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European Research Infrastructures for Nuclear Data Applications

Final Report Summary - ERINDA (European Research Infrastructures for Nuclear Data Applications)

Executive Summary:
The ERINDA project aims for a coordination of European efforts to exploit up-to-date neutron beam technology for novel research on advanced concepts for nuclear fission reactors and the transmutation of radioactive waste.
Such waste is already existing in appreciable quantity due to the year-long operation of existing nuclear reactors. New types of reactors like accelerator driven systems or Generation IV
nuclear reactors will have the potential to transmute most of the long lived waste in their respective fuel cycles. For the development of these transmutation systems and for improved nuclear safety accurate nuclear data shall be obtained in the ERINDA project.
The ERINDA consortium groups all relevant neutron data facilities such as time-of-flight facilities for fast neutrons, charged-particle accelerators and experimental nuclear reactors in Europe that are ready to offer part of their available beam time to the project. The majority of the facilities involved are modern (recently built or refurbished) and equipped with state-of-the-art nuclear data measurement instrumentation. It is the aim to establish access for nuclear data measurements at the consortium facilities and to direct their use towards the nuclear data requests of highest priority and scientific value. As transmutation of nuclear waste and innovative reactor systems are two key issues for the present and future use of nuclear energy, the choice of the best option for these should be made by using simulation methods in order to predict their running conditions. The availability of complete, accurate and consistent nuclear data libraries is crucial here and measured nuclear reaction cross sections establish the experimental basis for these data.
The ERINDA project has supported 3015 additional hours of beam time in 26 experiments as transnational-access to European groups at the consortium facilties including technical and travel support for the user groups. In addition 16 short term visits (with a total duration of 106 weeks) of scientists to the consortium institutes were supported. In this way theoretical data analysis and computer simulations relevant to the experiments can be performed. Four European scientific meetings were organized to communicate the progress and disseminate the results of the ERINDA project. To optimize the scientific output of the experiments a Project Advisory Committee (PAC) consisting of five external experts selected the submitted experiment proposals and decided about the best suited facility for a certain type of measurement. All ERINDA facilities are grouped in a pool. The transnational access budget was distributed according to the PAC decisions. The participation of post-doctoral fellows and PhD students in all ERINDA activities was especially encouraged.

Project Context and Objectives:
The European Commission (EC) has defined, during recent years, a comprehensive strategy towards a sustainable, competitive and secure energy supply in Europe. In its SET-Plan the EC acknowledges the role of nuclear energy in the mix for electricity production and emphasises the need of improved sustainability for nuclear energy produced by fission. The European actors around nuclear energy have created in September 2007 the Technological Platform for Sustainable Nuclear Energy (SNE-TP). The SNE-TP elaborated a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which outlines priorities that will direct research efforts of the EU scientific community for both current and future generations of nuclear reactors.
High-quality nuclear data, in particular complete and accurate information about the nuclear reactions taking place in nuclear systems, are an essential component of such modelling capabilities. The quality of a simulation depends on many aspects, but there is a significant component that is associated with the quality of nuclear data. According to the Strategic Research Agenda, improving and completing the basic nuclear data is a necessary element to achieve the required level of prediction of the present and future simulation tools. The SRA confirms that "Availability of accurate nuclear data ... is the basis for precise reactor calculations both for current and new generation reactors. Additional experimental measurements and their detailed analysis and interpretation are required in a broad range of neutron energies and materials. This is particularly true for fuels containing minor actinides for their transmutation in fast spectra." Accurate nuclear data will help accelerating the development, at an acceptable cost, of safe and commercial advanced reactor systems.
It is the objective of ERINDA to offer during the project duration of three years a total of 2500 data-taking hours for external users. This number of additional beam hours corresponds to 25 'typical experiments' for external users at the ERINDA facilities. A 'typical experiment' is defined as an experiment of 100 hours. From all participants, typically two users will be supported for their travel costs and for their costs for accommodation and subsistence. Access to the installations will imply for all users the same scientific, logistical and technical support as provided to all researchers using the facilities. To support the experiments scientifically, 10 scientific visits with a typical duration of 8 weeks shall be organized. The ERINDA partners are listed in Table 4. The scientific work performed during the visits (theoretical, data analysis, computer programme,…) must be valuable for the objectives of the ERINDA project and the subjects must be relevant for the areas of radioactive waste management or innovative GenIV nuclear reactor systems. Proposals for scientific visits will be approved and amended by the PAC within the same call. The scientific results were disseminated in three scientific workshops:
• 1st ERINDA Progress Meeting and Scientific Workshop, January 16 -18, 2012,Villa Lana, Prague, Czech Republic, NPI Rez.
• 2nd ERINDA Progress Meeting and Scientific Workshop, January 8-11, 2013, JYFL, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
• Final ERINDA User Meeting and Scientific Workshop, October 1-3, 2013, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
The presentations are available on the ERINDA website.
In principle, any type of experiment in the thematic area addressed in the 7th Euratom Fission Framework Programme can be proposed provided the experimental infrastructure can offer a significant added value to the project. However, preference will be given to proposals in the areas of radioactive waste management and innovative GenIV nuclear reactor systems. Selection will be based on peer review. A Programme Advisory Committee will assess these proposals on the basis of criteria as scientific importance, match to the neutron data community demands, feasibility and quality of nuclear data that can be obtained and importance for the strategic goals of the Euratom Work Programme.

In order to maximise the ‘scientific value for money’ of the available resources, all ERINDA facilities are grouped in a pool. The TALI (Transnational Access to Large Infrastructures) budget is not attributed to the individual partners in advance, but the Programme Advisory Committee (PAC) steers the experimental programme and the TALI budget during the whole project by:
• selecting at each PAC meeting the best experiments,
• allocating the experiments to the best-suited facilities and
• releasing the required budget to the facilities providing the access.
The pooling system has the following advantages for the participants and the scientific community:
• for the interested external users there is a unique entry point for requesting access and the users are directed towards the best suited facility,
• for the nuclear data community there is the advantage that experiments are prioritised and that duplications are avoided,
• the project benefits from the fact that pooling allows an efficient and timely expenditure of the whole TALI budget for the experiments with the highest scientific value.
‘Pooling’ of all ERINDA facilities allows also new facilities entering the project while keeping the available total budget constant.
Five external international experts from Vattenfall, Sweden, CEA-Saclay, CEA-Cadarache, France, EC-JRC-IRMM, Belgium and GRS,Germany were selected by the general assembly of ERINDA. The PAC members were chosen in consideration of their individual competence in the nuclear data field, independent of nationality or place of work.
The PAC must have expertise in nuclear data measurements and their use so that it can guarantee for the experiments and scientific visits the combination of best scientific quality with most efficient expenditure of limited resources. The composition of the PAC ensures that the end-users needs are really taken into account. This is guaranteed by the choice of three international experts representing the end-user community.

Project Results:
The transnational access activities have been requested very well during the whole project. The interest of the scientific communtity in the ERINDA activities is large. ERINDA benefitted from the work prepared already in the EFNUDAT project.
Within ERINDA 3015 beam time hours have been delivered in 26 experiments. 27 young researchers with less than 6 years after their PhD have been supported in these experiments. A factor 1.47 more beam time was applied for in the submitted proposals than could be supported in this period. The commitment in the Description of Work to deliver 2500 hours during the whole ERINDA project has been more than reached . At some facilities beam time could be provided with a financial support for only a fraction of the beam time.
The following experiments were endorsed by the PAC and conducted at the consortium facilities:
• PAC1/3: Characterisation of a novel neutron spectrometer based on a single moderating sphere. (40 hours delivered at UU-TSL, June 2011)

• PAC1/4: Testing the UAB Extended Range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer for high energy neutrons. (40 hours delivered at UU-TSL, June 2011)

• PAC1/5: 2H(n,n)2H cross section at En= 0.1- 1 MeV using the TOF method.
(149 hours delivered at n_ELBE, August 2011)

• PAC1/6: Determination of the photon strength function in 114Cd.
(130 hours delivered at n_ELBE, March – April 2012)

• PAC1/7: Correlation measurements of prompt fission gamma–rays and fission fragments.
( 200 hours delivered at IKI, May 2012)

• PAC 1/8: Characterisation of a novel neutron spectrometer based on a single moderating sphere using mono-energetic neutron beams below 20 MeV.
(32 hours delivered at PTB, May 2011)

• PAC1/9: Measurement of the total neutron spectrum close to the target of the PIAF reference monoenergetic neutron fields.
(40 hours delivered at PTB, May 2011)

• PAC 2/1: Delayed neutron measurements for 237Np neutron-induced fission.
(90 hours delivered at May 2012)

• PAC 2/5: Characterisation of prompt gamma signatures of actinides.
(120 hours delivered at IKI, March 2012)

• PAC 3/6: Study of the 238U(d,p gamma) and 238U(d,t gamma) reactions as surrogates for the 238U(n,gamma) and 236U(n,gamma) reactions.
(228 hours delivered at Oslo Cyclotron, May 2012)
• PAC 2/3: Measurement of neutron spectra produced in p+7Li using a diamond detector.
(80 hours delivered at NPI-Rez, August 2013)
• PAC 2/4: Studying the D(n,d)n cross section from En = 0.1 to 1 MeV using the PTB proportional counter.
(104 hours delivered at PTB, August 2012)
• PAC 2/8: Investigation of the similarities between gamma production cross sections in (alpha,n) and (n,n') reactions for 90Zr.
(96 hours delivered at IFIN-HH,November 2012)
• PAC 2/9: High energy neutron cross section measurement on yttrium at NPI Rez.
(32 hours delivered at NPI Rez, October 2012)
• PAC 2/12: Measurement of the fission cross-section of 240Pu and 242Pu at the CERN n_TOF facility.
(672 hours delivered at CERN (200 supported by ERINDA), September 2012)
• PAC 3/1: Measurements of neutron-induced capture and fission reactions on 235U: cross sections and alpha ratios, photon strength functions and prompt gamma-ray from fission.
(2160 hours delivered at CERN (100 supported by ERINDA), March 2012)
• PAC 3/5: Characterization of boron doped detectors for low energy neutrons.
(96 hours delivered at PTB, October 2013)
• PAC 3/8: Measurement of isomeric yield ratios from proton induced fission on 238U.
(122 hours delivered at JYFL, June 2012)
• PAC 3/9: Measurement of the energy spectrum from the new neutron source planned for IGISOL.
(50 hours delivered at UU-TSL, June 2012)
• PAC 3/10: Total cross sections from a combination of nELBE and GELINA data.
(212 hours delivered at HZDR (100 supported by ERINDA), October 2013)
• PAC 4/1: First ever correlation measurements of prompt fission gamma–rays and fission fragments from the reaction 241Pu(nth, f)
(200 hours delivered at KFKI, June 2013)
• PAC 4/2: Ternary 6He: a possible way to explain the tritium excess problem observed in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing
(200 hours delivered at KFKI, April 2013)
• PAC 4/6: Measurement of the 240,242Pu(n,f) cross section relative to the 1H(n,p) standard cross section.
(128 hours delivered at CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, December 2012)
• PAC 4/7: Characterisation of prompt gamma signature of actinides.
(140 hours delivered at KFKI, May 2013)
• PAC 4/8: Measurement of prompt fission gamma–ray mean energy and multiplicity from the reaction 238U(n, f) as a function of incident neutron energy.
(200 hours delivered at IPN Orsay, July 2013)
• PAC 4/10: Fe(n,x) and Th(n,x) reactions at energies up to 60 MeV measured with AMS.
(45 hours delivered at UU-TSL, December 2012)
In these experiments 45 % of all users were first time users at the experimental facilities. This shows that ERINDA has greatly enhanced the collaboration among the scientist involved in the field of nuclear data measurements. Ca. 25% of all users were young scientists not more than 6 years after their PhD. The Project performance indicators shown in Table 1 were met. The average user satisfaction score is very good.
Scientific visitor programme
The scientific visitor programme, that allows guest scientist to travel to hosting ERINDA institutes to support the ERINDA experiments by additional analysis and development of models and analysis tools was well requested. In total 23 proposal were made for scientific visits with a total duration of 150 weeks. With additional funding from the TAA activity 18 proposals could be supported with a total duration of 106 weeks. The hosting institutes were JRC-IRRM, CENBG, JYFL, and PTB.
Table 2 shows the list of approved scientific visits
Most of the scientific visitors reported about their work in the ERINDA workshops:

• 1st ERINDA Progress Meeting and Scientific Workshop, January 16 -18, 2012,Villa Lana, Prague, Czech Republic, NPI Rez.
• 2nd ERINDA Progress Meeting and Scientific Workshop, January 8-11, 2013, JYFL, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
• Final ERINDA User Meeting and Scientific Workshop, October 1-3, 2013, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
The contributions with hyperlinks to the websites of the workshops are listed in Table 3
More detailed information including a summary of the scientific results and their dissemination has been documented in the report “Scientific Visit Program of the ERINDA Project” (Deliverable D4.1)

Potential Impact:
The ERINDA project just like its predecessor EFNUDAT has continued to foster long-term partnership, exchange of ideas and people involved in the experiments. It has given a strong momentum to the coordination of research in the field of nuclear data measurements and helped european efforts to be visible on a global scale. Nuclear energy companies have expressed interest in the results of our research and they have been connected through the program advisory committee. A long-term impact in terms of environmental gain and quality-of-life enhancement is expected in view of the increased interest to replace fossile fuel by nuclear energy in many European countries. The new nuclear data measured in the ERINDA project will contribute to improved nuclear data evaluations that will be the basis for more precise simulations and technical developments in the fields of nuclear waste management and nuclear reactor safety. Major experimental activities concentrated on the neutron-induced fission of the plutonium isotopes240,241, 242-Pu that were investigated at several ERINDA facilities. Other key aspects were prompt gamma-ray spectra from fission of uranium and plutonium isotopes and beta-delayed neutrons from neptunium that are important for the operation of fast reactors. Models delevoped with support of ERINDA and EFNUDAT have already improved the simulation of the nuclear fission process in a complete range of target nuclides and energies, see Figure 1.
In a period where the nuclear research community is confronted with a declining number of young researchers the consortium has an additional duty: involve actively in the experimental activities young students preparing their PhD and Master thesis. This will allow preparing new nuclear scientists and engineers able to continue this type of research in the future. ERINDA has been very successful in attracting young scientists, who amounted to 25 % of all supported users.
The main dissemination activity of ERINDA were its three user meetings and scientfic workshops:
• 1st ERINDA Progress Meeting and Scientific Workshop, January 16 -18, 2012,Villa Lana, Prague, Czech Republic, NPI Rez.
• 2nd ERINDA Progress Meeting and Scientific Workshop, January 8-11, 2013, JYFL, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
• Final ERINDA User Meeting and Scientific Workshop, October 1-3, 2013, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
In these workshops progress and results of the Experiments and of scientific visits supported by ERINDA were presented. The presentations are available on the ERINDA website and also on the conference websites. In addition, scientific activities from ERINDA were presented on many important nuclear data conferences and in close collaboration with the EC Joint Research Center and the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the International Atomic Energy Organisation. The list given here is a selection from the report “Scientific Visit Program of the ERINDA Project” (Deliverable D4.1)
NEA Nuclear Data Week , May, 2011, NEA Headquarters, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France
Joliot-Curie School "Physics on the femtometer scale", Sept. 12-17, 2011, La Colle Sur Loup, Nice, France
JEFF – GEDEPEON Workshop on NUCLEAR DATA MEASUREMENTS For Evaluators, Data Users and Experimentalists, November 28-29, 2011 OECD/NEA Data Bank
Fast Neutron Detectors and Applications, Ein Gedi /Israel, November 6-11, 2011
Third International Workshop on Compound Nuclear Reactions and Related Topics, September 19 - 23, 2011, Prague, Czech Republic
GAMMA-1 Workshop, Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia, November22-24, 2011
Ninth International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry
MARC IX, March 25-30 (2012), Kailua-Kona, Hawaii
5th ASRC International Workshop “Perspectives in Nuclear Fission”, Tokai (Japan), March 14-16 2012
Wonder 2012: 3rd International Workshop on Nuclear Data Evaluation for Reactor Applications, September 25-28, 2012, Aix-en-Provence, France
5th International Conference on Fission and Properties of Neutron-Rich Nuclei (ICFN5), Sanibel Island, Florida (USA), 4.-10. November 2012
THEORY-2: Scientific Workshop on Nuclear Fission dynamics and the Emission of Prompt Neutrons and Gamma Rays, November 28-30, 2012 Biarritz, France
625. WE-Heraeus-Seminar, Nuclear Physics Data for the Transmutation of Nuclear Waste, February 25-27, 2013, Physikzentrum Bad Honnef, Germany
ND2013 International Nuclear Data Conference for Science and Technology, March 4-8, 2013 New York, U.S.A.
Fifth International Workshop on Nuclear Fission and Fission-product Spectroscopy May 28-31, 2013. Château de Caen, France
Symposium on Nuclear Physics: Presence and Future, May 29 - June 5, 2013. Boppard, Germany
2013 Nuclear Chemistry Gordon Research Conference, June 9-14, 2013, New London, NH, USA
AccApp 2013 Eleventh International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Applications of Accelerators, August 5-8, 2013 Bruges, Belgium
GAMMA-2 Scientific Workshop on the Emission of Prompt Gamma Rays in Fission and Related Topics, Sr.Karlovci Serbia, 23-26 September 2013
IAEA Coordinated Research Program on Prompt Fission Neutron Emission, October 2013, IAEA, Vienna, Austria
INT Program 13-3, Quantitative Large Amplitide Shape Dynamics: Fission and Heavy-ion Fusion, September 30 - November 15, 2013, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
JEFF Decay Data and Fission Yields Subgroup Meeting, November 27, 2013, NEA Headquarters, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France

List of Websites:
Website address:

Project type (funding instrument):Coordination and support action

Project start date: 01/12/2010
Duration: 36 months
Total budget: EUR 1,141,702.20.
EC contribution: EUR 999,958.00….
EC project officer (name, address, email):
Roger Garbil
European Commission
Directorate-General for Research
Directorate Energy (Euratom)
Unit J.2 – Fission’
CDMA 1/46
B-1049 Brussels
Coordinator (name, organisation, address, telephone, fax, email):
Arnd Junghans, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, 01314 Dresden, Germany, phone: +49 351 260 3589, fax: +49 351 260 1 3589,