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Automotive pemfc Range extender with high TEMperature Improved meas and Stacks

Final Report Summary - ARTEMIS (Automotive pemfc Range extender with high TEMperature Improved meas and Stacks)

Executive Summary:
A novel cross-linked polybenzimidazole membrane reinforced by an electrospun cross-linked nanofibre web has been developed and its preparation scaled-up. The membrane has proton conductivity of 130 mS/cm, an acid doping level of 21 molecules per polymer repeat unit, and Young's Modulus of 80 MPa. Membranes of surface area 400 cm2 have been produced batch-wise and transferred to WP4 for development of full size MEAs for the HT PEMFC stack.
A multi-scale modelling tool has been developed to investigate how degradation effects during FC operation may be mitigated. The proposed confinement strategy could lead to the use of membranes with increased acid doping levels.
Non-noble metal CoS2/C, NiS2/C, CoSe2/C and NiSe2/C cathode electrocatalysts were developed. CoS2 with cubic structure has the best activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in an acidic electrolyte. A PtNi/MWCNT cathode catalyst was prepared and scaled-up. A polyol synthesis route to Pt/WC-C-CeO2 anode catalyst was developed and scaled-up. Anode and cathode catalysts were transferred to WP4 for electrode preparation.
Ink composition and deposition were optimised using a commercial Pt/C catalyst. The resulting electrodes were used with the ARTEMIS cross-linked and reinforced membrane to produce initially small size (25 cm2) and finally full size (200 cm2) ARTEMIS MEAs, by optimising the assembly parameters and sub-gaskets.
MEA performance exceeds the target of 0.5 W/cm² at 1 A/cm² in 25 cm² single cell tests and is significantly higher than that of the reference commercial MEA (25 % higher at 1.2 A/cm²). Such MEAs have been operated using the ARTEMIS range extender protocol in 1000 hour and 2000 hour longevity tests. The voltage decay is low (8 µV/h), and after 1000 h operation the power density delivered at full load is still close to 0.75 W/cm². Full size MEAs have been transferred to WP5 for short stack development.
Two cell plate formulations were processed and tested for performance. Mechanical tests were performed to confirm mechanical properties of this material. Seal material was chosen and the required seal thickness calculated. The hardware components design was completed.
Following preliminary performance tests on single cells to optimise the HT-PEMFC stack assembly, a four-cell high temperature PEMFC stack was assembled and tested. This stack produces >0.3 kWe at 160 °C at ambient pressure and without humidification for currents over 165 A (825 mA/cm2) and at 180 °C for currents over 140 A (700 mA/cm2). A 3 kW HT-PEMFC stack was configured using the results from this four-cell stack. It was determined that 48 cells of average performance are required to produce 3 kWe at 160 °C in the range of 125-160 A (BoL to EoL) and at 180 °C in the range of 110 A (BoL) to 140 A (EoL). Based on 15% voltage decay as end-of-life condition this configuration allows for the output of 3 kWe from BoL to EoL in a suitable current range.
Vehicle models were developed to assess the effects of an HT-PEMFC stack on the vehicle range through the simulation of different driving cycles. For a 3 kW stack, two solutions were analysed: (i) On-board generation for light commercial vehicles, where the fuel cell is used to supply power to the auxiliaries, where the vehicle runtime was shown to be improved by 11% for the NEDC, and by 19% for the ASTERICS driving cycle, with respect to the full electric vehicle; (ii) Charge-sustaining suitable for passenger cars, where the fuel cell is used to supply power for traction, where it was shown that a 3 kW fuel cell can ensure battery charging in the cases of Urban Driving Cycles and Common Artemis Driving Cycles.
A dissemination event was held, and 6 journal papers have been published or are planned.
Overall improved high temperature PEMFC MEA components and MEAs have been developed, leading to ARTEMIS HT-PEMFC technology for future research and development, and the approach of a HT PEMFC stack as a range extender has been validated.

Project Context and Objectives:
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Project Results:
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Potential Impact:
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List of Websites:
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