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International Forum for Aviation Research Support Action

Final Report Summary - IFARS (International Forum for Aviation Research Support Action)

Executive Summary:
IFAR, the International Forum for Aviation Research, is the world´s only aviation research estab-lishment network. All IFAR members finance their own activities by their own. The only financial support needed is that for the IFAR secretariat. From the beginning in 2008 until mid-2011 the IFAR secretariat was only supported by DLR. In the time mid-2011 until end of 2014 the EC and DLR shared the support of the secretariat. From 2015 until end of 2017 NASA and DLR agreed both to support the secretariat in the same way.

IFAR aims to realise the following activities:
- connecting the aviation research community worldwide;
- Serving as a venue for information exchange and communication, e.g. by its Summits, by conducting meetings, workshops and conferences, hosting internet forums, etc.;
- Developing among its members a shared understanding on a common set of key challenges faced by the global aviation research community;
- Developing the IFAR Framework Document, to inform on future research strategies and – where appropriate – to develop a combined research strategy for the future;
- Publishing and disseminating information (e.g. via webpage, flyers, publications, confer-ences);
- Issuing IFAR views and recommendations and give advice on aviation topics; the purpose of defining trends in aeronautics research and/or inform authorities concerning emerging regulations; views and recommendations are not meant as binding guidance to individual IFAR members.
Within IFAR, the members aim also to identify and evaluate options for new opportunities for co-operation and applying the results of aviation research.

IFAR organisation / members
IFAR operates on the basis of consensus among its members. Annually, principals from IFAR members convene at an IFAR Summit meeting. This event sets the IFAR goals and activities for the coming year and may establish special temporary committees or technical expert groups for IFAR activities of high interest. IFAR activities are supported by a secretariat. Membership in IFAR is open to national aviation research organizations, including universities active in aviation research, that are (1) non-profit, (2) owned or mainly funded by public governments, and (3) charged by the country or countries in which they are located to conduct such research activities on their behalf.. One organisation per country is accepted for membership.

Currently 26 aviation research organisations from all over the world are member of IFAR (see IFAR website www.ifar.aero). The current members represent more than 40,000 researchers working in aviation. Not counted yet are researchers of IFAR member countries.

IFAR Framework
IFAR aims at developing and maintaining a regularly updated IFAR Framework Document outlin-ing global research objectives and technological opportunities for use by its members. The Frame-work Document is based on:
- a comparison of existing goals/objectives of its members and other relevant organisations/ institutions;
- an inventory of possible concepts or technologies which could be developed to accomplish certain objectives;
IFAR develops also other views and recommendations, findings and reports as may be appropriate. Such documents may include the findings of IFAR Ad Hoc Committees or IFAR Technical Expert Groups.


Project Context and Objectives:
IFAR, the International Forum for Aviation Research, is the world´s only aviation research estab-lishment network. All IFAR members finance their own activities by their own. The only financial support needed is that for the IFAR secretariat. From the beginning in 2008 until mid-2011 the IFAR secretariat was only supported by DLR. In the time mid-2011 until end of 2014 the EC and DLR shared the support of the secretariat. From 2015 until end of 2017 NASA and DLR agreed both to support the secretariat in the same way.

IFAR aims to realise the following activities:
- connecting the aviation research community worldwide;
- Serving as a venue for information exchange and communication, e.g. by its Summits, by conducting meetings, workshops and conferences, hosting internet forums, etc.;
- Developing among its members a shared understanding on a common set of key challenges faced by the global aviation research community;
- Developing the IFAR Framework Document, to inform on future research strategies and – where appropriate – to develop a combined research strategy for the future;
- Publishing and disseminating information (e.g. via webpage, flyers, publications, confer-ences);
- Issuing IFAR views and recommendations and give advice on aviation topics; the purpose of defining trends in aeronautics research and/or inform authorities concerning emerging regulations; views and recommendations are not meant as binding guidance to individual IFAR members.
Within IFAR, the members aim also to identify and evaluate options for new opportunities for co-operation and applying the results of aviation research.

IFAR organisation / members
IFAR operates on the basis of consensus among its members. Annually, principals from IFAR members convene at an IFAR Summit meeting. This event sets the IFAR goals and activities for the coming year and may establish special temporary committees or technical expert groups for IFAR activities of high interest. IFAR activities are supported by a secretariat. Membership in IFAR is open to national aviation research organizations, including universities active in aviation research, that are (1) non-profit, (2) owned or mainly funded by public governments, and (3) charged by the country or countries in which they are located to conduct such research activities on their behalf.. One organisation per country is accepted for membership.

Currently 26 aviation research organisations from all over the world are member of IFAR (see IFAR website www.ifar.aero). The current members represent more than 40,000 researchers working in aviation. Not counted yet are researchers of IFAR member countries.

IFAR history
IFAR evolved from discussions among leaders of international aeronautical research organizations beginning in 2008 regarding future aeronautical research challenges and policies. These leaders exchanged views on possible research contributions to address the climate and environmental chal-lenges faced by the air transport community, as well as global aeronautical challenges such as se-curity, safety and efficient operations. In 2010, leaders of aviation research organizations from 16 countries launched IFAR as common communication platform. In 2011, 21 research organizations agreed to formally establish IFAR through development of a common IFAR Charter and operating procedures, including regular leadership summits and technical exchanges on topics of global in-terest to participants. In 2012, two additional members from Brazil and UK jointed IFAR. Prelimi-nary technology lists on efficiency (incl. alternative fuels), noise were developed, the Steering Committee and Working groups on different topics (e.g. Alternative Fuels, promotion and educa-tion, IFARlink) were initiated. In 2013, one additional IFAR member from Austria jointed IFAR. The Steering Committee and the Working groups presented successful results from the last year and the public data base and communication platform IFARlink www.ifarlink.aero was approved. In 2014, two additional IFAR members from Portugal and South Africa jointed IFAR. The Summit was connected with the 5th Int. Forum for Aviation Research Summit and a Young Researchers Conference. IFAR signed an ICAS-IFAR partnership agreement. Several new working groups started.

IFAR Framework
IFAR aims at developing and maintaining a regularly updated IFAR Framework Document outlin-ing global research objectives and technological opportunities for use by its members. The IFAR approach consists of 3 steps. Step 1 includes a comparison of visions and goals by the IFAR Mem-bers, and identification of common visions and goals relevant for IFAR consideration. Step 2 con-siders new and visionary breakthrough technologies which could fulfil the common visions and goals identified in Step 1, and could be further developed to improve the Air Transport System (ATS) in Step 3. Technologies are in this regard not only software or hardware but can also be im-proved operations or measures.
The Framework Document is based on:
- a comparison of existing goals/objectives of its members and other relevant organisations/ institutions;
- an inventory of possible concepts or technologies which could be developed to accomplish certain objectives;
IFAR develops also other views and recommendations, findings and reports as may be appropriate. Such documents may include the findings of IFAR Ad Hoc Committees or IFAR Technical Expert Groups.

Results
The expected objectives and results for the whole project were achieved. The project considered the workpackages 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and achieved the following results:

WP 1 Development of the IFAR Framework:
Task 1.1 Development of the IFAR Framework with focus on ATS efficiency and Noise

The members developed to the topics ATS efficiency and Noise two technology lists with technol-ogies which are currently under research but which are also possible future technologies. The main references of these technologies are strategic documents but also other publications. The technology lists contain also the allocation of each IFAR member which gives a worldwide overview who is active in which field. The lists are updated regularly. The updated technologies are published in the public Technology data base www.ifarlink.aero. It is the communication and database platform for use by IFAR Members and affiliated universities only. IFARlink offers IFAR members a new tool for the exchange of information and further improvement of technology databases in the fields of im-provement of air transport efficiency related to climate change and noise; establishment of expert groups; collection of relevant literature, documents and PhD studies; and much more. In order to facilitate education and promotion of young IFAR scientists and engineers a data base of PhD researchers was introduced on the IFARlink platform.

Task 1.2 Development of the final Framework

The members developed a document on future of aviation including the topics ATS efficiency, noise and alternative fuels. It was studied in different working group led by NASA. It considered opportunities to leverage experience and investments in complementary research by IFAR members and to create a forum where research status and information can be readily exchanged. IFAR Members exchanged information on activities such as flight demonstrations to characterize the impact of biofuel on the environment, climate modeling and combustion research.

Task 1.3 Concept for the future work beyond IFARs

IFAR consists in the meantime of 26 IFAR organisations representing the relevant aviation research worldwide. It is well organised and structured. A high number of expert groups were initiated. The IFAR secretariat has an important role as it co-ordinates main IFAR activities, prepares and evaluates the summit and runs the websites. The IFAR secretariat started its activity in 2008. Until mid-2011 it was only supported by DLR. From mid-2011 until end of 2014 the main support came from the EU and DLR. From 2015 until end of 2017 DLR and NASA signed an agreement to con-tinue the support of the IFAR secretariat in the same way. The IFAR Summit 2015 is planned to be in October 2015 in USA organised by NASA. In 2016 the IFAR Summit will be in South Korea in connection with the ICAS congress. There will be the first time also the IFAR award for an innova-tive PhD thesis in aviation.

WP 2: IFAR Summit Year 1 - Focus on topics ATS efficiency and Noise

This workpackage contains the preparation of the Summit (Task 2.1) the Summit itself (Task 2.2) and the Summit declaration (Task 2.3). The main outcome is summarised in the following.
- IFAR Charter is adopted
- Further intensify their scientific-technical discussions on common IFAR focus areas
- Technology lists on “efficiency of the air transport system” and “noise” presented.
- Further explore collaboration on research related to alternative aviation fuels, using NASA’s planned flight research to measure emissions.
- A new web based networking initiative among IFAR members called IFARlink.
- Intensify its work on exchange on education and promotion of young IFAR scientists.
- A Steering Committee has been convened.

WP 3: IFAR Summit Year 2 - Focus on topic Alternative fuels

This workpackage contains the preparation of the Summit (Task 3.1) the Summit itself (Task 3.2) and the Summit declaration (Task 3.3). The main outcome is summarised in the following.
- IFAR members participated in the “Aviation Technologies of the XXI Century (ASTEC) international scientific symposium.
- Discussed the progress of technical collaboration in several areas of significant importance to the global civil aviation community, including the impact of aviation on the environment and the use of alternative aviation fuels.
- Young researchers from six IFAR member countries participated in the inaugural “Confer-ence of Young Researchers”.
- IFAR representatives met the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Dmitriy Medvedjev.
- Discuss key questions regarding the future of aviation and mobility in the long term.

WP 4: IFAR Summit Year 3 - Focus on topic Future of aviation

This workpackage contains the preparation of the Summit (Task 4.1) the Summit itself (Task 4.2) and the Summit declaration (Task 4.3). The main outcome is summarised in the following..
- IFAR participated in the 7th China Int. Aviation & Aerospace Forum by keynote lec-tures.
- Recognised Terms of Engagement document (ToE) during the 2014 International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS) Congress in St. Petersburg, Russia.
- Idea of working with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to develop interna-tional standards and recommended practices.
- Improvements to the full public IFAR webpage, the IFARLink for use by Members.
- JAXA assumed leadership of the Young Researchers Network (YRN).
- Continuation of the Alternative Fuels Working Group.
- Working Group to explore collaboration related to research and development technical ca-pabilities such as wind tunnels, flight test ranges etc.
- NASA briefed the Summit on the status of Supersonic aircraft in the U.S..
- CAE introduced its plan for a joint workshop of CAE and German-Dutch Wind Tunnels (DNW), in the area of wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics.
- Vienna University of Technology introduced a proposal to collaborate in the area of inte-gration of vertical lift as part of global transport system.
- The creation of a Future of Aviation Working Group was endorsed.

The main IFAR results can be summarised as following:

1) Organisation

a. Connection of 26 IFAR members
b. Co-operation with affiliated universities in aviation
c. IFAR secretariat (NASA and DLR)
d. Leader Team Ship (NASA, JAXA, DLR)
e. Steering committee
f. IFAR charter
g. Best practice document

2) Meetings

a. Yearly IFAR Summits and public declarations as outcome
b. Physical meetings in-between at conferences and air-shows
c. Web conferences (at least every 2 months) for
i. Leadership team
ii. Steering Committee
iii. Expert groups
iv. Young researchers Networking / IFARlink

3) Project website

a. For public www.ifar.aero
b. For committees and expert groups internal area at www.ifar.aero
c. For all employees of IFAR members and affiliated universities www.ifarlink.aero

4) Expert Groups

a. Continuation of all groups listed
b. Start of new expert groups
c. Regular exchange of all groups work via telecons, webconferences and conferences
d. Stronger involvement of Young Researchers Networking

5) International visibility – co-operation

a. MoU IFAR-ICAS
b. Co-operation with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to develop in-ternational standards and recommended practices, such as providing technical and scientific data and information.

6) Future of aviation

a. A draft document already exists
b. The aim is to finalise a common document with the view of the research organisa-tions

Project Results:

1. Overview of the project objectives
1.1 Work plan
IFAR, the International Forum for Aviation Research, is the world´s only aviation research establishment network. IFAR was founded in 2010 and operates on a voluntary, non-binding basis. The work of the IFAR secretariat is supported by DLR and the European Commission within the project IFARs (International Forum for Aviation Research Support Action) until end. Beyond IFARs the secretariat 2014 is supported by DLR, NASA and JAXA.

IFAR aims to realise the following activities:
- connecting the aviation research community worldwide;
- Serving as a venue for information exchange and communication, e.g. by its Summits, by conducting meetings, workshops and conferences, hosting internet forums, etc.;
- Developing among its members a shared understanding on a common set of key challenges faced by the global aviation research community;
- Developing the IFAR Framework Document, to inform on future research strategies and – where appropriate – to develop a combined research strategy for the future;
- Publishing and disseminating information (e.g. via webpage, flyers, publications, conferences);
- Issuing IFAR views and recommendations and give advice on aviation topics; the purpose of defining trends in aeronautics research and/or inform authorities concerning emerging regulations; views and recommendations are not meant as binding guidance to individual IFAR members.
- Within IFAR, the members aim also to identify and evaluate options for new opportunities for cooperation and applying the results of aviation research.

The IFAR activities are organised and supported by the IFAR secretariat. The work of the IFAR secretariat is supported by DLR and by the European Commission within the project IFARs (International Forum for Aviation Research Support Action) until end 2014. Since the Summit 2011 when NASA (Dr. Jaiwon Shin) was selected Vice-Chair an equal contribution to the secretariat is coming from NASA as well. Beyond IFARs, the IFAR secretariat is supported until 2017 by DLR, NASA and JAXA.

IFAR organisation / members
IFAR operates on the basis of consensus among its members. Annually, principals from IFAR members convene at an IFAR Summit meeting. This event sets the IFAR goals and activities for the coming year and may establish special temporary committees or technical expert groups for IFAR activities of high interest. IFAR activities are supported by the IFAR secretariat. Membership in IFAR is open to national aviation research organizations, including universities active in aviation research, that are (1) non-profit, (2) owned or mainly funded by public governments, and (3) charged by the country or countries in which they are located to conduct such research activities on their behalf. One organisation per country is accepted for membership. Currently 26 aviation research organisations from all over the world are member of IFAR. The current members represent more than 40,000 researchers working in aviation. Not counted yet are researchers of IFAR member countries.

IFAR history
IFAR evolved from discussions among leaders of international aeronautical research organizations beginning in 2008 regarding future aeronautical research challenges and policies. These leaders exchanged views on possible research contributions to address the climate and environmental challenges faced by the air transport community, as well as global aeronautical challenges such as security, safety and efficient operations. In 2010, leaders of aviation research organizations from 16 countries launched IFAR as common communication platform. In 2011, 21 research organizations agreed to formally establish IFAR through development of a common IFAR Charter and operating procedures, including regular leadership summits and technical exchanges on topics of global interest to participants. In 2012, two additional members from Brazil and UK jointed IFAR. Preliminary technology lists on efficiency (incl. alternative fuels), noise were developed, the Steering Committee and Working groups on different topics (e.g. Alternative Fuels, promotion and education, IFARlink) were initiated. In 2013, one additional IFAR member from Austria jointed IFAR. The Steering Committee and the Working groups presented successful results from the last year and the public data base and communication platform IFARlink www.ifarlink.aero was approved. In 2014, two additional IFAR members from Portugal and South Africa jointed IFAR. The Summit was connected with the 5th Int. Forum for Aviation Research Summit and a Young Researchers Conference. IFAR signed an ICAS-IFAR partnership agreement. Several new working groups started. In 2015 the Summit will be in USA hosted by NASA and in 2016 in South Korea hosted by KARI.

IFAR Framework
IFAR aims at developing and maintaining a regularly updated IFAR Framework Document outlining global research objectives and technological opportunities for use by its members. The IFAR approach consists of 3 steps. Step 1 includes a comparison of visions and goals by the IFAR Members, and identification of common visions and goals relevant for IFAR consideration. Step 2 considers new and visionary breakthrough technologies which could fulfil the common visions and goals identified in Step 1, and could be further developed to improve the Air Transport System (ATS) in Step 3. Technologies are in this regard not only software or hardware but can also be improved operations or measures.

The Framework Document is based on:
- a comparison of existing goals/objectives of its members and other relevant organisations/ institutions;
- an inventory of possible concepts or technologies which could be developed to accomplish certain objectives;
IFAR develops also other views and recommendations, findings and reports as may be appropriate. Such documents may include the findings of IFAR Ad Hoc Committees or IFAR Technical Expert Groups.

2. Work progress and achievements
2.1 Work plan

In general there are no changes to the original description of work. The changes related to wording are mentioned in Chapter 1. The only change was the extension of the project duration by 6 months. The reason is that the IFAR Summit 2014, which was connected to an Air show in Zhuhai, was very late in November and outside the original project duration. The main objective and the main challenge of IFARs is the support of IFAR as the International Forum for Aviation Research. IFARs is a 3.5 year project but it is intended that IFAR shall continue its work as an independent forum beyond IFARs. During the 3.5 years (project time of IFARs) IFAR developed a Framework document for different topics. In the first year ATS efficiency (before it was named Climate change) was continued and noise started. The topic in Year 2 was alternative fuels. The topic in Year 3 is “Future of Aviation” and “Alternative Fuels”. Each topic is considered in an own workpackage in one project year. IFAR members meet on each topic at summit level and in expert meetings. The outcome of each summit is a public declaration on the corresponding topic as a basis for dialogs with research, industry and the public. The main scientific outcome of IFAR is a contribution of an international research Framework. The different topics ATS efficiency, noise, future of aviation, alternative fuels, tec. are considered one after each other due to the following reasons. The topic climate change (now ATS efficiency) had the highest priority in the public. This was the main reason why, in the beginning, the work was focused on this topic only. In the following years the other topics will be included Framework. The Framework was planned to be one common document which is updated yearly.

Updated project structure and milestones
The work plan is arranged into a set of four technical workpackages, which reflect significant parts of the project work. The structure is unchanged. Deliverables are clearly defined for each of these workpackages, and serve as input for other workpackages and as results of the project as a whole. The fifth workpackage is on technical management and on exploitation and dissemination. The sixth workpackage is on administrative management and other activities (only for the audit costs). In order to simplify control of the work done, the workpackages are broken down to tasks. It should be mentioned, that the deliverables are defined as output of a workpackage, thus not all internal deliverables are recorded.

2.2 Summary of progress towards objectives and details for each task
2.2.1 WP 1: Development of the IFAR Framework

Task 1.1 Development of the IFAR Framework with focus on ATS efficiency and Noise

The members updated in the reporting period 2 to the topics ATS efficiency and Noise the two technology lists with technologies which are currently under research but which are also possible future technologies. The technology lists contain also the allocation of each IFAR member which gives a worldwide overview who is active in which field. The lists are updated regularly. The technologies are divided in 4 different levels dependent the detail level. The updated technologies are published in the public Technology data base www.ifarlink.aero. This website was developed in the working group IFARlink lead by DLR. It is the communication and database platform for use by IFAR Members and affiliated universities only. IFARlink offers IFAR members a new tool for the exchange of information and further improvement of technology databases in the fields of improvement of air transport efficiency related to climate change and noise; establishment of expert groups; collection of relevant literature, documents and PhD studies; and much more. In order to facilitate education and promotion of young IFAR scientists and engineers a data base of PhD researchers was introduced on the IFARlink platform.


Task 1.2 Development of the final Framework

The members developed a document on future of aviation including the topics ATS efficiency, noise and alternative fuels. It was studied in different working group led by NASA. It considered opportunities to leverage experience and investments in complementary research by IFAR members and to create a forum where research status and information can be readily exchanged. IFAR Members exchanged information on activities such as flight demonstrations to characterize the impact of biofuel on the environment, climate modeling and combustion research. The Working Group also organized a workshop in Washington, DC on July 18-19, 2013, with over 35 participants from member states, industry and universities. It followed regular web conferences. On 8-9 January 2015 a workshop was organised in Orlando, FL, USA. It is outside the IFARs project but it demonstrates the sustainability of the activity. The final report is summarised in Deliverable 1.3. It need to be mentioned that it is not public yet as the content is still under discussion.

Task 1.3 Concept for the future work beyond IFARs

IFAR consists in the meantime of 26 IFAR organisations representing the relevant aviation research worldwide. It is well organised and structured (cf. Chapter 3). A high number of expert groups were initiated. The IFAR secretariat has an important role as it co-ordinates main IFAR activities, prepares and evaluates the summit, runs the websites, ….. The IFAR secretariat was started its activity in 2008. Until mid-2011 it was only supported by DLR. From mid-2011 until end of 2014 the main support came from the EU and DLR. From 2015 until end of 2017 DLR signed an agreement to continue the support of the IFAR secretariat in the same way. The IFAR Summit 2014 is planned to be in October 2015 in USA organised by NASA. In 2016 the IFAR Summit will be in South Korea in connection with the ICAS congress. There will be the first time also the IFAR award for an innovative PhD thesis in aviation. The main future activities are summarised in Deliverable 1.4.


2.2.2 WP 2: IFAR Summit Year 1 - Focus on topics ATS efficiency and Noise

This workpackage contains the preparation of the Summit (Task 2.1) the Summit itself (Task 2.2) and the Summit declaration (Task 2.3). The main outcome is summarised in the following. It must be mentioned that even more activities were established that foreseen in the Description of Work planned.
- The basis of IFAR`s organisation, work and cooperation is the IFAR Charter adopted at the second IFAR Summit in Paris 2011, and subsequently signed by all IFAR members. This underlines the strong confidence and commitment of the members in the mission and work of IFAR.
- Building on discussions at previous IFAR Summits in 2010 and 2011, the IFAR members will further intensify their scientific-technical discussions on common IFAR focus areas regarding the following topics:
o Advance technologies and operational procedures to improve efficiency of air transportation and decrease the environmental impact of the aviation system.
o Improve management of operations at and around airports to improve efficiency and environmental impact (e.g. noise).
o Enable the use of alternative aviation fuels.
o Increase air transportation system performance to safely enable projected growth in system operations.
o Reduce the adverse impacts of weather on air traffic management decisions and operations.
- Two technology lists on “efficiency of the air transport system” and “noise” in the context of the Framework Document were presented. The lists are used for further discussions on IFAR expert level.
- Upon proposal by NASA, the members envisage to further explore collaboration on research related to alternative aviation fuels, including for example bio fuels, using NASA’s planned flight research to measure emissions from alternative aviation fuels. NASA and interested IFAR members will form a small working group(s) to explore the feasibility of future coordination and collaboration. At a later stage a joint flight campaign by interested IFAR members might be envisaged.
- IFAR wants to improve further their public relation and communication activities internal and external to IFAR member organisations. In addition to the IFAR webpage for external communication, a new web based networking initiative among IFAR members called IFARlink, will be created to support internal communication among members.
- IFAR will intensify its work on exchange on education and promotion of young IFAR scientists and engineers under the lead of VKI. A task force will be established for a collaborative PhD program. Members intend to develop a web based platform for exchange among PhD students as well as to serve as a data base for PhD students supported by the IFAR members.
- The Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary presented the idea of a worldwide competition for students on the development of radically new aviation-related ideas and technologies. The IFAR members are invited to discuss the further development of this competition.
- A Steering Committee for handling of technical, organisational and operational matters and supporting the activities between Summits has been convened.

Concerning scientific focus areas, some new Ad Hoc Committees with interested IFAR members will be established. The results of the Steering and Ad hoc Committees will be evaluated at the next IFAR Summit 2013.
- IFAR welcomed the nomination of two new members; IAE, Aeronautics and Space Institute, Brazil, and KTN, Aerospace, Aviation & Defence Knowledge Transfer Network, United Kingdom, were accepted as new IFAR members by the Summit. Now IFAR connects worldwide 23 aviation research organizations with about 34,000 researchers in aviation.
- As a unique opportunity for IFAR and the aeronautical research community, the “JAXA Aeronautics Symposium in Nagoya” was held in conjunction with the IFAR Summit. Representatives from industry, government, IFAR research organisations and the general public discussed the challenges of the future air transport system with emphasis on environmental aspects of aviation.
- The next IFAR Summit in 2013 will be hosted by the Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute of Russia (TsAGI), possibly in conjunction with the MAKS Air Show. A conference with young specialists from IFAR members at the beginning of the meeting is planned. The IFAR members expect that a TsAGI-IFAR Symposium also will be organised in connection with the Summit.
The detailed outcome is summarised in Deliverable 2.1 (Declaration of the Summit 2012).

2.2.3 WP 3: IFAR Summit Year 2 - Focus on topic Alternative fuels

This workpackage contains the preparation of the Summit (Task 3.1) the Summit itself (Task 3.2) and the Summit declaration (Task 3.3). The main outcome is summarised in the following. It must be mentioned that even more activities were established that foreseen in the Description of Work planned.
- IFAR members participated in the “Aviation Technologies of the XXI Century (ASTEC) international scientific symposium co-hosted by TsAGI on August 26 entitled “Future of World Civil Aviation.” This symposium was attended by more than 200 people including representatives from Russian research institutions, industry, government, as well as the participants of IFAR Summit.
- IFAR members discussed the progress of technical collaboration in several areas of significant importance to the global civil aviation community, including the impact of aviation on the environment and the use of alternative aviation fuels.
- Young researchers from six IFAR member countries participated in the inaugural “Conference of Young Researchers” from 25 – 26 August, 2013, to exchange views on the social and scientific aspects of careers in the field of aeronautics research.
- During a visit to the Moscow Air Show (MAKS) on August 27, the IFAR representatives met with the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Dmitriy Medvedjev at the TsAGI exposition hall. He was informed about the vision and main objectives of IFAR and its great potential for international cooperation in aviation research.
- In a new session format, named “IFAR Cafe”, IFAR Members took the opportunity to discuss five key questions regarding the future of aviation and mobility in the long term, that is the next two generations of air transportation systems (n+2):
o The regional developments they see in the future („short range“ mobility aspect, ground competition, etc.);
o Whether the connection of certain world regions will change in nature;
o The framework for mobility on a global scale;
o Technological developments that support aviation (or possibly also pose a threat); and
o The possible IFAR contribution towards the future development of air mobility.
The detailed outcome is summarised in Deliverable 3.1 (Declaration of the Summit 2013).

2.2.4 WP 4: IFAR Summit Year 3 - Focus on topic Future of aviation

This workpackage contains the preparation of the Summit (Task 4.1) the Summit itself (Task 4.2) and the Summit declaration (Task 4.3). The main outcome is summarised in the following. It must be mentioned that even more activities were established that foreseen in the Description of Work planned.
- IFAR participated in the 7th China Int. Aviation & Aerospace Forum by providing keynote lectures and joining panel discussions. Members discussed with senior industry and government leaders from around the world about global challenges and opportunities facing Aviation industry.
- The Summit recognized the Terms of Engagement document (ToE) that was signed during the 2014 International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS) Congress in St. Petersburg, Russia.
- The Members welcomed the idea of working with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to develop international standards and recommended practices, such as providing technical and scientific data and information.
- It was noted that there have been several web based improvements to the full public IFAR webpage, the IFARLink for use by Members, and an increased use of the internal IFAR webpage over the past year.
- The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) assumed leadership of the Young Researchers Network (YRN), and appreciation was expressed for the contributions of Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics as the founding leader of the Working Group.
- The successful multilateral cooperation between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), German Aerospace Center (DLR), and National Research Council of Canada’s on the alternative fuel effects on contrails and cruise emissions-II (ACCESS -II) flight research campaign, was exemplified as an model for future collaborations. The Members endorsed the continuation of the Alternative Fuels Working Group, and expressed a desire to leverage experiences and investments in complementary research.
- Members were encouraged to express interest in the topic of Reducing the Adverse Impact of Weather and nominate points of contact.
- The Summit noted the progress that has been made in the area of Research Technical Capabilities, and interested Members were encouraged to provide points of contact. The next step is to establish a Working Group and terms of reference to further explore collaboration related to research and development technical capabilities such as wind tunnels, flight test ranges etc.
- NASA briefed the Summit on the status of Supersonic aircraft in the U.S. related to activities associated with enabling civil supersonic flight over land, with special focus on informing future global sonic boom standards.
- CAE introduced its plan for a joint workshop of CAE and German-Dutch Wind Tunnels (DNW), in the area of wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics that will be held in 2015.
- Vienna University of Technology introduced a proposal to collaborate in the area of integration of vertical lift as part of global transport system.
- The creation of a Future of Aviation Working Group was endorsed, which is a continuation of the discussions that took place during the 2013 Summit in Moscow. Considered were the five questions:
1. The regional developments the IFAR members see in the future?
2. Will global mobility change in the Future?
3. Mobility on a global scale?
4. Five years of IFAR operations – what and how to improve? and
5. What is your (the Members’) most important problem?
The detailed outcome is summarised in Deliverable 4.1 (Declaration of the Summit 2014).

The next IFAR Summit in October 2015 will be hosted by the NASA. In 2016, the IFAR Summit will be in South Korea in connection with the ICAS congress.

2.2.5 WP 5: Management and Exploitation

Task 5.1: Management

See Chapter 3.


Task 5.2: Exploitation

The success of this task is measured after the end of the project by the publications (cf. Section 4), its website www.ifar.aero and the publication of the various data bases (future technologies, literature, funding opportunities, data bases, completion award) in IFARlink www.ifarlink.aero.
The detailed outcome is summarised in Deliverable D5.2. (Plan for using and disseminating knowledge).

2.3 Deviations from the project workprogramme and corrective actions

Except the change of wording, and the longer project duration the actual work accomplished corresponds to the planning of the Description
of Work. There are no changes of the objectives and no changes of technical contributions in the project.


2.4 List of deliverables

All deliverables were submitted as planned.

2.5 Reasons for failing to achieve critical objectives

All objectives were fully fulfilled.

2.6 Use of resources

The details of the costs are the following:

1) Personnel costs:
a. These are only costs for Prof. Richard Degenhardt.
b. The costs for the other members of the IFARs team were covered by DLR.

2) Travel costs (Prof. Richard Degenhardt):

a. Internal IFARs meetings at different places in Germany (every 4-8 weeks)
b. IFAR Summit 2011 in Paris, June 2011
c. Visit of other companies or organisations (Airbus, IABG, Embraer)
d. Visit of potential IFAR member IAE in Brazil, November 2011
e. IFAR expert meeting at the CEAS conference in Venice 2011, November 2011
f. IFAR Summit 2012 in Nagoya, October 2012
g. Visit of other companies or organisations (Airbus, IABG, Embraer)
h. Visit of conferences, January 2013 (IAE in Dallas)
i. ILA Air show in Berlin, April 2014
j. ICAS congress in St. Petersburg, September 2014
k. AIRTEC in Frankfurt, October 2014
l. IFAR Summit 2014 in Zhuhai, November 2014
m. The travel costs for the other members of the IFARs team were covered by DLR.

3) Other specific costs:

a. Design and print of flyers, posters business cards, roll-up
b. Update website

4) Subcontracting:

a. Update website www.ifar.aeo
b. Development of IFARlink www.ifarlink.aero
c. Support for future aviation models
d. PhD candidate from DAAD


3. Project management during the project
3.1 Consortium management tasks and achievements

All coordination tasks due within the project year were performed according to the planning as laid down in the Description of Work. There were no problems and the management tasks were in general achieved as planned. The project was controlled by the project meetings as well as by the internal reports and deliverables. Details to all meetings and co-ordination activities are mentioned in Section 3.3. There were no problems in the whole project.
The only change was the extension of the project duration by 6 months. The reason was that the IFAR Summit 2014, which was connected to an Air show in Zhuhai, was very late in November.

3.2 Changes in responsibilities and changes to consortium itself
There were no changes.

3.3 List of project meetings, dates and venues
During the project the following meetings were organised or attended:
a. IFAR expert meeting at the CEAS conference in Venice 2011, November 2011
b. IFAR Summit 2012 in Japan
c. IFAR Summit 2012 in Nagoya, October 2012
d. Visit of other companies or organisations (Airbus, IABG, Embraer)
e. Visit of conference, January 2013 (IAE in Dallas)
f. IFAR Summit 2013 in Moscow, August 2013
g. ILA Air show in Berlin, April 2014
h. ICAS congress in St. Petersburg, September 2014
i. AIRTEC in Frankfurt, October 2014
j. IFAR Summit 2014 in Zhuhai, November 2014
k. Internal IFARs meetings at different places in Germany (every 4-8 weeks)


3.4 Project planning

Except the update of the topics there are no changes. Except the extension of the project duration, there are no deviations from the planned
milestones and deliverables. There also no changes to the legal status of any of the beneficiaries (here only DLR).

3.5 Development of the Project website

The project website www.ifar.aero is updated regularly. In addition, a second a second website www.ifarlink.aero was established which is a social network and a data base for web conference, future technologies, literature, research funding opportunities, links for competitions awards, etc .

3.6 Comments and information on co-ordination activities

The IFARs project started on 15 June 2011. The single partner DLR started the work on time.
The second IFAR Summit was held on 18 – 19 June 2011 in Paris. The outcome was published in a declaration at www.ifar.aero.
The IFARs Kick-off Meeting was held on 25 October, 2011 which was connected to an IFAR expert meeting in Venice at the CEAS conference.
DLR visited in November 2011 IAE in Brazil to discuss the membership in IFAR. IAE joined at the 3rd IFAR Summit IFAR.
DLR visited several companies (Airbus, IABG, Embraer, Hitco) to exchange experience on future aeronautics.
The third IFAR Summit was held on 13-14 October 2012 in Nagoya. The outcome was published in a declaration at Deliverable D2.1.
The fourth IFAR Summit was held on 24-28 August 2013 in Moscow (Russia). The outcome was published in a declaration at Deliverable D3.1.
The fifth IFAR Summit was held on 8-12 November 2014 in Zhuhai (China). The outcome was published in a declaration at Deliverable D4.1.
Communication among the IFAR partners and IFAR members and with the EC is predominantly performed by e-mail and telephone conference.
IFAR was presented at several events or media. A complete list is given in Chapter 4. Main results are published regularly at www.ifar.aero.
In general every 4-6 weeks there was an internal IFARs meeting to organise IFAR.

4. List of IFAR publications

- Website www.ifar.aero
- Technology data base and communication platform www.ifarlink.aero
- IFAR flyer (Annex 2)
- IFARlink Flyer (Annex 3)
- Conferences
o Szodruch J., Degenhardt R., “IFAR- International Forum for Aviation Research”, Aeronautics Days, Madrid, Spain, 29 March – 1 April, 2011
o Degenhardt R., Szodruch J., “IFAR – International Forum for Aviation Research – Contribution to Research and Education on International Level”,

Proceedings of the 10th Int. Conference on Research and Education in Aircraft Design 2012”, Brno, Czech Republic, 17-19 October, 2012 (Deliverable D5.1)
o “IFAR - International Forum for Aviation Research”, JAXA Aeronautics Symposium in Nagoya, Nagoya, 13 - 14 October, 2012
o “IFAR - International Forum for Aviation Research”, international scientific symposium Aviation Technologies of the XXI Century (ASTEC), Moscow, 26

August, 2013
o “The future of aviation”, ICAS plenary lecture, ICAS Congress 2014, St. Petersburg, 11 September, 2014
o Workshop on International Cooperation in Aviation Research & Innovation, Brussels, 30 September 2014
o “IFAR – Panel discussion”, 7th China International Aviation & Aerospace Forum, Zhuhai, November, 2014
- IFAR supported conferences
o JAXA Aeronautics symposium, Nagoya, Japan, 12 October 2012
o Aviation Technologies of the XXI Century (ASTEC) international scientific symposium, Moscow, 26 August 2013
o 5th Int. Forum for Aviation Research Summit, Zhuhai, China, 10 November 2014
- Chapter in Books/Proceedings
o Degenhardt R., Szodruch J., Plass S., “IFAR- International Forum for Aviation Research”, Book “Future Aeronautical Communications”, ISBN 978-953-307-625-6, pp. 335-348
o Szodruch J., Degenhardt R., “IFAR- International Forum for Aviation Research”, Book: Innovation for Sustainable Aviation in a Global Environment, Proceedings of the Sixth European Aeronautics Days, IOS Press 2012
- Video Presented at the ILA in Berlin, September 2012

Annex A1: List of IFAR Members

1. Australia, CSIRO - Autonomous Systems Laboratory CSIRO ICT Centre
2. Austria, Vienna University
3. Belgium, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics
4. Brazil, IAE - Institute of Aeronautics and Space
5. Canada, NRC - Institute for Aerospace Research
6. China, CAE - Chinese Aeronautical Establishment
7. Czech Republic , VZLU - Aeronautical Research and Test Institute
8. Finland, VTT - Technical Research Centre of Finland
9. France, ONERA - French Aerospace Lab
10. Germany, DLR - German Aerospace Center
11. Hungary, Buda pest University of Technology and Economics
12. India, CSIR-NAL - National Aerospace Laboratories
13. Italy, CIRA - Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali
14. Japan, JAXA - Aerospace Exploration Agency
15. Korea, KARI - Korea Aerospace Research Institute
16. Netherlands, NLR - National Aerospace Laboratory of the Netherlands
17. Poland, ILOT - Polish Institute of Aviation
18. Portugal, CEiiA – Centre for Innovation and Creative Engineering
19. Romania, INCAS - National Institute of Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli” of Romania
20. Russia, TsAGI - Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute of Russia
21. South Africa, CSIR - Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
22. Spain, INTA - National Institute of Aerospace Technology of Spain
23. Sweden, FOI - The Swedish Defence Research Agency
24. Turkey, METU - Middle East Technical University Ankara
25. United Kingdom, ATI - Aerospace Technology Institute
26. USA, NASA - U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration





Potential Impact:
1. Final results and potential impacts
1.1 IFAR results

The main IFAR results can be summarised as following:
1) Organisation
a. Connection of 26 IFAR members
b. Co-operation with affiliated universities in aviation
c. IFAR secretariat (NASA and DLR)
d. Leader Team Ship (NASA, JAXA, DLR)
e. Steering committee
f. IFAR charter
g. Best practice document

2) Meetings

a. Yearly IFAR Summits and public declarations as outcome
b. Physical meetings in-between at conferences and air-shows
c. Web conferences (at least every 2 months) for
i. Leadership team
ii. Steering Committee
iii. Expert groups
iv. Young researchers Networking / IFARlink

3) Project website

a. For public www.ifar.aero
b. For committees and expert groups internal area at www.ifar.aero
c. For all employees of IFAR members and affiliated universities www.ifarlink.aero

4) Expert Groups

a. Continuation of all groups listed
b. Start of new expert groups
c. Regular exchange of all groups work via telecons, webconferences and conferences
d. Stronger involvement of Young Researchers Networking

5) International visibility – co-operation

a. MoU IFAR-ICAS
b. Co-operation with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to develop in-ternational standards and recommended practices, such as providing technical and scientific data and information.

6) Future of aviation

a. A draft document already exists
b. The aim is to finalise a common document with the view of the research organisa-tions

1.2 Potential impacts

Prognoses of drastic climate change, restricted fossil-fuel resources and − at the same time − in-creased demand for global travelling lead to an intensive debate between scientists, decision-makers and the public. It is assumed that aviation contributes 2–3% of today’s total global anthro-pogenic CO2 emissions. However, the increasing need for international mobility in a globalised, work-sharing economy leads to a worldwide growth in air traffic by about 5% per year. So the con-tribution of aviation to climate change is increasing. IATA, representing the industry, already set a long term 2050 vision to reduce net emissions from aviation by 50% by 2050 compared to 2005 levels. However, the new technologies which are needed to achieve the goal have to be developed by aerospace research. This challenge is of global nature and can only be achieved in an efficient manner if the work among the main aerospace organisations in the world is co-ordinated. This is the aim of IFAR. IFAR develops a long-term Framework which addresses the most important questions in connection with the role of aviation research under the special aspect of the cli-mate change and the global air transport system efficiency. This framework is on the one hand be visionary up to the year 2050 and will act as a global strategy. On the other hand it develops detailed research strategies as to how the objectives on special topics, such as climate change, noise, security and safety, developed for the vision up to 2050, shall be achieved. IFAR sets standards initiated by Europe.

Strategy beyond the IFARs project
IFAR is an independent alliance of voluntarily contributing aviation research institutions not lim-ited to a certain duration. It is reasonable that research organisations worldwide which spend a sig-nificant amount of money for aviation research do so in a better organised way. For the long-term perspective beyond the IFARs project, IFAR developed a solution how to cover the costs for an own IFAR secretariat. From 2015 until end of 2017 DLR and NASA signed an agreement to con-tinue the support of the IFAR secretariat in the same way as up to now.
1.3 Contribution towards the expected impacts listed in the work programme IFARs and IFAR contribute to the following expected work programme impact:
Supporting the organisation of conferences and events of special relevance to aeronautics and air transport research
Impacts:
- IFAR is the worldwide platform for aeronautic research institutions.
- IFAR is the representation of aerospace research organisations worldwide reacting to the demands from political and economic decision-makers as well as from the public.
- IFAR actively supports international dialogue and scientific co-operation between aviation research institutions and relevant stakeholders worldwide
- IFAR´s worldwide activities and policies are significantly influenced and promoted by the European stakeholders represented in ACARE
- IFAR offers an opportunity for EU policy and international co-operation specifically by building a basis through research establishments
- IFAR strengthens the competitive position of Europe by the European initiation and Euro-pean leadership of IFAR
- IFAR sets standards which are initiated by Europe
- IFAR supports and makes use of other organisations like CEAS, AIAA, ICAS and others for the dissemination of results

1.4 Steps to bring about the impact

The basic steps needed are reflected by the organisational and the workpackage structure of the project:
• Organisational structure
o Installation and consolidation of the IFAR secretariat and the role of the chairman,
o Development of the rules of procedures of IFAR and the IFAR charter for the IFAR cooperation partners
• workpackage structure
o Development of an international research Framework
o IFAR Summit Year 1 - Focus on ATS efficiency and Noise
o IFAR Summit Year 2 - Focus on Alternative fuels
o IFAR Summit Year 3 - Focus on Future of aviation
As preparation of each IFAR summit meeting expert meeting were held prior to the summit. Addi-tional meetings were held via telephone conference. The experts develop details for the strategy to be discussed at summit meetings. The summits were held on different topics and resulted in politi-cal and programmatic summit declarations and also the consolidation of the IFAR Framework. In addition, exploitation and dissemination activities are performed in the course of the project, at its end, and afterwards. In addition, research, politics, industry and the public are informed regularly about the progress of IFAR activities on the project website www.ifar.aero.

2. Exploitable knowledge and its use
The IFAR project results are disseminated at two levels: detailed and general. At the detailed level technical reports are produced and distributed between all IFAR members. Those reports describe the technical and technological details and the conclusions for the further consideration of the top-ics of the Framework. At the general level project results are provided to the Steering Committee, to relevant organisations and stakeholders as well as to the public via papers in international jour-nals, presentations at appropriate international conferences, communication channels like the IFAR website www.ifar.aero.

2.1 Exploitable knowledge
Within IFAR, which is the only aviation research establishment network worldwide, the fol-lowing knowledge and results were generated.
• 26 members
• IFAR common objectives and focus areas
• 8 technical working groups established
o First technical result: Alternative fuels flight test
• 2 strategic working groups established
o Future of aviation
o ertical lift in transport systems
• 2 working groups in promotion and communication
• International visibility – co-operation
o MoU IFAR-ICAS
o ICAO tbd
o SUNJET II

Organisational
• Voluntary, non-binding basis, Charter (2011)
• IFAR best practise document
• Leadership team
o Chair, Vice-chair, Past chair
• IFAR Executive Secretary and Joint Secretariat
• Steering Committee
• Expert- and project groups
• Yearly Leaders Summits
• Communication by IFARlink
• Visibility and presence in public (IFAR webpage, conferences, …)
• Web based conferences

In detail, the exploitation and dissemination is carried out by the IFARs team in the following ways:
• Establishment of an Steering Committee with representatives from all IFAR members.
• Information via the website
o www.ifar.aero to the public.
o Internal area within www.ifar.aero to the all expert groups and committees.
o www.ifarlink.aero to all IFAR member employees
• Publications in international journals and presentations at international conferences.
• Producing flyers, posters and videos about IFAR.

2.2 Management of intellectual property

The policy for securing Intellectual Property Rights of IFAR and for licensing will be determined in the Alliance Agreement. The principles of the intellectual properties will be the following:
• Any new invention generated by a member is the property of that member. That member will patent any patentable results.
• If any joint invention results from the co-operation under the alliance agreement, i.e. joint inventions made by employees of more than one member, and if the features of that joint invention cannot be patented separately, the parties concerned can jointly apply for patent protection.
• A continuous and substantial interaction between the personnel of the members will take place during the project. The members will agree that the member generating foreground information shall own any foreground information but all members shall be entitled to use such information for IFAR purposes without any financial compensation to or the consent of the delivering partner.
• A considerable amount of background information is being brought into the project, which will remain the property of the specific partner and may, in some cases, be commercially confidential. This specific know-how is owned by the specific partner and will not be shared within this project. The exception is the transfer of know-how in order to enable a co-operating partner to perform tasks vital to achieve the project goals. The legal modalities are usually sorted out on bilateral level.
• The IPR management principles will be adapted to the nature of the action where generated knowledge will not be retained by the participants but widely disseminated.
It is noted that technological development as it is performed in IFAR involve a collaborative effort, with each partner engaged on a particular element of the task, which is eventually assembled to address the overall objectives. A project such as IFAR can only succeed if information is ex-changed openly between the members but limiting the disclosure of information to the required dissemination to the public.


3. Dissemination of knowledge
At the general level project results will be provided to IFAR members and public, papers are be published in international journals, presented at appropriate international conferences and made available to Internet users.
As a summary, the public participation and awareness is raised by IFAR in the following way:
• Website www.ifar.aero
• Technology data base and communication platform www.ifarlink.aero
• IFAR flyer (Annex 2)
• IFARlink Flyer (Annex 3)
• Conferences
o Szodruch J., Degenhardt R., “IFAR- International Forum for Aviation Research”, Aeronautics Days, Madrid, Spain, 29 March – 1 April, 2011
o Degenhardt R., Szodruch J., “IFAR – International Forum for Aviation Research – Contribution to Research and Education on International Level”, Proceedings of the 10th Int. Conference on Research and Education in Aircraft Design 2012”, Brno, Czech Republic, 17-19 October, 2012 (Deliverable D5.1)
o “IFAR - International Forum for Aviation Research”, JAXA Aeronautics Symposium in Nagoya, Nagoya, 13 - 14 October, 2012
o “IFAR - International Forum for Aviation Research”, international scientific symposium Aviation Technologies of the XXI Century (ASTEC), Moscow, 26 August, 2013
o “The future of aviation”, ICAS plenary lecture, ICAS Congress 2014, St. Petersburg, 11 September, 2014
o Workshop on International Cooperation in Aviation Research & Innovation, Brussels, 30 September 2014
o “IFAR – Panel discussion”, 7th China International Aviation & Aerospace Forum, Zhuhai, November, 2014
• IFAR supported conferences
o JAXA Aeronautics symposium, Nagoya, Japan, 12 October 2012
o Aviation Technologies of the XXI Century (ASTEC) international scientific symposium, Moscow, 26 August 2013
o 5th Int. Forum for Aviation Research Summit, Zhuhai, China, 10 November 2014
• Chapter in Books/Proceedings
o Degenhardt R., Szodruch J., Plass S., “IFAR- International Forum for Aviation Re-search”, Book “Future Aeronautical Communications”, ISBN 978-953-307-625-6, pp. 335-348
o Szodruch J., Degenhardt R., “IFAR- International Forum for Aviation Research”, Book: Innovation for Sustainable Aviation in a Global Environment, Proceedings of the Sixth European Aeronautics Days, IOS Press 2012
• Video
o Presented at the ILA in Berlin, September 2012




List of Websites:
www.ifar.aero
www.ifarlink.aero
richard.degenhardt@dlr.de