Research Roadmap.

The recommendations were partly based on the results of the monitoring technology evaluation, and other factors such as health and strategic considerations. Roughly, two working stages were involved. Before the formulation of the recommendations, and further research that is needed, it was necessary to establish the context within which these (new) monitoring technologies would be used. For example, a novel technology may offer an improvement in the monitoring of a specific pollutant in terms of accuracy and time resolution, but if the pollutant has no short-term health effects, and its long-term health effects are of minor severity, the advantages of adopting the new technology will be limited.

Hence, the starting point was to consider (1.) the purposes of the main monitoring networks currently in place, (2.) the role of regulated metrics in the protection of human health, and (3.) the priorities for specific pollutants and metrics in terms of their direct health effects and their role as proxies. It was, however, clear that these topics cannot be considered separately from each other. For example, most epidemiological knowledge of health effects comes from the analysis of time series of regulated pollutants, so that evidence for non-regulated pollutants is less available. Also, when regulations are written, they implicitly rely on the established monitoring technologies at the time. Mass concentration as the measure of airborne particulate matter is a good example. It was concluded that it was necessary to first consider the different ways in which air quality monitoring might be done.

Some of the ideas that than emerged from the discussions were that:

1) The role of the regulatory monitoring network should be much wider than simply assessing compliance with limit values or average exposure indicators from pollutants with known harmful effects. Ideally the regulatory network would:

- assess compliance with regulated pollutants,
- provide data to further evaluate the health effects of the regulated pollutants,
- provide data to validate and improve air quality models,
- provide the means of evaluating source apportionment for the pollutants,
- provide the means of evaluating the effects of specific pollution control measures,
- provide data that would evaluate which regulated or non-regulated pollutants were most suitable for regulation in future.

In other words, the regulatory networks should have specific research functions as well as regulatory functions.

2) In general, the possible elements in the structure of regulatory monitoring were seen to be:

- fixed site monitoring (high accuracy, limited representatively),
- mobile or “sensor” monitoring (lower accuracy, higher representatively),
- remote monitoring (i.e. satellite / GMES type),
- modelling.

There was discussion concerning the relative emphasis on fixed and sensor monitoring within a regulatory network. It was generally considered that there would be progressively less fixed site monitoring and more sensor monitoring in the future. Radical changes would not be desirable both for continuity reasons (e.g. for health studies) and on grounds of cost.

3) The rationale for the choice of regulated metrics, aiming at the protection of human health from pollutants with known harmful effects, should be explicit:

- are they supposed to focus on the most polluted areas (as is the consequence of a blanket “limit value” approach)? Or
- are they supposed to focus on maximum relevance to the population (where an “average exposure indicator” may be more appropriate)?

The design of regulatory monitoring networks will be different in the two cases.

The health effects of the pollutants considered within AirMonTech were summarised. From this overview, combined with other studies such as REVIHAAP, it is clear that while there is sufficient evidence about significant health effects of particulate pollution, there is still substantial lack of knowledge as to which component or components of PM pollution are more responsible for these health effects. The hypothesis, in previous years, that one or a few components are responsible and that we may be able to monitor only one or few aspects to protect public health, has not been confirmed. It appears that at least the entire size distribution of PM needs to be further studied, as well as some PM components, mainly EC/OC, specific metals, sulphates, for short- and long-term exposure consequences, and PAHs, mainly for long-term exposures. Monitoring of “soot-like” PM is recommended, because (as Black Carbon) it is a good indicator for the impact of traffic emissions, it can be measured with high time resolution, and (as Black Smoke) it is strongly implicated to have health effects.

In the following the recommendations are listed with regard to the context of monitoring, the instrumentation and the needed research:

A) The Context of the Monitoring

1) The objectives of the current and future monitoring networks need to be explicit, setting out the balance between regulatory and scientific purposes.
2) The focus of networks required by the Air Quality Directive should be broad enough at least to include the assessment of compliance with EU standards in background and hotspot sites, and the assessment of population-based exposure appropriate for health effect studies.
3) There should be explicit supplementary aims of addressing scientific questions about sources, pollution control measures and monitoring for specific studies on health effects, defined in collaboration with the corresponding scientific communities.
4) There should be explicit cooperation with regional-scale networks, notably EMEP, covering common objectives. There should be explicit harmonisation of measurement methods and QA/QC procedures with EMEP and other relevant networks, as far as the purposes of the measurement allow.
5) There needs to be some flexibility in requirements to encourage the uptake of new technologies, to respond to changing priorities, and to reduce “monitoring inertia”.
6) Consideration should be given to moving away from a strategy of comprehensive monitoring networks for each pollutant, to one of having a combination of permanent “research sites” measuring a large range of pollutants in carefully-chosen sites, supplemented by other monitoring techniques and modelling.
7) Given the high spatial inhomogeneity of urban pollutants, these other monitoring techniques could take the form of low-cost instruments, allowing a much greater density of monitoring sites. These could be used in short term campaigns or for permanent monitoring. The practical operation of such high-density networks will require research and development.
8) Priorities to improve urban air quality modelling include (i) developing emissions inventories, meteorology and topological information at spatial and temporal scales fine enough to reproduce variability found in urban situations; and (ii) validating real-life emissions data for road traffic under specific urban driving conditions.
9) In the 2020 timescale, the overarching aim should be better integration of air quality assessment (which includes ambient monitoring, remote monitoring, emissions data, and modelling) and health effects monitoring, addressing a strategy containing regulatory and supplementary aims as set out above.

B) Monitoring Technologies

1) For regulated gaseous pollutants, there is no strong requirement to replace the reference methods for SO2, O3, CO and benzene. For NO2, there are issues with the selectivity of the reference chemiluminescence instruments, which would be resolved using other techniques, e.g. cavity enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy instruments. However, the benefits of more accurate NO2 measurements would be more scientific than regulatory, as the current methods are satisfactory for current regulations.
2) In the longer term, spectroscopic instruments based on, for example, multi-laser cavity ring down spectroscopy, offer potential benefits of high accuracy, compact multi-species gaseous pollutant instruments, and their development should be encouraged.
3) It would be beneficial to include ammonia among the gases routinely monitored in urban air, due to its impact on secondary aerosol formation.
4) Low cost gas sensors, such as those based on electrochemistry, have a large potential for enabling high spatial density monitoring which would be beneficial in urban areas. However, there is currently only preliminary evidence of their real world performance in terms of, for example, specificity and stability, the most promising evidence being for ozone sensors. Research in this area should be encouraged.
5) For the regulated particle metrics PM10 and PM2.5 there are no automated technologies that are suitable as reference methods to replace the current manual reference methods without this leading to a significant change to the metrics. However, this is largely a consequence of these metrics being method-defined. The investigation of related but better-defined metrics, such as separate chemical components of the same size fractions, or their non-volatile components, is encouraged.
6) Although on-line methods for metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are becoming available, there are no strong regulatory or health reasons for changing from the current manual reference methods. Automated methods with higher time resolution may be beneficial for scientific reasons, for example improvement of source attribution.
7) Black carbon (BC) is a strong candidate for future regulatory measurement, as a proxy for combustion products. It should be reported both as an optical absorption coefficient, and as a scaled concentration designed to be equivalent to elemental carbon (EC). This is because of the reliability of the measurement technology, and the importance of monitoring this major type of primary particle in terms of its relevance to both health effects and climatic radiative forcing.
8) Particle number concentration is a less strong candidate for regulatory measurement, because the number of particles in a given sample of air can change dramatically through coagulation, for example.
9) Instruments monitoring particle surface area concentration, based on diffusion charging, are promising as robust instruments monitoring a useful parameter relating to the physical properties of particles, although some of the difficulties associated with particle number concentration also apply.
10) Organic carbon (OC) and particle reactivity (such as Reactive Oxidative Species (ROS)) would be strong candidates for future measurement, due to early indications of health relevance. Research-based automated monitoring instruments have been developed, but network-ready instruments are not yet available.
11) Priority parameters for extended field trials are real time methods for ammonia, black carbon, particle surface area concentration, particle number concentration, organic carbon, ROS, and particle composition, specifically simplified Aerosol Mass Spectrometry for organic speciation, and automated analysers for elemental components.

C) The Research Roadmap

The research roadmap outlined below is designed to present coordinated, focussed projects timed to maximise the use of the available expertise and to fit EU funding cycles within the Horizon 2020 programme.

From the nature of the proposed projects it is evident that defined Areas of Research and Monitoring of Air Quality (ARMAQs), in urban agglomerations, are needed to facilitate the development of future air quality monitoring. ARMAQs should be representative of the variations in Europe in, for example, climate, socio-economic factors, and genetics. The ARMAQs should be established as soon as is practical, through, for example, a specific Infrastructure call.

Six project topics and one supporting action are proposed below, comprising three projects in an earlier “data acquisition” phase, three in a later “integration” phase, with the dedicated supporting action linking these two phases.

- “Data acquisition” phase

Instrumentation: leading to new and improved monitoring technologies and procedures for new and alternative metrics, relating to health and source monitoring.

Modelling: leading to the development of a modelling and air quality data integration tool, including for alternative metrics.

Health effects: leading to robust methods to achieve (Europe-wide) routine health effect monitoring and health impact assessments.

- Supporting action

Implementation: the development of implementation strategies of new AQ network designs, including for new metrics.

- “Integration” phase

Data integration: leading to methods for optimised use of all monitoring data and modelling outputs, as developed in the Instrumentation and Modelling projects, to enable routine health, source, abatement and compliance assessment.

Population exposure: leading to methods to improve the estimation of population exposure from ambient concentrations and other data, making use of results from the Modelling and Health Effects projects.

Full integration: implemented integration of air quality and health monitoring, together with the supplementary scientific aims, at selected cities.

D) Summary and Outlook

AirMonTech developed recommendations on future urban air quality monitoring and strategy, aimed at the revision of the European thematic strategy "Clean Air for Europe", and discussions on the revision of the Ambient Air Quality Directive coming up after 2013, and before the start of Horizon 2020. The recommendations concentrate on the question of how we can make today’s monitoring practice more effective and cost-efficient. It is acknowledged that network monitoring would be far more effective if it is explicitly providing information to clarify health effects (without neglecting the legislative task of ensuring compliance). Considering the work done by WHO-REVIHAAP, as well as ACCENT-plus and AQUILA, valuable extra air quality data related to health effects could be gained from the regulatory monitoring without a significant increase in costs.

The “health aim” affects the choice of new (additional) metrics. There are various new metrics possible, like Black Carbon (BC), particle number concentration and particle surface area concentration. BC is a strong candidate for future regulatory measurements, as a proxy for combustion products (‘soot’). In its favour are the reliability of the measurement technology, and its relevance to both health effects and climatic radiative forcing.

To strengthen research in this direction AirMonTech proposes to establish dedicated urban Areas for Research and Monitoring of Air Quality (ARMAQs). These areas should link expertise in monitoring and modelling of air pollutants with epidemiology and toxicology. It is believed that such ARMAQs , distributed over Europe’s major urban agglomerations, will generate the necessary insights into the health effect mechanisms. How this can be achieved is laid down in the research roadmap.

Quite some substantial research in the different areas given in the research roadmap has already been conducted within other FP7 projects (ESCAPE, TRANSPHORM, ACCENT PLUS) and should certainly be reflected in the corresponding call texts. The main goals for this research roadmap in Horizon 2020 will be a) the integration of the different research areas, b) the development of the research results into improved monitoring network design for air quality and health, c) the implementation of this improved multiple purpose design ultimately leading to an improved quality of life for the European population.

Potential Impact:

AirMonTech has extended the partner’s knowledge through data and interpretation of documents carried out in Work Package 1 and 2 (on recent and new generation technologies for air pollution monitoring) as well as by the development of the recommendations and roadmap in Work Package 4. This extension in scientific knowledge in combination with the AirMonTech results allows the partners to interact with (and advise) the local, regional, and national stakeholders (beyond the extended AirMonTech stakeholder cycle). In specific, these studies especially widened knowledge of the partners on new measurement methods and possibly new PM metrics, allowing them to better evaluate future PM metrics. This may result in activities linking air quality monitoring closer with health effects studies and health impact assessment.

Another focus of AirMonTech was the review of technologies of automatic monitors and their application in urban settings. This activity has improved the definition of the current state of the art as well as future options, and will enhance the harmonization of air pollution monitoring in Europe. Air quality monitoring people have access to this information via the AirMontech database (http://db-airmontech.jrc.ec.europa.eu/) delivering a basis for decisions on new measurement and data processing technologies in their networks. This also takes into account information on future directions of air quality monitoring in urban areas (which is one of the results from Work Package 4).

The AirMontech database also provides a platform to the European and national reference laboratories for data and information exchange and a tool for assessment which facilitates future points of discussion and decisions. Decision makers and EU representatives received direct information from an informed consortium on possibilities and limitations of air quality monitoring in Europe and how the link to health effects can be improved.

During the AirMonTech project an interactive discussion platform was created for the relevant scientific communities. To this purpose, three specific workshops and a conference (London, Barcelona, Duisburg, Brussels) were organized, with the inclusion of a core stakeholder cycle. The groups involved in these meetings were representatives of non-governmental organisations, national bodies responsible for air quality monitoring in the EU member states (including Central and Eastern Europe), the association of national AQ reference laboratories (AQUILA), municipal AQ network operators, manufacturers and developers of AQ instrumentation, as well as research institutes and university faculties working in the field of AQ measurements. The workshops were always attended by more than 100 participants.

Overall and looking at the strategic developments envisaged stemming from AirMonTech even larger possible implications can be identified:

With the design of a multipurpose monitoring network, bridging air quality monitoring with health effect studies, and combining this with effects from other environmental stressors, a more versatile and cost efficient approach to improve the quality of life for people living in agglomeration areas will be pursued. Information on the spatial and temporal variation of air pollutants will be made available quasi-online for the public and decision makers to identify hot spots for actions. Air quality monitoring will improve cost efficiency by better pointing to the most appropriate abatement strategy. The effectiveness of the abatement strategy on the health of the population is increased by basing the decisions on the most appropriate air quality metric. All this together will lead also to higher productivity of the people living in agglomeration areas.

The undertaken project dissemination activities consisted of presentations (oral and poster), publications, the organisation of three workshops and a final conference, newsletters, leaflets and a policy brief. An overview on all those activities is available from the Report “Final plan for use and dissemination of foreground“ (Deliverable D5.8).

The major tool for the dissemination is the database developed during the project. The database is filled with all kind of documents regarding the measurement of air quality and freely accessible. In this way, it offers a tool for dissemination after the project.

The following dissemination is foreseen after the end of the project:

i. A promoting article introducing the AirMonTech project and the developed database as well as the final outcomes of the AirMonTech roadmap, and the use and functionalities of the database. This paper will be translated into various EU-languages and published in national (popularized) journals with relevance for air quality research and political involvement.
ii. Active participation in international advisory groups or EU projects such as AQUILA (Network of National Reference Air Quality Laboratories), EuNetAir, TFMM, CEN to promote a continuous support of the database and increase the synergy with other activities. This will be carried out by various AMT members active in these projects/programs like AQUILA, EuNetAir, TFMM, CEN.
iii. A one-page leaflet/brochure introducing the database and its functionalities, and clarifying the use as a platform of vivid communication and scientific discussion.
iv. Regular updates by e-mail on the actual state and content of the database to those registrated within the AirMonTech framework.
v. Investigation of a possible integration of the database in other Programs and future Projects (a joint action of all AirMonTech members).

List of Websites:

http://www.airmontech.eu/

http://db-airmontech.jrc.ec.europa.eu/

Project Coordinator:

Thomas Kuhlbusch,
IUTA e.V Bliersheimer Str. 58-60,
D-47229 Duisburg,
Germany.
E-mail: tky@iuta.de

Database (content):
Ulrich Quass,
IUTA e.V Bliersheimer Str. 58-60,
D-47229 Duisburg,
Germany.
E-mail: quass@iuta.de

Database (technically):
Annette Borowiak,
JRC Ispra,
Italy.
E-Mail: annette.borowiak@jrc.ec.europa.eu