Final Report Summary - PEPSTEM (Effect of neuropeptides on selective neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells) The scientific aim of the current project was to investigate the effect of different neuropeptides on the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells in culture in a three-dimensional (3D) structure, the 'minibrain'.In this project, we planned to investigate which are the most efficient neuropeptides that can promote mouse ESCs, iPSCs and human iPSCs to selectively differentiate into certain neuron-types. In the currently running Marie Curie (MC) Industrie-Academia Partnerships and Pathways (IAPP) project STEMCAM BioTalentum (BIO) is producing iPSCs both from mouse and human. These cell-lines were also planned to be used in PEPSTEM. We were going to test neuropeptides that are available at the market to minimise the costs, but modified neuropeptides planned to be involved as well if our results suggest. We also planned to test the synaptical connections at a morphologic level, and other neuronal properties of the differentiated cells in electrophysiological levels, like Ca-signalling.We expected to find new ways of selective differentiation of ESCs/iPSCs into neurons, and to get novel information on pathways and transcriptional networks that regulate differentiation.The information generated by these studies will contribute to stem cell therapy and modern regenerative medicine.