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Coordination Action on PPP Implementation for Road-Transport Electrification

Final Report Summary - CAPIRE (Coordination Action on PPP Implementation for Road-Transport Electrification)

Executive Summary:
Part of the EU’s Economic Recovery Plan and of the Europe 2020 Strategy for a successful and sustainable social market economy, the Public Private Partnership (PPP) European Green Cars Initiative was launched in 2008 to coordinate the efforts of all involved parties in terms of development and deployment of the key energy efficient technologies, infrastructures and frameworks. Due to the high degree of satisfaction from both the industrial stakeholders and the EC sides, the continuation of the PPP as EGVI (European Green Vehicles Initiative) was agreed for the next European Horizon 2020 R&D plan.

CAPIRE is a Coordination and Support Action (CSA) launched in 2010 within the European FP7 program to sustain and put into practice the realization of the European Green Cars Initiative. The project focused on the definition of the potential flagships projects, which could foster the competitiveness of the European Automotive Industry namely in the domain of transport electrification. Its activities were concentrated on two major fields:
• A careful consideration of options for the aims, shape, and implementation paths for a PPP,
• The identification of technology roadblocks pointing out the gaps, addressing the respective research needs within FP7 and H2020 programs, respective milestones, and supporting measures.

Today’s public structures and methodologies for automotive RTD funding were analysed in Europe including information about organizations approaches to develop and implement funding programs, available investments and beneficiaries, overlaps between the different funding programs, effectiveness of the outcomes of funded project with respect to their objectives, effective contribution to the European Leadership Ambition regarding vehicle electrification. Guidelines were proposed to bring simplicity and effectiveness to research funding schemes, procedures and administration of collaborative projects to maintain industrial appeal and relevance for these cooperative actions.

Public-Private Partnerships established in recent years to enable large-scale initiatives were reviewed to identify the most successful models for joint undertakings of public authorities and the industry in different areas that have enabled new links between the transportation and energy supply systems to be created, and in particular the setting-up of innovative electrified mobility and transportation solutions. On the basis of the lessons learned, a series of specific suggestions were made with respect to the continuation of the EGVI in Horizon 2020 including the need to establish a scheme for operation and governance in order to formalize the principles of work, ensure the commitment of those involved, and organize the tasks, and to develop technology roadmaps to chart the course of research and innovation.

Regarding vehicle technologies for long Distance trucks and on city logistics, roadmaps were refined and updated in collaboration with ERTRAC to provide input to work program. “Road Transport Electrification” being one of the pillars of the PPP EGVIA, a special care was given by CAPIRE project team to the update of the first European roadmap on electrification, edited by the industry in 2009. It describes the deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in Europe in terms of both a baseline evolutionary scenario and an expected development under the assumption of major technological breakthroughs. Additional roadmaps covering horizontal areas were prepared (Infrastructure, ICT and Simulation and testing) and included to the electrification roadmap as annexes.

On the basis of these roadmaps as well as several dedicated seminars and expert workshops, CAPIRE provided substantial inputs to the recommendations for work programs on smart, green and integrated transport in FP7 and Horizon 2020.

Project Context and Objectives:
The decarbonisation and the greening of road vehicles, particularly through electrification, are very high on the agenda of public authorities and industry. The European Green Cars Initiative was part of the EU’s Economic Recovery Plan and of the Europe 2020 Strategy for a successful and sustainable social market economy. It was one of the measures taken to overcome the economic crisis with a longer-term perspective aimed at providing a lasting economic boost, tackling climate change, meeting energy targets and producing important societal benefits.

The goal of the European Green Cars Initiative was to coordinate the efforts of all involved parties in terms of development and deployment of the key energy efficient technologies, infrastructures and frameworks. Till its lunch in 2008, the Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) has proven to be fast, efficient for achieving the required strategic coordination and budgetary commitments and have thus been applied in the context of the green vehicles projects. Due to the high degree of satisfaction from both the industrial stakeholders and the EC sides, the continuation of the PPP as EGVI (European Green Vehicles Initiative) was agreed for the next European Horizon 2020 R&D plan.

CAPIRE is a Support and Coordination Action (CSA) launched within the European FP7 program to sustain and put into practice the realization of the Public Private Partnership (PPP) European Green Cars Initiative. The project focused on the definition of the potential flagships projects, which could foster the competitiveness of the European Automotive Industry namely in the domain of transport electrification. Its activities were concentrated on two major fields:
• A careful consideration of options for the aims, shape, and implementation paths for a PPP,
• The identification of technology roadblocks pointing out the gaps, addressing the respective research needs within FP7 and H2020 programs, respective milestones, and supporting measures.

One of the deliverable expected from the project was a reference model for the PPP European Green Cars Initiative that can be used as a blue print for the implementation of Green Cars-related PPPs at multiple levels. This needs to be based on the selection of the most appropriate methods, the involvement of right public authorities and private stakeholders as well as on well-defined R&D topics and goals to help Europe’s automotive industry become more competitive through the development of more environmentally friendly vehicles.

The project was expected to give clear picture and to propose guidelines to improve public structures and methodologies for automotive R&D&I project funding in Europe. Other major expected outcomes were clear roadmaps for electric and energy efficient transport based on a deep analysis of R&D needs, respective milestones and supporting measures. The goal is to increase by a joint approach of the involved economic sectors and the public authorities the competitiveness of European Automotive Industry in the domain of energy efficient, safe, non-polluting and CO2-free vehicles at a global scale. To be broad enough, this strategy was based on the three technology pillars of the EGCI:
• Passenger cars and LCV: to reduce local pollution, emission of greenhouse gases and noise by accelerating electrification of vehicles and developing a dedicated infrastructure for the connection to CO2-free energy sources
• Trucks and Buses: to improve overall efficiency of transport of people and goods by the development of more effective vehicles, standardized load carriers and supporting ITS/ICT systems
• Logistics: to increase the efficiency of goods transport by optimizing loading rate of trucks and mixing different energy saving transport vectors as rail transport and road transport

The Coordination action CAPIRE was managed as a project with well-defined work packages and tasks, a clear agenda of milestones and deliverables, agreed budget and resources sharing between the partners. Besides the coordination, administrative and financial management, work was organised within six work packages


1) Today’s public structures and methodologies for automotive RTD funding (Leader: AVL)

A clear picture of the structures and instruments for collaborative road transport R&D in Europe was given including information about responsible organizations approaches to develop and implement funding programs, available investments and beneficiaries, overlaps between the different funding programs, effectiveness of the concrete results of the different funded project with respect to their objectives, effective contribution to the European Leadership Ambition regarding vehicle electrification as well as the contribution to the related competencies and industrial capability improvement. The recommendations were proposed to bring simplicity and efficiency to research funding schemes, procedures and administration of collaborative project to maintain industrial appeal and relevance for these actions.
The reduction of the existing fragmentation of European road transport research is to be reduced by taking into account and analysing the existing relevant national and European projects, well identifying the needs and examining its results and efficiency according to the automotive stakeholders’ expectations


2) Assessment of existing PPP models (Leader: CRF)

The activities carried out by the project team focused on reviewing and assessing the Public-Private Partnerships which have been established in recent years to enable large-scale initiatives to be undertaken. The aim was to identify the most successful models for joint undertakings of public authorities and the industry in different areas, with particular interest on those mechanisms, which have been developed to enable large-scale innovations to become a reality.
The main focus was on PPPs which have enabled new links between the transportation and energy supply systems to be created, and in particular the setting-up of innovative electrified mobility and transportation solutions within the urban and suburban context.
Also the methodologies which are frequently applied in a PPP were assessed, including the definition of joint roadmaps and implementation plans, contracts for long-term cooperation, the establishment of an organization comprising joint resources, and agreed measures for the joint spending of funds (calls for proposals, evaluation and decision processes).
The activities also succeeded in identifying how national governments and public funding bodies are currently teaming up with industry and other stakeholders on a national level. The aim was to determine not only the best practices, but how PPPs may evolve in future also to make use of economies-of-scale by organizing such initiatives on a wider-scale and on a higher level.
On the basis of the lessons learned, a series of specific suggestions were made with respect to the continuation of the EGCI in Horizon 2020 including the need to establish a scheme for operation and governance according to the principles of transparency and openness in order to formalize the principles of work, ensure the commitment of those involved, and organize the tasks, and to develop long-term technology roadmaps to chart the course of research and innovation in order to achieve the pre-defined, medium- to long-term goals;



3) Implementation of the European Green Cars Initiative (Leader: VDI/VDE-IT)

As intended in the project objectives, the activities achieved within the project aimed to support and facilitate the development of the European Green Cars Initiative and to put it into practice. Based on an assessment of existing concepts made by the project as well as the recommendations issued from the “Interim Assessment of the Research PPPs (Energy Efficient Buildings, Factories of the Future and European Green Cars Initiative) in the European Economic Recovery Plan" (published in May 2011), a generalized description of the space of relevant model parameters was made. In addition, CAPIRE contributed actively in the definition of recommendations for flagship projects with the EGVIA members. The aim of such Flagship projects is to enhance the efficiency of the PPP research actions and to foster the decarbonisation of the European road transport, particularly through electrification.
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4) Long Distance Road Transport and Logistics Roadmaps (Leader: VOLVO)

CAPIRE activities on Long Distance Road Transport & Logistics Roadmaps aimed to contribute to a more efficient transport system and Logistics in Europe and to reduce the associated CO2 and Noise Emissions as well as pollutants and the dependency on fossil fuels of this sector. The work was guided by the roadmaps to be delivered to the EC and European Green Vehicle Initiative annually in order to feed recommendations to the former FP7 and current Horizon 2020 EC funded projects calls.

the roadmaps on Vehicle Technologies for Long Distance Trucks and on City Logistics were refined and updated in collaboration with the ERTRAC work groups on Long Distance Freight Transport and Urban Mobility, with the immediate aim of providing input to framework program. In addition, CAPIRE supported the start-up of the new European Technical Platform on Logistics – ALICE (Alliance for Logistic Innovation through Collaboration in Europe). The results were channelled through ALICE to the Horizon 2020 work program in the area of logistics.

The roadmap on City Logistics was inspired by wide variety of examples of projects that are being undertaken in an effort to make city logistics cleaner and more efficient. Based on inputs from the CAPIRE roadmap on Clean City Logistics as well as several other sources, a number of themes were identified to guide the scope of the joint ERTRAC/ALICE Urban Freight Research Roadmap published in September 2014.

The work on the roadmap on Vehicle Technologies for Long Distance Trucks has resulted in the updated “Heavy Duty Truck Roadmap” and includes an update of the research and innovation domains focusing five areas: Tailored Trucks & Load Carriers, Self-Operating & Resilient Trucks, Sustainable & New Energy Trucks, Transport System Integrated Trucks and Traffic & Infrastructures Integrated Trucks.

The Roadmaps as well as several dedicated seminars and expert workshops, CAPIRE provided substantial inputs to the recommendations preceding the release of the 2014-2015 and 2016-2017 work programs on Smart, green and integrated transport in Horizon 2020. This was done both through the EGVIA and ERTRAC channels where the vehicle technology centric recommendations was incorporated in the EGVIA recommendations and the transport system and logistics related content was channelled through ERTRAC (work groups for Long Distance Freight Transport and Urban Mobility) and through the WINN project and the ALICE platform and its working groups.


5) Vehicle Electrification Roadmaps (Leader: BOSCH)

“Road Transport Electrification” being one of the pillars of the PPP EGVIA, a special care was given to this domain because of the European leadership ambition that the EC has expressed.
The detailed roadmaps and recommendations issued gave clear guideline of the research and development efforts of the Automotive Industry, Automotive Suppliers and Automotive Engineering Companies in the framework of EV and HEV as well as the Research Programs. The related roadmaps were therefore detailed and split into the domains and sub domains as follows:
• Vehicle Technologies: HE and HP Batteries, Electric Motors, Electric Generators, Power Electronics, Uncoupled braking systems, other energy recovery devices, Cabin Thermal comfort Management, Aerodynamics, Auxiliaries, Powertrains for HEV,…
• Infrastructure: Electric power Generation, Electric Power distribution and balance, Grid to Vehicle and Vehicle to grid systems and dedicated control systems, Fast charge units, Battery swap systems, Plugs standardization,
• Improved ICT for FEV and PHEV
• Market Simulations conducted with 2 MBA schools CASS Business School of London and Solvay Business School of Brussels. A 3rd study was replicated with Ecole des Mines de Paris. The results of the studies were presented in interactive workshops organized by the students with the support CAPIRE (P&G partner)

The above-defined roadmaps related to vehicle technologies and Infrastructure were largely distributed and delivered to the EC in order to feed the different FP7 and FP8 EC funded projects Calls.


6) Dissemination of results (Leader: RENAULT)

Dissemination of results, networking and projects clustering were essential in the CAPIRE project activities coordination and management. The output products issued from the different deliverables of CAPIRE and their deployment based on these target compounds, different dissemination processes will be used:
• CAPIRE annual Newsletter distributed electronically to allow access directly to all the public reports and roadmaps
• Projects portfolio brochure was updated regularly and distributed in key meetings and International conferences
• All the public results of CAPIRE are available on the CAPIRE public website hosted by the EGCI website
• CAPIRE outcomes and EGVI updates were presented in several international conferences (special session in TRA2012&2014, AMAA from 2011 to 2014, Green Cars Spain 2011 & 2012, EVS 26 &27, AVL International Conference,…)

Dissemination effort of all the partners was strengthened to take into account the highest strategic importance of the R&D activities of the PPP EGVI. Several experts’ workshops and projects clustering were organized by CAPIRE on batteries, EE architecture, EV Testing.

Project Results:

1) Today's public structures and methodologies for automotive RTD funding

This study contributed to some of the most important policies in European road transport. One of the focuses was the reduction of the existing fragmentation of European road transport research, by mapping and analysing the relevant national and European initiatives. A clear picture of the structures and instruments for collaborative road transport RTD in Europe was drafted with extensive information about responsible organisations’ approaches to develop and implement funding programmes, available investments and beneficiaries.

Highlight clearly significant results:

Funding schemes and programmes in the European Commission were analysed: Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom. The investigations focused on the following criteria:
• Governance and funding organisations,
• Programme calls in the years 2009 and 2010,
• Technological priorities of these programmes,
• Research stages addressed,
• Types of organisations involved,
• Funding made available for EGCI topics.

An online questionnaire gathered additional input from experienced project managers about procedures, strengths and weaknesses of European and national research programmes. The respondents were asked to review funding organisations on national and European level. Since the results were considered as very interesting and important, it was decided to not only integrate them in the programme analysis report but to publish a separate document about the survey.

The project assessment study summarises the impact assessment of selected collaborative RTD projects in the area of road transport and smart grids. All the major research areas which the European Green Cars Initiative covers are addressed plus some more which the authors considered as important: Drive train technologies, energy storage, vehicle design and vehicle system integration, grid integration, logistics, telematics, safety and noise reduction. Concerning the type of result various activities were identified: Product development, production, prototypes, patents, feasibility studies, scientific publications or further business activities.

The results of this study were reported in 3 public documents:
• D1.1: European Programme Analysis for Collaborative Transport RTD
• D1.2: Impact Assessment of Publicly Funded Collaborative RTD Projects
• D1.3: Review of European and national research programmes for Collaborative Transport RTD – Analysis of a survey among European innovation and project managers (

The excellent results presented in these reports were published on the CAPIRE website and presented at various events namely:
• ERTRAC Plenary meeting on 15 March 2012 in Brussels
• TRA2012 Conference on 25 April 2012 in Athens
• Presentation of WP1 results at FP7 PPP information event on 01 June 2012 in Paris
• TRA2014 Conference on 14-17 April 2012 in Paris- La Defense

For improved visibility and awareness the WP1 presentations were created using the online tool Prezi. The presentations are available from the Prezi website: http://prezi.com/user/hokqtqlxgeh8




2) Assessment of existing PPP models

Over recent years, a significant number of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) have been established at the European Union level, the member states and in economies beyond Europe to enable efficient large-scale initiatives for R&D and innovation by sharing responsibilities and financial burdens between public authorities and private sectors in the past few decades.
The activity conducted by WP2 team focused on reviewing and assessing the Public-Private Partnerships which have been established in recent years to enable large-scale initiatives to be undertaken. The aim was to identify the most successful models for joint undertakings of public authorities and the industry in different areas, with particular interest on those mechanisms, which have been developed to enable large-scale innovations to become a reality.
The main focus was on PPPs which have enabled new links between the transportation and energy supply systems to be created, and in particular the setting-up of innovative electrified mobility and transportation solutions within the urban and suburban context.
Also the methodologies which are frequently applied in a PPP were assessed, including the definition of joint roadmaps and implementation plans, contracts for long-term cooperation, the establishment of an organization comprising joint resources, and agreed measures for the joint spending of funds (calls for proposals, evaluation and decision processes).
The activities also succeeded in identifying how national governments and public funding bodies are currently teaming up with industry and other stakeholders on a national level. The aim was to determine not only the lessons learned to date, but how PPPs may evolve in future also to make use of economies-of-scale by organizing such initiatives on a wider-scale and on a higher level.
As a first step, WP leader CRF together with the involved partners developed a simple methodology to successfully perform the investigations as described below and allow a consistent analysis of the gathered information while will further detailing the role of each partners in the two tasks, as outlined below.


Highlight of significant results:

From the assessment performed by CAPIRE project team, useful lessons can be learned from the experiences matured around the world to facilitate the implementation of initiatives to support and promote research and innovation in the field of Sustainable Mobility:
The individual countries studied are considered to be leaders regarding effective PPP implementation and the overall conclusion from the extensive experience gained is that PPPs provide excellent performance in both the cost and time dimensions, and that the PPP advantage increases (in absolute terms) with the size and complexity of projects.
As regards the potential application of the PPP instrument to pan-European, pre-competitive research and innovation in Europe, which is the specific objective of the continuation of the EGCI in Horizon 2020, a series of interesting conclusions can be drawn from this assessment of the implementation of PPPs and sustainable mobility oriented R&D in selected non-EU countries.
In particular, in the context of specific relevance to CAPIRE, a PPP can provide:
• A lasting commitment between Governments and the different stakeholders involved in order to address the shared objectives, with the objective to deliver results in a timely and continuous manner;
• The critical mass of funding for topics that tackle specific societal challenges of strategic importance;
• The opportunity to drive forward progress by allocating sufficient ‘ring-fenced’ funds and implementing the specific actions necessary to ensure and accelerate the implementation of results;
• A collaborative process in which private and public actors are putting together their specific competences, the public side setting the policy objectives whilst industry and other stakeholders work to identify the priorities (eg. in terms of research and innovation) to fulfil them;
• An organization to exploit the competences of each side to the full in terms of public funding allocation, project evaluation and management, recommendations for specific actions, monitoring and evaluating progress towards the objectives, etc.;
• A transparency in the priorities setting process and openness for participation by stakeholders.
• A flexibility and ability to adapt the programme according to the progress made, allowing the funds to be always oriented towards the best usage according to current situation and relevant developments
• Ensure a lasting cooperation of the stakeholders.

On the basis of the lessons learned, a series of specific suggestions were made with respect to the continuation of the EGCI in Horizon 2020 including the need to:
• Establish a scheme for operation and governance according to the principles of transparency and openness in order to formalize the principles of work, ensure the commitment of those involved, and organize the tasks of: delivering research topics recommendations agreed across the wide community of stakeholders involved; monitoring project progress; continuously evaluating the efficiency of the measures taken;
• Develop long-term technology roadmaps to chart the course of research and innovation in order to achieve the pre-defined, medium- to long-term goals; their milestones will serve to ensure coherence of technology developments in the relevant technology fields and to derive thematic priorities and timescales; these technology roadmaps must be updated periodically since they are snapshot of the situation today, and will require continuous monitoring of development and progress.

Correspondingly, the potential impact of such a PPP within the specific context of the European Automotive Industry, which needs to offer products and services to maintain competitiveness at a global level, includes the opportunity to:
• Focus on highly innovative technologies which require risky investments, where EU funding will make a substantial contribution to the overall innovation chain, giving rise to considerable leveraging of the funds invested, since EU research projects, which are usually in a pre-competitive stage, lead to further investments within companies for product development, and successively to massive investments in the view of production and market introduction of innovative technologies;
• Validate different technology options through research and demonstration activities and deliver an assessment of exploitation potential within different markets, extremely valuable for those concerned;
• Identify and provide the appropriate level of investment in research at the European level which has a multiplicative effect along the innovation chain, often paving the way for investments in many companies and in many countries by being complemented by funding from national and regional authorities;
• Create significant added value by reducing the R&D spending risk for the participating companies, since a larger group is working together towards the same goal enables risk sharing and mitigation;
• Exploit the potential for significant, additional positive economic and social impacts is huge being in mind that the Automotive Industry represents one of the most important sectors of Europe in terms of its impacts on employment and economic activity;
• Establish specific education and training programmes which will have a direct impact on high-level employment opportunities and hence the competitiveness of the European Automotive Industry in future.

The results were consigned in 2 reports:

• D 2.1- Report on PPP implementation on a European level
• D 2.2- Report on PPP implementation in Individual Countries

Both of these reports including a number of detailed Annexes, were completed and released during the 2nd year of the project.


3) Methodology and Governance for a European PPP Model of the European Green Cars Initiative

The aim of this work package was to sustain the implementation of the European Green Cars Initiative (EGCI) and the European Green Vehicles Initiative (EGVI) and to put it into practice. This activity comprised two tasks, the hyper cube of European Green Cars RTD, and implementation of the PPP flagships projects. The findings made contributed strongly to the edition of the Multiannual Roadmap for the Contractual Public Private Partnership “European Green Vehicles Initiative” which is the base document for this PPP from the industry side.


3.1 The hyper cube of European Green Cars RTD

Within the first project period, the European approach of exploiting synergies from systems optimization has been compared to the U.S. and Japanese approach. Further assessments of the PPP EGCI and discussions with the public and private stakeholders of the European Green Cars Initiative PPP have led to the definition of the objectives, benefits and the operational model of the PPP European Green Vehicles Initiative (EGVI). These findings have been summarized as a hypercube of European Green Cars R&D within the report of Task 3.1 finalized and delivered within the second project period. The preliminary results of Task 3.1 were presented in May 2012 at a dedicated session of the TRA 2012 conference organized by CAPIRE. Work of Task 3.1 was continued by strongly supporting the drafting and consultation of the MAP of EGVI in the community by the activities of WP3 which was finally presented at the EGVIA Launch event on 5 March 2013. Hence, this MAP of the EGVI is in a way the major outcome of the work.

As part of the European Commission’s Strategic Transport Technology Plan (STTP), a roadmap on electrification will be created which shall indicate actions beyond research and development. It shall take into account the views of relevant stakeholders. CAPIRE is participating in this process to ensure the complementarity of the STTP roadmap that concentrates on innovation measures with the R&D focused Electrification Roadmap that has been developed by the ETPs of the EGCI with the strong support of the CAPIRE project.

A series of consultation Meetings were attended by CAPIRE partners, where a tree-fold structure of the document was proposed and agreed upon, consisting of:
(1) Objectives and implementation targets (a top-down chapter)
(2) State of the art and future development paths (a bottom-up chapter)
(3) Deployment strategies and action plans



3.2 Implementation of the PPP flagships projects:

The aim of this work was to sustain the implementation of the European Green Vehicles Initiative and to put it into practice. Based on an assessment of existing concepts made in the team of WP2, a generalized description of the space of relevant model parameters was made and approaches for implementation were proposed.

Emphasize was put on the recommendations and the implementation of flagship projects covering the scope of the PPP Green Vehicle Initiative.

As a main action within this task, CAPIRE brought its support to EGVIA in the preparation of the recommendations for the next calls for projects covered by the PPP scope. In addition to the roadmaps, a wide consultation was launched to collect R&D needs jointly with EGVIA.

About 150 ideas of projects were received. A workshop was organized involving the EGVIA members. It allowed a large discussion about the proposed topics as well as a first prioritization by theme.
The report overviewing all the proposals was prepared with the EGVIA members.
It was used as main basis for discussion in the preparation of the 1st version of the EGVIA projects call.


4) Long Distance Road Transport & Logistics Roadmaps

CAPIRE activities on Long Distance Road Transport & Logistics Roadmaps aimed to contribute to a more efficient transport system and Logistics in Europe and to reduce the associated CO2 and Noise Emissions as well as pollutants and the dependency on fossil fuels of this sector. The work was guided by the roadmaps to be delivered to the EC and European Green Vehicle Initiative annually in order to feed recommendations to the former FP7 and current Horizon 2020 EC funded projects calls.

The work is divided into 4 tasks:
• Vehicle Technologies for Long Distance Trucks
• Logistics
• Infrastructure with a change of scope focusing on City Logistics
• Improved ICT for Long distance Transport

the roadmaps on Vehicle Technologies for Long Distance Trucks and on City Logistics were refined and updated in collaboration with the ERTRAC work groups on Long Distance Freight Transport and Urban Mobility, with the immediate aim of providing input to the first work program of Horizon 2020. In addition, CAPIRE supported the start-up of the new European Technical Platform on Logistics – ALICE (Alliance for Logistic Innovation through Collaboration in Europe). The results were channelled through ALICE to the Horizon 2020 work program in the area of logistics.

The roadmap on City Logistics was inspired by wide variety of examples of projects that are being undertaken in an effort to make city logistics cleaner and more efficient. Based on inputs from the CAPIRE roadmap on Clean City Logistics as well as several other sources, a number of themes were identified to guide the scope of the joint ERTRAC/ALICE Urban Freight Research Roadmap published in September 2014.

The work on the roadmap on Vehicle Technologies for Long Distance Trucks has resulted in the updated “Heavy Duty Truck Roadmap” and included an update of the research and innovation domains focusing five areas: Tailored Trucks & Load Carriers, Self-Operating & Resilient Trucks, Sustainable & New Energy Trucks, Transport System Integrated Trucks and Traffic & Infrastructures Integrated Trucks.

The Roadmaps as well as several dedicated seminars and expert workshops, CAPIRE provided substantial inputs to the recommendations preceding the release of the 2014-2015 and 2016-2017 work programs on Smart, green and integrated transport in Horizon 2020. This was done both through the EGVIA and ERTRAC channels where the vehicle technology centric recommendations was incorporated in the EGVIA recommendations and the transport system and logistics related content was channelled through ERTRAC (work groups for Long Distance Freight Transport and Urban Mobility) and through the WINN project and the ALICE platform and its working groups.


4.1 Long Distance Trucks (Leader Volvo):

The roadmaps on Vehicle Technologies for Long Distance Trucks were updated several time during the 4 years of the projects. They were developed jointly with ERTRAC. They were largely disseminated and several seminars and workshops were organised to identify the future research needs and define clear recommendation for the coming research calls. Some of them are listed here after.
• The CAPIRE project was well represented in TRA 2014 in Paris in April 2014 and shared a stand with ERTRAC. CAPIRE also participated in a plenary panel discussion on the theme of “How efficient is the European Freight Transport System” in which there was a special topic on “Breakthroughs in truck industry”. Some foresight and insight was shared on topics like energy carriers (diesel and alternative fuels), elctromobility for commercial vehicles and the prospects of E-highways as well as automation, ITS and aerodynamics for complete vehicle combinations. Similar topics were also discussed in the CAPIRE special session framed by the challenges for greening heavy commercial vehicles and the role that electrification will play.

• A fist Workshop co-organized by CAPIRE and ERTRAC (Foster-Road CSA) to detail and prioritize the recommendations for the second work programme (2016-2017) on transport in Horizon 2020.
The process to provide input started in May/June 2014 and a first work shop was organized in Brussels on June 12th that was prepared with written input from the work group members. The workshop was attended by 22 people including representatives from DG Move and DG Research and resulted in the below preliminary list of research needs:
1. Automated self-driving vehicles in real traffic conditions with adaptation of infrastructure standards. Development and demonstration of cross EU corridor supporting models (business, traffic management, legislation) for the joining and leaving of platoons.
2. Next generation truck availability by predictive diagnostics through total vehicle system health monitoring, including advanced modelling of remaining useful lifetime.
3. Connected vehicle and workshop to provide unplanned stop advice for drivers and traffic management, real time workshop scheduling and efficient spare parts logistics.
4. Transport network transhipment points (terminals, city-hubs, ports) including automated yard management, loading/unloading, local traffic management and monitoring to reduce congestion, unnecessary idling, parking and local environmental impact.
5. Connected vehicle and traffic management enabling efficient network utilization through dynamic network access with respect to safety, efficiency, real-time data management, intelligent goods and interests other road users.
6. Low noise and light weight adapted urban freight concepts (goods, construction, waste & recycling) and logistic schemes including superstructures, handling equipment, off-hours delivery, VRU active/passive safety solutions.
7. Financing models to a future proof road network with respect to emerging demands such as automation and electromobility taking climate change and limited public funding into account.
8. Holistic logistics/transport performance measurement model (cost, service, efficiency, social, and climate and energy impact) to support road transport policy making and strengthening the road user perspective.

• A second workshop was organised to refine input to H2020 work program 2016-2017 in cooperation with ERTRAC work group on Long Distance Freight Transport and FOSTER-ROAD. The objective aimed at refining and developing one page topic call texts based on written input from the work group members which resulted in the above list of 7 topic areas from the first work shop. The meeting was attended by 39 people including representatives from DG Move and DG Research. Based on feedback from the first workshop which only produced one topic on Infrastructure, it was decided to call specifically for additional topics in this area. A total of 12 Infrastructure related topics were identified and brought to the working group for consultation and discussions.

After additional discussions and coordination with other ERTRAC work groups and with EGVI, a final list of recommendations was sent to the EC. In addition to the previously defined 7 topics, another 7 infrastructure related topics were included in the final list of 35 recommendations:
1. Tyre-Road interaction holistic approach for sustainable road traffic
2. Enhanced durability in the performance of current pavement concepts
3. Next Generation of Infrastructure Inspection and Monitoring
4. Rapid construction, repair and retrofitting of high value transport infrastructure assets
5. Infrastructure integrated energy systems supporting the transition in the transport energy pool
6. Heavy Duty Vehicle Management to Minimize Infrastructure Deterioration and improve transport efficiency
7. Comprehensive resilience of the transport infrastructure system

• Cross-modal Long Distance Freight Transport Workshop (in cooperation with FOSTER and ERTRAC work group on Long Distance Freight Transport):
Experts discussed RTD topics for long distance freight transport which involve at least two surface transport modes and how to address them in future programmes. The results will be part of a report called “Clustering of multi-modal research and innovation issues”, which is a deliverable of the three “FOSTER” projects which support the European Technology Platforms ERTRAC, ERRAC and WATERBORNE. ALICE ETP is preparing a roadmap on Corridors, Hubs and Synchromodality which was delivered in fall 2014 and is willing to coordinate for this activity with modal ETPs taking into account previous efforts.



4.2 Logistics (Task leader Proctor & Gamble):

Several important changes have taken place in the EGCI Structure that have reflected on CAPIRE and therefore affected this update on the work on the Logistic Roadmap and its timing. The EGCI has become EGVI (with a focus on Electric Vehicles only) and the logistic discussion has moved on with the call for a dedicated Support action within the EGCI 2012 WP (WINN) and the eventual creation of a dedicated Technology Platform: ALICE in 2013. WINN is led by 3 strong National Logistic Innovation clusters while ALICE has formed a strong industrial Steering Group and has taken over the renewal of the EGCI logistic roadmap. Two of the CAPIRE partners (VOLVO & P&G) have been actively involved in the formal and informal coordination work required to the successful launch of ALICE. The other partners’ works instead has been instead more focused on supporting the Infrastructure roadmap (now a collaborative effort across the Transport TPs) and City Mobility, now being worked by a collaborative working group between ERTRAC, POLIS & ALICE.

The work in the 5 work groups of ALICE has resulted in 5 roadmaps covering the logistic domain and has been endorsed by the ALICE steering group on November 17th in Brussels:
• Sustainable, Safe and Secure Supply Chain Research Roadmap
• Corridors, Hubs and Synchromodality Research Roadmap
• Information Systems for Interconnected Logistics Roadmap
• Global Supply Network Coordination and Collaboration Research Roadmap
• Urban Freight Research Roadmap (in collaboration with ERTRAC)

Key activities for the development of ALICE logistic roadmaps including presentations of the new Alice TP and the draft roadmap work:
•Valencia, Zaragoza, Madrid: presentation of the ALICE roadmap and Physical Internet at several big logistic players in Spain (e.g. Auchan Spain, Valencia Port, BSH, Zaragoza Plaza…)
•Roma (Debate at Rome City Council in presence of the Mayor on Digital value Creation for Cities),
•Paris (Panel discussion at SITL), Canada (Key note speech 1st Physical internet congress, this also as part of MODULUSHCA project),
•Paris (Alice stand and workshop at the TRA 2014),
•Poznan (Key note speech at the Poland Logistic Congress)
•Berlin (Several 121 meetings for ALICE involvement at the BVL German Logistic congress),
•Orvieto (Italy) Beverete Workshop (Keynote speech on the value of Collaborative Logsitics and the Physical Internet)
•Den Haag, Keynote at DINALOG Workshop
•Rotterdam, Keynote at the INTERMODAL EUROPE FAIR
•Brussels (EFRA) presentation of ALICE roadmap.

ALICE also provided in total 14 recommended logistics topics for the H2020 work program 2016-2017, in coordination with ERTARAC. These recommendations are based on the research and innovation needs identified within ALICE Working Groups and included in the Research and Innovation Roadmaps in the field of logistics recently approved by ALICE Steering Group (November 2014). The process for the definition of these recommendations started already in June. After a consultation within the Working Groups the document: “Response of ETP ALICE on the consultation request to define the WP 2016 -2017” was issued to the European Commission and has been the basic document to continue elaboration of the recommended topics. ALICE organized a workshop in Brussels on the 3rd and 4th of September where the topics were presented and discussed with the members and additional recommended topics identified. The document was shared with ALICE Mirror Group composed of Member States representatives, clusters and national platforms and presented in ALICE Mirror Group meeting on the 13th of October. The recommendations were further reviewed by the Working Groups and approved by the Steering Group on the 17th of November 2014 meeting. The Steering Group proceeded with the prioritization of the topics and the priority was indicated.


4.3 Infrastructure - City Logistics (Leader Transport for London)

It was agreed with the Project Coordinator that the CAPIRE roadmap will be taken forward as part of the ERTRAC Multi-Annual Implementation Plan for Horizon 2020, specifically as part of their roadmap on Urban Freight Research. The work has been focused on city logistics and urban distribution and the main input has been collected by arranging workshops jointly with the work group for Urban Mobility in ERTRAC and the WINN project (ALICE platform). The overall aim has been to provide a jointly defined and anchored roadmap for Urban Freight Delivery.

The goal of the roadmap is to identify research priorities related to urban freight delivery, returns and urban logistics to improve the efficiency, sustainability and security of this activity. The contents will contribute to the definition of research programmes addressing the main stakeholders of the sector (cities, industry, retail, logistics service providers), including Horizon 2020, the European Framework Programme for Research and Innovation for 2014-2020.
The scope of the roadmap is urban freight transport, defined as all movements of goods into, out of, through or within the urban area, made by light or heavy vehicles, including:
• Delivery of goods (business and home);
• Service transport and demolition traffic;
• Shopping trips made by private households;
• Reverse logistics for waste removal and for returns management;
• Service vans for maintenance, supply and removal of parts.

The vision is to achieve a full integration of freight flows in cities’ operations and activities that allow citizens to access the goods they require and the goods to access the citizens, while at the same time supporting sustainable development. Research areas identified aim to:
•Increase energy efficiency, which can be achieved by improving the efficiency of the whole urban logistics system added to the expected gains in the energy efficiency of vehicles;
•Improve the urban environment by increasing air quality and reducing noise;
•Increase customer satisfaction by delivering the goods on time and improving the reliability of the system;
•Increase safety and security reducing injuries and fatalities and also cargo lost or damage.

Based on inputs from the CAPIRE roadmap on Clean City Logistics as well as several other sources, a number of themes were identified to guide the scope of the joint roadmap:
• Land use and urban freight, including the integration between regional and urban level
• Optimising the use of the infrastructure in space and time for urban freight activities
• Design and operation of adequate infrastructures for urban freight deliveries
•Integration of urban freight in urban network management, Framework for the exchange of data on urban freight
•Value added logistics services and more efficient operations:
- Consolidation schemes and measures related to the urban supply chain.
- Load factors
- Urban freight policy and freight transport operators
•Safety & security
• Cleaner and quieter urban freight delivery vehicles and equipment and their introduction in the market

The joint ERTRAC/ALICE roadmap on Urban Freight Research, with support from CAPIRE was delivered in September 2014.


4.4 Improved ICT for Long distance transport (Leader VDI/VDE-IT):

This task intends to follow up and extend results of the ICT4FEV project by analysing applicability and additional needs when considering Long Distance Transport (LDT). Because of the extension of the ICT4FEV project, work in this task started late in the second project period of CAPIRE with an analysis of relevant roadmaps and position papers on long distance road transport and ICT. It was found that the following roadmap cover important aspects:
• Heavy Duty Truck Roadmap (CAPIRE Task 4.1 and ALICE)
• Roadmap to Clean City Logistics (CAPIRE Task 4.3)
• EARPA Position Paper: Urban Mobility Management
•EARPA Position Paper: Low impact logistics systems- uptake of innovations
• Urban Freight Research Roadmap
• Roadmap for Cross-Modal Transport Infrastructure Innovation

This analysis showed that the topic of ICT in LDT is relevant on the one hand for heightening the efficiency and safety of vehicles and on the other hand to support logistic applications as e.g. supply chain management, physical internet and ITS. The latter logistic related topics are being covered by the activities of the ALICE platform and the respective supporting tasks for CAPIRE. The topic of vehicle efficiency and also safety concerns mainly efficiency of the vehicle components and systems enabled through electronic and smart components and systems, driver support for efficient and safe driving and others as well as automated functions and driving. Especially for topics that go beyond vehicle components and systems the connection to ICT for logistic is sometimes very close. However, it could be derived that needs for R&D regarding vehicle technologies is already strongly covered in relevant roadmaps. Further needs should also be considered when updating the power train roadmaps of EGVI PPP. Regarding the automation topic, the current drafting of the ERTRAC Roadmap on Automation poses an excellent opportunity to consider also the topic of long distance road transport.

Main Deliverables:

• Long Distance Trucks roadmaps with detailed and prioritized recommendations for the first and second work program on transport in Horizon 2020 were delivered through EGVIA and ERTRAC channels.
• Logistics roadmaps: The most important conclusion is that the separation of the logistic chapter from the EGCI PPP has been a success. It has allowed the PPP to focus its work on a more homogenous challenge: electric vehicles, but also has created the necessary momentum that led to the formation of ALICE, the Logistic Technology Platform. It is important to underline the role of the EGCI in the definition of the need and the necessary prioritization that led to the creation of the WINN consortium without which ALICE would not be a reality today. Detailed and prioritized recommendations where identified for the first and second work program on transport in Horizon 2020 were delivered through EGVIA and ERTRAC channels.
• Infrastructure (City Logistics) roadmaps were coordinated with the publication of the joint ERTRAC and ALICE release of the Urban Freight Roadmap end 2014.
• Improved ICT for Long distance transport


5) Vehicle Electrification Roadmaps

This Work package team supported R&D road mapping activities concerning electrification within the community of the European Green Cars and European Green Vehicles Initiatives. In this regard the CAPIRE project drafts documents, organizes the processes for updating documents and facilitates stakeholder consultations. The work is divided into three areas and tasks: (5.1) Vehicle Technologies, (5.2) Infrastructure, Task (5.3) Improved ICT for FEV and PHEV, Task (5.4) Market Simulations. Additional tasks were added upon the PPP EGVI requests such as Roadmap for Modelling, Simulation, Instrumentation and Testing Technologies for EV and PHEV or the collaboration and recommendation for Battery Testing with JRC. All the roadmaps were largely presented to the platform for discussion, feedback or endorsement depending on the level of maturity. As they are a living document, they were recurrently updated during the project involving a large number of stakeholders. They were extensively used to define the R&D developments for future projects.

5-1 Vehicle Technologies

The main activity was the update of the Electrification Roadmap. The first Milestone 2012 was reviewed, the fourth milestone 2025 was developed and transversal functions were introduced considering the topics simulation, materials, EV grid infrastructure and ICT. These topics should be developed as standalone roadmaps that refer back to the Electrification Roadmap and at the same time can be seen as annexes of the Electrification Roadmap. The development of the ICT and Infrastructure Roadmap took place within the respective tasks.

The drafting of a base document for the Roadmap on Simulation and Testing was achieved within the second and third project period. The Simulation and Testing Roadmap deals the European research and technical developments associated to modelling and simulation, instrumentation and test systems. With the growing importance and deployment of EVs, previous simulation platforms, originally established for conventional vehicle development process, are not sufficient for the challenges of EVs. In fact, EVs have added functionalities requiring the development of new architectures, new competencies, new interfaces and integration of new parameters, which are not represented by currently existing tools. Additional demand also exists in all areas ranging from testing procedures to testing technologies and the dedicated instrumentation tools.

To support a further update of the Electrification Roadmap, a chapter reviewing the achievements of the European Green Cars Initiative PPP was drafted.

As part of the European Commission’s Strategic Transport Technology Plan (STTP), a roadmap on the electrification of road transport is being drafted that identifies the actions beyond research and development which are necessary to bring this field to large-scale deployment. It includes a detailed assessment and specification of the objectives, timing, resources and instruments of such actions.
The structure of the document consists of a top-down chapter on the European Union’s objectives and implementation targets for electrification of road transport; a bottom-up chapter on the state of the art and future development paths according to the wide basis of involved stakeholders from Europe; a chapter analyzing the market developments for electric mobility in Europe and various regions beyond Europe; and a synthesis chapter describing the deployment strategies and actions plans in terms of a roadmap with milestones for 2015, 2020 and 2025.
The roadmap states measures that mainly go beyond research which are needed to be achieved by when in order to realize these milestones. It also indicates which entity would be in charge of a specific measure since the European Commission relies on the support by the member states and their cities and regions as well as by the private sector.

VDI/VDE-IT, CAPIRE partner, was appointed the rapporteur of this activity. In this role, he was able to ensure that the draft document properly reflects the status detailed in the technology roadmaps of the EGVIA. This applies especially to the work carried out in CAPIRE WP 5.



5.2 Infrastructure

During the first project period the EV Infrastructure Roadmap was prepared covering charging infrastructure, vehicle-to-home & vehicle-to-grid roadmap, integration of renewable technologies, development of green corridors, hubs and smart cities, and recommendations for pilots and demos. During the second project period this draft was reviewed in detail by the CAPIRE partners and the SmartGrids platform to which IBERDROLA, the task leader, is the bridge. The revised draft was then again sent to all three ETPs for consultation and afterwards endorsement of the document as an annex of the Electrification Roadmap.

After a strong effort of distribution and collecting contributions from the Smart Grid community the expected deliverable D5.12 was finished and consolidated. The document was distributed amongst the following groups for discussions and comments: European Technology Platform of Smart Grid (ETPSG), European Grid Initiative (EGII) and EURELECTRIC and the Electric Vehicle Task force (EV TF). The following conclusions were then obtained:

- There is a gap between the expectations coming from the transport community (TC) and those of the smart grid community (SGC). The SGC is skeptical about the accomplishment of dates established in the Roadmap, as in general the expected car rollouts of the different Member States are deeply delayed related the initial planning. Furthermore, the SGC fears that the TC concentrates mainly on car developments not paying adequate attention to the development of the necessary interfaces and other critical concepts like grid integration and interoperability and thus is lacking of the necessary developments in this area especially in the launching time.

- There is a clear agreement in the necessity to foster the electrification of the road transport as main driver to the reduction of the CO2 emission and the accomplishment of the EU emission reduction targets.

- A strong effort is needed to foster the development of the charging infrastructure in terms of standardization, regulation and deployment. Without a correct deployment of these infrastructures, no further development of the electric cars can be expected.

From these points it becomes clear how difficult it has been to prepare a consolidated document that both groups can agree to. This has however been achieved within the third project period.



5.3 Improved ICT

The work of this task builds upon the results of the ICT4FEV project which finished at the end of 2012. Therefore activities in this task started in the beginning of 2013. The roadmap ICT for the FEV, which was drafted by the consortium of the ICT4FEV project and reviewed by the EPoSS ETP, has been put into the first round of consultation by all three platforms. The draft has since then been revised with recommendations updated according to new results from CAPIRE and related projects such as e.g. Smart EV-VC and discussions in EGVI.
5.4- Market Simulations:

CAPIRE organized studies with MBA students from two Business Schools, Cass in London and Solvay in Brussels. The collaboration involved MBA students and their academia tutors in the Scenario analysis for Electro mobility. The idea was to target an audience that would reach its maturity in 2030 and challenge them in defining their own future namely in the domain of Electric Vehicle.

The Market simulations run with the students have provided a number of great insights as well as validating the scenario analysis methodology. Both teams (and even the Indian students from Hyderabad) highlighted via several interviews and Questionnaires that their generation is much more open to innovative mobility business models, especially when it comes to car ownership. Still most of them are worried about models that require compromises on freedom and security especially as parents of young children. So while open to innovative business model right now, they project themselves as traditional car owners once they will have a family.

Scenario analysis has proven a powerful technique to shift people minds beyond their comfort zone. It has been decided to replicate with a group of students from Ecole des Mines de Paris.
This extra market study was done in agreement with the EC project officer was led by P&G. A workshop dealing with possible urban mobility and logistic transport scenarios for 2030 was organized together with the students of the Master course of Logistics and Operation management at the Mines Paristech University. The final discussions and conclusions of the Workshop with the students showed that the future will bring unexpected developments. There will be growing importance of resource sharing (infrastructure and means) and information while the old distinction and boundary between private and public fades through sharing. The results were presented at the BESTFACT conference which took place adjacent to the TRA 2014 and focused on the scenario approach of dealing with the challenges of cities in 2030. The conclusions have also been inputted towards the Urban Logistic roadmap workgroup with ERTRAC and inclusion of a specific topic in the work program (Holistic Scenario planning for Mobility and Logistic in Urban cities).



5.4 Roadmap for Modelling, Simulation, Instrumentation and Testing Technologies for EV and PHEV (Additional task)

In this context modelling and simulation (M&S) as well as instrumentation and test systems (I&T) play an important role in providing new tools, new procedures and new methodologies, which are necessary for the development of EVs and the realization of the an ambitious plan for the electrification of the European road transport system.

There are very good design tools and methods for “conventional” automotive engineering available on the market, several originating from EC-funded projects. However, the support for research on M&S (Modelling and Simulation) and I&T (Instrumentation and Testing) topics in European Framework Programs has strongly decreased in the past years, even though there has been significant need for further R&D, particularly for the electrification of vehicles. For example the simulation platforms originally established to support the conventional vehicle development process are not sufficient for the challenges of EVs. In fact, EVs have added functionalities that require the development of new architectures, new competencies, new interfaces and integration of new parameters, which are not represented by currently existing tools. This dedicated roadmap highlights the need for RTD in the areas of M&S and I&T.
The primary objectives for modelling and simulation are to reduce the time to research, design and develop new products or to explore and isolate characteristics that are not otherwise possible to achieve using other techniques. One of the strengths of simulation is the ability to support the development process by helping engineers assess and evaluate both a large number of component and system variations in a very efficient manner as well as aiding in parameter optimization. M&S are discussed in this roadmap together with I&T, since simulation relies on good models that are validated by testing the system or subsystems, even down to a component level.

This roadmap on M&S and I&T has shown that in addition to the physical phenomena from conventional vehicles (acoustics, thermodynamics, aerodynamics…), the development of electrified vehicles involves the modeling of new phenomena (electromagnetic interference, electrochemistry….) at multiple scales and with different approaches (continuous or discrete problems). Although some M&S projects have already been launched at the various levels of abstraction, e.g. for the development of battery management systems, traffic simulation, car-to-car communication or autonomous driving, the implementation in an industrial context is still far from exploiting its full potential.

The document concludes with R&D recommendations for both areas as guidelines for European activities. Particularly important issues for the industry active in e-mobility are:

• Implementing a large number of behavioral models: Interoperable, multi-system, multi-physics and multi-scale

• Building hierarchies of models to represent the physical behavior of a system (vehicle or subset of vehicle) causes issues when models contain both “fast” and “slow” eigenvalues – there is a risk of generating “stiff” systems. Past experience has shown that huge complex models require long computation periods.

• Putting a focus on research efforts for fast equivalent models with sufficient fidelity, but allows for short computation times and thus become attractive for integration into the development process. High speed equivalence models also may have the potential to be used in real-time systems.

• Collaborating with the architect/ integrator and supplier of subsystems in an integrated sharing of models (agreement of model interfaces)

• It would also be of common interest to have an agreement on the underlying physics of modeling principles. This is of course related to the equivalence models above.

• This would allow organizations to keep proprietary information confidential (particularly of interest in the solution space), but increase confidence in “observed phenomena” due to the agreement of these results being based on commonly known underlying principles.

The electrification of vehicles also poses new challenges to instrumentation and testing. The main criteria for the selection of the testbed environment are functionality, fidelity, flexibility and repeatability. In order to achieve this, significant RTD for advanced instrumentation and testing technologies is required. Until today (2014) only very few projects have been launched at European level. Additional demand exists in all areas ranging from testing procedures to testing technologies and the dedicated instrumentation tools.



5.5- Battery Testing with JRC (Additional task)

Experimentation is one extremely valuable and essential tool needed at every level of battery development from the raw materials and cells up to battery pack integration and management. Addressing these various levels of battery development, as well as the bridges between the levels, generally leads to a large number of experiments. It is essential that testing remains focused on achieving the development tasks and does not result in excessive test procedures that do not directly benefit the development and quality assurance process.

No one organization alone can afford to make the investments needed to tackle all of the variations that will turn up during the development process, especially where innovation is as dynamic as described above. When considering these numerous variances’ there is certainly a large subset of experiments that, by nature, are pre-competitive and could be carried out with a common facility; especially aspects that support standardization of testing and the evaluation of test results and new innovative testing techniques. By bundling resources to address these topics in a cooperative way it would be possible to avoid wasteful duplications and create a common basis that would not only significantly strengthen European R & D capabilities, but would support the competitive development side since the common efforts (e. g. establishing common references) and a better understanding of standards would free up resources that would otherwise be addressing similar questions at multiple sites and companies.

The scope of such joint testing facilities was originally proposed to include standardized test procedures and a database built up

Members of the EGVIA were informed in the middle of 2013 that the JRC Institute for Energy and Transportation (IET) was already in the process of setting up battery testing facilities in Petten, NL, based on previous experience with the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU). It was determined that the activities in Petten would be very well suited as a first step in establishing a European Test Centre for Automotive Batteries.

Meetings were subsequently set up in Petten, NL, and at Bosch in Bamberg, DE, as well as in Ispra, IT, to compare interests and intended directions of testing and experimentation. It was agreed that it is in the interest of both parties to have EGVIA and JRC-IET establish a formal collaboration within the frame of the by-laws of the EGVIA and regulations of the EC. Members of EGVIA would agree to collectively provide JRC with industry and research guidance on the priority non-competitive topics in the area of battery testing that have the potential to strengthen European battery development. In return these members would be regularly informed on the progress at Petten and have access to results and knowledge built up there.

This deliverable (D5.17) included an overview of the mission of JRC-IET in Petten and a list of priori-ties that has been agreed upon by active members of EGVIA in a focused task force effort after the most recent general assembly of EGVIA in October of 2014. It also included explanations on some the topics wherever deemed necessary by the experts involved.

The main deliverable reports delivered within the work package “Vehicle Electrification Roadmaps”:

• D5.4- Second Report on Vehicles Technologies roadmaps (updated several times including the version for consultation and endorsement by ETPs)

• D5.5- Second Report on Infrastructure Roadmaps (followed updates namely those reviewed by CAPIRE consortium and SmartGrids platform)

• D5.6- Report of SOLVAY MBA- EV Market simulation

• D5.9- First Report on Improved ICT (followed by a version for consultation and endorsement by ETPs)

• D5.10- Final Report on Market Simulations and Recommendations

• D5.15- Roadmap for Modelling, Simulation, Instrumentation and Testing Technologies for
EV and PHEV

• D5.16- Scenario for Urban Transportation: Linking Transport solutions an Socio-economics issues.

• D5.17- Battery Testing with JRC

Potential Impact:
Over the past decade, the Europe has encouraged the uptake of cleaner and more energy efficient vehicles following a well-established agenda to limit greenhouse gas gazes due to transportations. If in 2007, the average new car emitted around 160 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre (g CO2/km), in 2020, the emissions limit is likely to fall further to 95 g CO2/km. OEMs along with the automotive R&D network joined their effort to comply with these rules. They have been investing a lot in technical improvements and innovation for greener and sustainable vehicles. These last years the electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid clearly appeared as one of the solutions automotive industry and nearly every vehicle manufacturer has introduced new EV or PHEV models even they still need additional support to reach the mainstream. Europe has showed a strong support for the further adoption of electric mobility by proposing a directive on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in January 2013 which explicitly supports clean fuel transport and proposes specific targets on enabling infrastructure deployment.

In the context of the EU Recovery Plan and new ambitious climate goals, several actions have been developed such as the European strategy on clean and energy efficient vehicles and the public private partnership (PPP) for green vehicles. In R&D, The PPP European Green Cars Initiative is one of the first tangible illustrations of the changes the Europe 2020 vision will bring to the way research is carried out in the domain of electrification of transport. After five years of successfully implementing the European Green Cars Initiative Public Private Partnership (PPP), the Commission and the industries of the sector have come up with a successor for Horizon 2020, the EGVI. Like the EGCI, it has been designed to accelerate the transition towards greener road transport and energy security but with a revised technical scope. Its general objective, as set out in the EGVI road-map for 2014-2020, is to increase the energy efficiency of road transport vehicles and support the development of alternative power trains.
Today, with more than 65 industry and research members, the association benefits from a diverse, dynamic and fast-growing membership, the Green Vehicles PPP continue to arouse strong interest within the research community.
At least 40 innovative technologies are expected to be integrated and demonstrated, with an emphasis on electrification (electric storage, electric components and vehicle infrastructure interface) and hybridisation of powertrains, and on the adaptation of powertrains to alternative fuels. Other activities will aim to improve the functionality of vehicles, reduce their complexity and weight, and refine the management of thermal and energy flows.
The EGVI aim extends beyond research and innovation to production, commercialisation and the creation of markets.

The CAPIRE project, a four year coordination action was lunched within the FP7 to support the realization of a Public Private Partnership (PPP) sustaining and putting into practice the European Green Cars Initiative. The scope of the project was the electrification of road transport in Europe.
The focuses of it overall actions were to study of options for the implementation paths of the EGCI PPP, and to support the identification of technology roadblocks and framework needs and the description of respective research priorities within FP7 and H2020.
Major outcomes were a dedicated roadmap based on an elaborated and deep analysis of R&D needs, respective milestones and supporting measures. The goal was to increase by a joint approach of the involved economic sectors and the public authorities the competitiveness of European Automotive Industry in the domain of energy efficient, safe, non-polluting and CO2-free vehicles at the global scale.

One of the major tasks of the projects were dedicated to benchmark, analyse and explain in detail the key parameters to be considered for the implementation of a PPP such as strategic technologies for energy efficient transport focusing on electrification, main stakeholder groups and organizations at public and private sides and public authorities at EU, national and regional levels without forgetting the instruments for financing and regulation.

To maintain industrial appeal and relevance for these actions, research activities of the PPP must have efficient, attractive and relevant procedures and administration with a light overhead for industrial participants. In general, the industrial partners whether they are big companies or SMEs are hesitant to commit in cooperative project because of the additional of administrative work. The CAPIRE project conduced analyses of the ongoing mechanisms to fund, monitor, execute and disseminate the results of the project. Guidelines and best practices were proposed to simplify the procedures for administration and management of the R&D projects with an appropriate flexibility in the execution of the programmes and projects.

The CAPIRE project supported the coordination of R&D on the electric vehicle, measures to support the evolving electric vehicle value chains and also the dialogue between stakeholders on these topics. Intensive interactions through ERTRAC and EUCAR with Vehicles manufacturers, equipment suppliers, logistics operators and research centres together with the Commission and the Member States was carried to define research objectives and establish industrial targets. The project team worked actively in identifying and proposing recommendations for new R&D&I projects and in facilitating the processes of programme and project shaping.

By supporting R&D projects clustering and networking, the project contributed somehow in the enhancement of the Research and technologies developments and thus in the improvement of the European industrial competitiveness namely in the domain of vehicle electrification. With the organization of thematic workshop ( Batteries, EE architecture, EV testing) involving the ongoing projects as well experts and major Industrial European stakeholders, the project supported the PPP EGCI in strengthening the overall impact and dissemination of the project results that are relevant to industry and society. Networking and exchanges was also the opportunities to create synergies and extent the exploratory domain of their studies maximizing their impact

For the socio-economic relevance, the favourable impact of the manufacturing of the EV and its components on the competitiveness of traditionally strong pillars of the European industry, like e.g. automotive, energy, ICT and electronic components and systems, should be noted. At a more global scale, the electric vehicle potentially may contribute to making mobility cheaper and available to more people without accelerating climate change, thanks to a simplified power train combined with energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction. An additional contribution to social inclusion of e.g. the elderly or to efficient transportation of people and goods in cities can be expected. ICT and smart systems will play a major role for this as well, as they can turn the full electric vehicle into a smart and adaptive, highly useful and affordable product, and thus help to create early deployment.

Given a growing competition in the field of EV manufacturing, particularly from Asia, it will be crucial for the European automotive industry to use the related market ramp-up for the early deployment of its own technologies, for showcasing its strengths, and for creating productivity in Europe. The automotive industry is a major employer in Europe, accounting for more than 12 million high-skilled jobs in the EU, which are vital to the European economy. As such, developing clean innovative solutions as well as alternative fuels will not only maintain competitiveness and create high-skilled employment opportunities, but also make the European economy more resource efficient.

List of Websites:
www.capire.eu and www.egvi.eu