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Operational Radar For Every drill string Under the Street

Final Report Summary - ORFEUS (Operational Radar For Every drill string Under the Street)

Executive Summary:
The present project aimed to develop a HDD drill tip Radar and provide real-time obstacle detection to improve operational safety margins so that the technique can be used in a wide range of urban situations. ORFEUS was a full scale development and demonstration project that will ran for two and a half years, and was supported by the European Commission through the 7th Framework Programme (FP). The main objectives of the project were:
• Optimisation of the radar sensor to improve the functionality and performance of the transmitting and receiving antennas
• Resolution of the means of sensing the antenna bore-sight direction with respect to the vertical axis of the Earth
• Software to analyse the raw radar, and associated bore-sight direction, data to identify objects of interest, and present them, via a simple user interface, to the HDD system operator
• Engineering design work to increase the robustness of the system, consisting of radar and communication modules, to withstand prolonged exposure to the temperature and shock and vibration environments, as well as immersion in the fluid, pumped along the drill string, used to lubricate the drill tip
• Further development, and testing of, the means of transmitting large volumes of radar data, along the drill string, from the drilling tip to the HDD surface display equipment, to realise an operational range of not less than 100 metres
• Design and development of an electrical transmission line and connector system to carry power and data along a rotating drill string that also carries drilling lubrication fluid consisting of water, under pressure, mixed with a clay slurry (Bentonite)
• Design of a slip ring system to deliver power and data from the fixed surface equipment to the rotating drill string

At the conclusion of the project the consortium had achieved all of the objectives and milestones of the project. A prototype of the ORFEUS technology has been tested at three European locations under extensive field trials. The technology is now ready for final optimisation and has achieved technology readiness level 7. Following final optimisation the product will be available for market entry into the HDD sector.

Project Context and Objectives:
Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) is a method of installing pipes and cables of various sizes without digging trenches (“trenchless”), thus minimising disturbances to traffic and people living nearby. This technique is very powerful but its uncontrolled use can cause great damage to existing buried infrastructures.

The benefits of HDD are:
• Reduction of soil disturbance and collateral damage (and rework) for roads/trees/buildings/urban and green spaces due to removal/replacement of spoil
• A single access area can be used to install different pipes and services
• Reduction of fractures to existing rock formations
• Reduction of groundwater pollution
• Protection of the ecosystem and adjacent areas
• Reduction of emissions and air pollution due to traffic congestion/accidents
• Reduction of use of non-renewable materials (e.g. sand and gravel)

Before it can be used, an accurate knowledge of the positions of utilities and other obstructions is necessary. Potential hazards include energised power cables, telecommunications lines (metal and fibre optic), steel and plastic gas pipes, potable water and sewer lines made from various materials including clay and concrete. Striking one of these assets can be extremely dangerous, and can also cause significant economic losses due to the interruption of public services. Consequently, the safe use of the technique demands an accurate knowledge of utility assets and other obstructions in the drill path. Although operators attempt to identify all objects that may lie within the proposed drilling path, frequently, available information maps of existing underground utilities are incomplete, which increases the risk of utility damage, service interruption and economic losses.
Although most operators take appropriate precautions in the preparation and execution of maintenance and replacement projects for buried utilities significant costs associated with damage still occur. For example, in Germany, it has been determined that the cost of the damage caused by such work is, at least, €200 million per year. Of the projects undertaken, 93% obtained the best information possible prior to the commencement of the work and, of the damage caused, 79% was by excavation equipment (1).

The present project aimed to progress to a commercial stage the previously developed HDD drill head Radar developed under a preceding project, entitled “Optimised Radar to Find Every Utility in the Street”, to a commercial stage”. That project was supported by the 6th Framework Programme (FP), and resulted in the development and field trial of an innovative Ground Probing Radar (GPR). This operated on the drilling head of HDD systems and provided real-time obstacle detection to improve operational safety margins so that the technique can be used in a wide range of urban situations. ORFEUS is a full scale development and demonstration project that was completed on 30th September, 2015, and was supported by the European Commission through the 7th Framework Programme.

At the conclusion of the 6th Framework project, a prototype drill head radar system was delivered, which underwent performance and operational testing in special purpose test sites and in a live drilling operation. Although the system demonstrated the concept, it was not a viable commercial system, but required further development to address the following technical issues which were the objectives of the current project:

• Optimisation of the radar sensor to improve the functionality and performance of the transmitting and receiving antennas
• Refinement of the means of sensing tilt of the antenna bore-sight direction with respect to the vertical axis of the Earth
• Software to analyse the raw radar, and associated bore-sight direction, data to identify objects of interest, and present them to the HDD system operator via a simple user interface.
• Engineering design work to increase the robustness of the system, consisting of radar and communication modules, to withstand prolonged exposure to the temperature and shock and vibration environments, as well as immersion in the fluid used to lubricate the drill head which is pumped along the drill string.
• Further development, and testing of, the means of transmitting large volumes of radar data, along the drill string, from the drilling tip to the HDD surface display equipment, to realise an operational range of not less than 100 metres
• Design and development of an electrical transmission line and connector system to carry power and data along a rotating drill string that also carries drilling lubrication fluid consisting of water, under pressure, mixed with a clay slurry (Bentonite)
• Design of a slip ring system to deliver power and data from the fixed surface equipment to the rotating drill string

Following the completion of the technical work programme, the resulting radar system was subjected to a user-led series of graduated field trials intended to develop confidence in the operational characteristics of the system and to evaluate its detection performance. These were carried out in Germany, France, and Slovenia. As well as the development of the objectives of the trials and their planning, by the users, the technical participants developed a logistic strategy to mobilise, support and maintain the equipment in a satisfactory operating condition over a 12 month period.

In addition to the technical and field trials programmes, work was undertaken to develop a Publically Available Standard (PAS) for HDD technology. The activities associated with this work has been supported by recognised external utilities industry experts with specific knowledge of developing standards for national and international bodies. The PAS was published during August 2015 and is likely to be incorporated in to a further European standard in due course.
At the end of the ORFEUS project we have achieved our project deliverables and produced a technology that is at TRL 7 or above. The technology requires additional optimisation before full commercialisation can take place. However, our exploitation plan has been developed and following final optimisation the consortium are seeking to exploit the results of the project and the technology through a new legal entity established for this purpose.
The annual global production of HDD rigs was in excess of 3,500 units with a market value of €500 to €600 million. Up to 200 rigs are produced in Europe every year; 80% by Tracto-Technik. The principal technical competition is from two US companies, Vermeer Manufacturing and Charles Machines Works (Ditch Witch), who have already commissioned research into the possibility of fitting radar to HDD rigs.

The main application sectors of HDD rigs that could benefit from the unique ORFEUS HDD radar system are:
• installation of telecom cables (mainly fibre-optic), water mains, gas networks
• river, street and railway crossings, and crossing of other natural or artificial obstacles
• installation of horizontal filter wells, drainages or other geotechnical applications
• power cable laying and power cable replacement

The ORFEUS technology represents a significant advance over the current state of the art in this area of HDD utility installation. Trenchless techniques, such as HDD, are used for less than 5% of street works despite the cost advantages. A 30% increase in horizontal drilling would save 10 to 20 M cubic metres of refill materials, reducing natural resource wastage (quarries), lorry traffic, pollution and gas releases (especially carbon dioxide). TRL (2) estimated that street works cause 10% to 20% of congestion costs. If working times in the street were reduced by 10%, then social costs in Europe could be of the order of €800 million per annum less.
Taking a wider view, there are more than 20 M miles (approximately 32 M km) of underground utilities in the United States (3). It is also estimated that, worldwide, 483,000 km of underground utilities are installed annually with a market value of over $35billion (4). This estimate is almost certainly conservative given the increasing level of fibre optic cable networks being installed.

The environmental and economic impacts of the ORFEUS technology are several and significant. Trenchless techniques, such as HDD, are used for less than 5% of street works despite the cost advantages. A 30% increase in horizontal drilling would save 10 to 20 M cubic metres of refill materials, reducing natural resource wastage (quarries), lorry traffic, pollution and gas releases (especially carbon dioxide). TRL (5) estimated that street works cause 10% to 20% of congestion costs. If working times in the street were reduced by 10%, then social costs in Europe could be of the order of €800 million per annum less.

Furthermore, car numbers in Europe have trebled in thirty years. The traffic congestion costs in the UK are estimated to rise from €18.7Bn in 2013 to €30.5 Bn (6) in 2030, including 600,000 road-works each year in London, with an average duration of 3 to 4 days (7). London became Europe’s most congested city in 2014 with drivers spending 96 hours in traffic in that year (8). Congestion costs Europe about 1% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) every year (9). The annual cost of traffic congestion in the EU15 in 2010 was estimated at €80,000,000,000 (10).The problem’s scale is illustrated by the estimates of pipeline lengths (drinking water and sewers). The total length, summed over the same countries, varies between 1.5 and 2.5M km (11). There was 2,210,677 km of gas mains pipes in the EU28 countries in 2013 (12). In the UK, the cost of rehabilitation and maintenance of these assets was €3.6M from 2005 to 2009, and is estimated to have increased to €4.2M in the period 2010 to 2014 (13). It is estimated that the cost incurred when damaging one fibre optic cable can be as high as €700,000 (14) , however, this may be the upper limit, with damage to domestic cables probably costing between €7,000 and €141,000 (15).

The ORFEUS project has been highly successful and the final optimisation of the technology before product launch into the European and US markets has the potential to deliver major economic and environmental impacts within these global economic areas.

1. Initiative BalSiBau 2002
2. Transport Research Laboratory, UK
4. No-Dig 2000 p.1 The Expanding Role of Trenchless Technology in Underground Construction, Prof. Raymond L. Sterling, Professor and Director, Trenchless Technology Center Louisiana Tech University)
5. Transport Research Laboratory, UK
6. Traffic Congestion to Cost the UK Economy More Than £300 Billion Over the Next 16 Years (
7. ETC 2010, Economic impact of road works, K. Arter et al
8. Key Findings: Urban Mobility Scorecard Annual Report,
9. MPACT ASSESSMENT, Appendix 5 of the Impact Assessment accompanying the White Paper, SEC(2011) 358)
10. Data supplied by the European Street Works Research Advisory Council (ESWRAC)
11. EUREAU pipeline data
12. Data supplied by the European Street Works Research Advisory Council (ESWRAC)
13. OFWAT data on rehabilitation spending, private communication
14. Data supplied by the European Street Works Research Advisory Council (ESWRAC)
15. Comment from Peterborough, Ontario Telephone Company

Project Results:
Work Package 1
Work Package Title: Bore-head radar prototype

WP1 addresses the hardware development for the sensing system (Bore-head radar); the work is divided in the following 6 tasks.
• Task 1.1 Bore-head radar prototype functional requirements (Task leader IDS – Contribution by TT and OSYS)
• Task 1.2 Bore-head radar antenna (Task leader IDS – Contribution by TT and FE)
• Task 1.3 Tilt angle measuring device (Task leader FE – Contribution by IDS)
• Task 1.4 Ruggedisation of electronics (Task leader FE – Contribution by IDS)
• Task 1.5 Mechanical/Electrical interfaces (Task leader IDS – Contribution by TT and FE)
• Task 1.6 Laboratory Testing (Task leader IDS – Contribution by TT, FE)

ORFEUS WP1 focuses on the design and development of the hardware to be installed in the HDD rig featuring the detection of objects close to the drilling trajectory. Data produced by the equipment developed in this work package are intended to be used and processed by the software developed in the ORFEUS Work Package 2. The Work Package was completed at month 15 with the final delivery of the system’s components to be integrated and tested in the framework of Work Package 4.

Task 1.1 Bore-head radar prototype functional requirements
This task was completed during the first reporting period and provided the specification requirements for the system.

Task 1.2 Bore-head radar antenna
This task was completed and included the completion of the antenna manufacturing according to the design and specification from task 1.1. Results of tests executed in Work Package 4 suggested, however, a modification of the design as explained in the WP4 report and this was executed in parallel with integration activities.

Task 1.3 Tilt angle measuring device
This task was completed and has been fully tested.

Task 1.4 Ruggedisation of electronics
This task was completed and has been fully tested.

Task 1.5 Mechanical/Electrical interfaces
This task was completed and fully tested.

Task 1.6 Laboratory Testing
This task was aimed at laboratory testing of the main sub-systems of the bore-head GPR, whose specifications were established during task 1.1 (see ORFEUS deliverable D1.7). The overall architecture of the system, however, was modified and the antenna hosted in the drilling head eliminated; this was decided after an extensive study demonstrated the possibility of detecting all the objects close to the drilling path with one antenna, possessing the appropriate radiating characteristics, hosted in an housing placed on the first drilling rod screwed to the drilling head. The removal of the front antenna was considered important to the design of the final system; because the bore-head is a disposable item and any electronics mounted there will complicate the maintenance of the system, and be unnecessarily expensive. During this task, performance of the following sub-systems were measured and compared to the expected values:
• a transmitting and receiving UWB antennas hosted in mockup of the the drill rod
• the microwave source and receiver for such antennas
• the radar control board, including
o the timing circuit for controlling the circuitry of the antenna
o the A/D conversion circuitry
o a microprocessor
o the interface circuitry to the modem to be developed in the framework of Work-Package 3.
o the power supply module for generating all the voltages, and currents, needed by the electronics
• the tilt angle sensor.

Laboratory measurements demonstrated the fulfilment of the design objectives in terms of performance and expected features; results are described in detail in ORFEUS deliverable D1.11 that was released at the end of Work Package 1 (month 15).

Work Package Number: 2
Work Package Title: Bore-head radar software

WP2 concerned the development of the software implementing the data processing algorithms and the man-machine interface. This required the definition of operative scenarios in terms of targets characteristics and layout and the intensive use of electromagnetic modelling for selecting amongst possible alternatives. In detail the objectives of this package were:

• Development of the most suitable processing algorithms, including the definition of the strategy to perform the automatic detection of targets and automatically generate a warning
• Design and implementation of the data collection and real-time display software capable to generate such warning when the drilling head is at a safe distance from obstacles.
• Design and implementation of a suitable man-machine interface also by considering the required training level and education for the operators of the system.

WP2 addressed the design and development of the software for the ORFEUS bore-head radar. The main task for this software is the collection and real time processing of data produced by the radar. It also included the operator interface and suitable graphics for representing the position of detected objects in an easy-to-understand mode. This development was a crucial task for ORFEUS as the software is the main interface between the operator and the machine. WP2 aimed at enhancing the capability of generating an exhaustive representation of the underground scenario, easily interpretable by a non-expert user that has to interpret this information in order to avoid collisions and damage to underground utilities. Development of a suitable detection algorithm has led to the conclusion that all of the required information could be provided by a single antenna mounted on the drilling rod closest to the head and featuring a tilted beam. This design development has allowed the simplification of the hardware design as explained in the WP1 report.

Task 2.1 Software functional requirements
This task was completed at the end of the month 3 from the beginning of the project and led to the on-time delivery of document D2.8 (“Bore-head Radar Software Requirements”) that listed all the key features the new software should provide.

Task 2.2 Data processing and techniques
This task was completed at the end of month 12 and activities were reported in the first Interim Report of the project. As anticipated, development activities continued during the whole course of the trial period, in order to adjust the parameters used by the data processing algorithms. Those activities are described in the relevant paragraph of this document.

Task 2.3 Data Collection and Display Software
This task was completed by month 12. Main objective for this task was the development of a display module that had to accomplish the ultimate goal to generate an exhaustive representation of the underground scenario, easily interpretable from a non-expert user. This initially led to the selection of a 3-D representation of the scenario by using polar coordinates as the best method to display data collected by the system; the feedbacks from the trial period, however, highlighted that a 2-D representation is the preferred method for the drilling operators (see report for Work Package 5), so that some activities were executed also after the expected end of the work package.

Task 2.4 Man-machine interface
The final man-machine interface was available at the end of month 15 as scheduled; it had to assure a good interaction between the operator and the system, enabling the effective operation and control of the machine as well as implementing tools which aid the operator in making operational decisions. The software was finally available at the end of month 15 (ORFEUS deliverable D2.12).

Work Package Number: 3
Work Package Title: Drill String Communications and connector prototypes

1. The characterisation of the communications and power circuit within the drill string. The work includes collaboration between TT and OSYS on the inter-section drill rod connectors and associated slip rings.
2. Design and ruggedisation of the drill tip and drill rig modems based on the principles of the previous, proven spread-spectrum communications and power transmission system as successfully prototyped in ORFEUS1.
3. The performance of small scale and large scale lab testing and integration tests prior to deployment in full operational prototype.

The Drill String Communications work concentrated on building a deliverable end-to-end system that can deliver power to the radar at the drill head, and to carry data from the radar to the above- ground systems. This included mechanical re-design of the modem body to accommodate changes requested by Tracto-Technik, modifications to the interconnections between the modem, radar and drill rods.

The Communications link is a component of the overall radar system that delivers data transfer and power supply services from the surface to the equipment located at the drill tip.
It consists of:
• Equipment at the surface
o A modem to connect the operator’s computer to the drill string transmission line
o A power supply to deliver power to the drill string transmission line
o A slip ring system to interface the stationary surface system to the rotating drill string
• Communications module at the drill head
o A modem to connect the radar system to the drill string transmission line
o A unit to receive power transmitted along the drill string, and convert it into the various voltages required by the modem and radar system
• In between
o The drill string consisting of multiple drill rods
o Coaxial transmission lines, with connectors, built into each individual drill rod

Task 3.1 Drill communications functional requirements
(Task leader OSYS – Contributions from TT and IDS)
This task was completed and the system has undergone extensive testing.

Task 3.2 Bore-head drill string circuit characterisation
(Task Leader OSYS – Contribution from TT)
The main characterisation was completed in Period 1; it focused on the achievement of a good DC performance and reliable inter-rod connection systems and was reported in the Period 1 report. A full in-service drill string with a final design modem system was not available until period 2. In period 2, therefore the nature of the DC characteristics observed in Period 1 were compared with the achieved data rate achieved by the final design modem in period 2.

In summary, the data performance and the DC performance of the drill rods correlate well. A bad connection as noted by anomalous values in the DC power also relate to a drop in data performance. In addition to a steady increase in series resistance as rods are added, a reduction in available bandwidth is noted due to the poor HF performance of the rods being used as a ‘coaxial cable’. (see the report on the field trials below). In order to simulate worst cases scenarios in lab tests at OSYS, a test jig was devised using between zero and 350 metres of cable (in 50 metre steps) and an additional ‘lumped attenuator’ which allowed an approximation of the drill string to be simulated in the lab for tests prior to delivery/integration. During the period, TT also carried out work to optimise the rod-joint spring, sleeve, cleaning and lubrication. All these tasks improved the consistency and reliability of the electrical characteristics of the rod system considerably.

Task 3.3 Electronic design of communications system
(Task Leader OSYS – Contribution from TT)

The communications module
The design of the digital signal processing (the heart of the modem system) was changed significantly. The initial design plans for this project relied on the adoption of a tried and tested spread spectrum system that was based on a direct evolution (using later generation chips) of the system proved in ORFEUS1.

At the commencement of this (ORFEUS2) project the advice of the technical representatives of the DSP (Digital Signal Processor) spread spectrum chip designers (a large telecommunications chip manufacturer)was sought, and they advised the use of a different chipset that was said to be more suited to industrial low-rate and high reliability applications.

It was further proposed that a specific model of ARM architecture microprocessor chip would be a suitable interface chip to connect the DSP to the radar.. The design continued using these items, with a miniature and complex 8 layer PCB being needed at the drill tip to accommodate these components. This advice proved to be unsatisfactory. The interface drivers between the two chips were not supplied by the manufacturers, the ARM chip was side-lined by the makers in favour of a newer design, and the data interface could not be achieved despite considerable effort and seeking independent advice.

The consequent abandonment of that strategy as flawed and now-unsupported by the chip suppliers, necessitated a return to the original design strategy. A complete redesign/build of the modem part of the project, and then subsequent testing was necessary.

Resorting to the original strategy has proved extremely successful. Although a project delay of (Extension) of 6 months and the associated work was truly challenging, the outcome has been a working communications and power system, to the original concept, which has met all expectations, and at the end of the project and field trials remains fully functional. The detail of this is all contained in the more detailed technical reports already submitted.

The same drill-tip communications module was used in the preliminary trials at Lennestadt and in all subsequent operations. The other two modem modules manufactured as spare parts, have not so far been needed.

The in-cab unit
Initial pre-demonstration trials in Lennestadt used a mixture of the old and the new DSP technologies described above. A limitation in range was noted and remedial strategies were invokedat OSYS and additional equipment produced that could be applied mid-trial if necessary to improve the DSP performance

The trial in Stuttgart, , confirmed the anticipated limitation, and led to the only equipment change, during the trials programme, where the modem, based upon the upgraded DSP chip, in the in-cab unit, was substituted to improve compatibility and performance.

After confirmation of the benefits of that approach, and after tests, all in-cab units were modified to be fully compatible using a near-identical DSP chipset to that at the drill tip. All subsequent field trials used the modified design.

To assess performance of the overall communications link, a measurement strategy was refined and extended as field trials experience was accumulated. In initial trials the following parameters were measured, and logged:
• communications ‘pings’ to the radar
• power delivered to the drill rods
• data and DSP performance

Any sharp step increases in current in the drill rods towards the theoretical maximum in our model were noted, referred to the drill operator, and rods changed if it was suspected that a new rod had a bad connector.

As trials progressed, power and data performance logs were recorded for each operation, and the time between trials was used by OSYS to develop and implement, new software to obtain display and log additional test data.

Task 3.4 Mechanical design and prototype build
(Task leader TT – Contribution from OSYS)

Design of the connectors for the communication system
The design work was completed, and reported, in Period 1. The object of the task being to produce a simple electrical connector that mates automatically when the rods are screwed to produce a reliable contact when multiple connectors are used under vibration, and when immersed in an environment of Bentonite slurry and water at high pressure. The accumulated shunt and series resistance of the multiple connectors, over 100 metres, or more, should provide reliable transmission of data and power. The springs need to be consistent and to a good finish to avoid snagging/breakage during assembly and disassembly.

Drill rod centre cable.
The conductor running along the centre line of the drill rod needs to have low dielectric loss at frequencies up to 30 MHz. The cable used is a rigid glass fibre structure with a heavy copper conductor at the centre. This rigid construction allows ease of assembly, as the cable can be inserted, with its connector fitted, into the drill rod and then fastened to its retaining disk at each end of the rod section.

During the project, damage had been observed on the outer sleeve where the cable was crimped. To avoid this, the crimping process was refined so that arrangement that holds the centre conductor and glass fibre in place was optimised to grip the conductor tightly, but without damage. The process is now reliable and repeatable, and has been used to build many rods to provide drill string lengths of up to 200 metre of stock rods.

After repeated field operations in Germany, Paris, and Slovenia very good power and data performance at, up to, 100 metres were achieved. The 100 metres was not a limitation, but simply the extent of the planned run. At 100 metres the communications and power system continued to work at more-than-adequate data rates and power levels.

Slip ring. The slip rings must transmit data and power reliably, and the complete assembly has to operate at voltages in the range of 48 volts and with a dynamically configured data spectrum in the range up to 30 MHz. The slip ring assembly is mounted at the drill rig end, and has a spring loaded brush bearing on an insulated brass collar. Although, as previously reported, there are the options of changing the brush number and pressure, in practice this proved unnecessary. In all field operations so far the slip rings have performed well, and a separate set of slip rings were manufactured and were successfully mounted, and then used, on a rig belonging to Vilkograd in Slovenia.

Task 3.5 Laboratory Testing
(Task leader TT – Contributions from TT and IDS)

Drill rod mechanical performance and damage/deterioration in environment
2 drill rods with the connectors inside were connected and disconnected by a drill rig over 500 times. Result: no damage of the connector arrangement.

Extension of testing of connectors in Field Trials
During period 2 of the project the connectors were tested in field operations and their design was refined by a series of modifications and procedural changes. It has been shown that the rod system performs well at 100 metres and has the potential to achieve greater lengths. Drill string performance can now be measured and faulty rods eliminated before they are used. Further development will concentrate on the repeatability of manufacture, cleaning, diagnostic displays, and automatic greasing.

As described above OSYS provided a data logging system and software to allow current and voltage and also a system to measure the data link performance. The electrical performance is reported by OSYS elsewhere in this document.

Corrosion of the connectors due to electrolytic action continued to be managed by cleaning the connectors before they are mated. For the trials, this was a manual process before drilling but an automated ‘clean’ process will be needed for a commercial product. Corrosion remains an important issue and is a potential cause of communication failure. The cleaning process and refinements in the manufacture and the quality and finish of the spring have been important to make the rod connection automatic and repeatable, as reported in the data communications section of this report.

Conclusions on the connector development in Period 2
The connector development in ORFEUS has provided a system that can reliably connect data and power over 100 meters of rods and facilitates fully automatic connection. Measurements and logging of current, voltage, and data performance allow the identification of faulty rods which can then be removed before insertion into the drill string. During all field trial operations, rods were occasionally identified that had deteriorated and these were removed before they caused a problem. Once mated the connectors were very consistent and reliable in field use. The refinement and production control of the assembly and consistent manufacturing process is critical, as it post-operation cleaning.

Task 3.6 Post Integration Review
(Task leader OSYS – Contributions from TT and IDS)

Field trials results
Stuttgart Trial:
Initially the system performed well. It delivered consistent ‘pings’ of 5 mS (or less) between the in cab unit and the radar, and a data rate far exceeding the requirement of the radar(which requires 3.3 Mbps whereas the modem headroom showed a capability of over 90Mbps).

At approximately 60 metres (~20 drill rods) a change was noted where pings to the radar were erratic, and radar performance became compromised. Investigations indicated that the communications channel was deteriorating. The drilling run was temporarily halted and a modification to the in-cab unit introduced to insert a upgraded DSP module that had been prepared previously and described above. (see photograph) The change removed the need for the system to be run in compatibility mode, and allowed the full features of the chipset to be exploited and monitored.

As anticipated, radar communications and pings were then restored, and a significant margin of data rate headroom noted (circa 20 Mbps) in the channel predicted bandwidth at 60 metres. The operation then continued. It should be noted that in the laboratory OSYS had introduced a test rig that allowed incremental cable lengths of 50 metres to be added and lumped attenuation. The strategy of adoption a change of modem hardware in the in-cab unit had been simulated in the lab using this test rig, so that the mid-operation modem change carried out at Stuttgart had been fully simulated and verified at OSYS before the trial.

The limitation of communications using the compatibility mode was not predicted by the chip manufacturer’s data, where the use of ‘ROBO’ robust mode in the compatibility configuration was supposed to provide increased range, however, as suspected by OSYS this proved not to be the case. From this outcome the following was implemented by OSYS before the next trials:
• The in-cab units were all rebuilt to incorporate QCA/INT6000 based DSP modules
• An Ethernet switch was introduced within all three of the in cab units to allow parallel monitoring of the DSP system whilst also allowing the radar system to communicate.
• The revised and upgraded in-cab units were tested in the lab with simulated drill string and over 400 metres of test cable (in these tests the range limitation noted in laboratory simulation was at circa 350 metres).
• significant improvement in available bandwidth were noted in the lab tests at shorter lengths (under 100 metres) as both ends of the link now benefited from using a similar strategy for optimising communications as the link performance degraded.

Stuttgart Trial Conclusions
The trial at Stuttgart showed that the communications and power system performed well and had adequate robustness for field trial service. It reliably supplied 12 volts DC to the radar and communications, however, the limitations at about 60 metres were anticipated and overcome by introducing a new in-cab modem to allow the trial to proceed and permanent solutions implemented subsequently as a consequence.

Power systems monitoring confirmed that drill currents in the operating range 200 to 300 mA are to be expected, and that current levels exceeding 300 mA indicate a fault condition in the drill rods that must be resolved before drilling can proceed further.

Paris Trial:
The trial involved horizontal drilling over a length of approximately 70 metres to install a PE water pipe. The environment was urban high density housing/flats with a considerable amount of, active, legacy and also abandoned, buried utilities present throughout the route.

The current and voltage were monitored in the same manner to all the trials reported here, using a proprietary data logger (This logger is part of the standard OSYS in-cab unit) and Panasonic Toughbook and also a calibrated Fluke DVM/Multimeter as corroboration of the data. The data rates were monitored using a software utility driven from OSYS and its output saved on a Toshiba Netbook.

In general, in this operation, the current delivered along the drill string was consistent, maintained within design levels, increasing slightly, as expected, as rods, and their associated, resistance were added; in one case a rod with anomalous current was swapped out being replaced with a good rod. The team were successfully able to assess new rods as they were added, and in every case, rods below standard eliminated and marked for later factory refurbishment.

The only failure in communications came within one rod length of the end of the operation, directly after extremely aggressive (high shock) drilling had been needed to pass (or cut through) an obstruction (concrete or rock) Initially it was thought that the modem had failed, however subsequent tests showed the failure was more likely to have been associated with a damaged rod connector which could have been eliminated using the tests referred to above.

Paris trial - In summary:
The data below has been extracted as typical from thousands of log file records. Up to approximately 95% of the run the data rate showed a gentle and near-linear deterioration with distance as might be expected. The radar ‘ping’ was consistent with the way the modem system operates {data (provided the error rate is low) is always transferred within a proportion of the 10 mS data frame so a return ping of 3mS or 4mS would be normal). At the end of the run an obstacle (probably concrete) was encountered and punched through by aggressive drilling. At this point the system failed, but later investigation showed that the failure was that of an inter rod connector, the diagnostics confirming this by showing anomalous curretnts.

The final drill rod was completed, the power disconnected, and the PE water pipe successfully drawn in ready for service.

After the operation was completed the drill head was returned to IDS in Pisa for inspection. It had been thought that the data and power failure at the end of this trial could be a failure in the modem and power module. Bench tests of the integrated system, however, showed that it was working correctly. IDS referred to OSYS for confirmation of their findings, and after further bench tests it was concluded that the failure was in the drill rod connector system.

The decision was made to continue to use same communications module and radar in the demonstrations planned for Slovenia. Although there was a full spare system available, and sufficient parts to make a third unit, there was no requirement to do so. To the end of this trial the drill head electronic systems had proved robust and remained fully functional. The final tests in Slovenia, using exactly the same equipment, would be used for a full analysis of a wider range of power and communication performance parameters.

Slovenia Trial:
The communications performance and the power system performance were monitored using OSYS developed software and proprietary logging software additional features had been added since Paris to collect additional data. The data below records contemporaneous notes taken at the time of the trial and the conclusions also draw from the logged data files.

The trials in Slovenia, for the first time, required a drill rig from a TT customer to be used in place of the TT equipment deployed at the earlier job sites. Before use, the drill rig needed modification, and setup, with the special equipment required to service the radar system.

Under the management of Vilkograd, the tests were divided into a two stages, carried out on consecutive days. On the first day, the modified drill rig and radar system was commissioned, and tested, at a prepared job site close to the headquarters of Vilkograd. The following day, the system was used to assist in laying a new pipe, 85 metres in length, in a planned operation near to the highway exit – AC Dramlje. Electrical and optical cables were known to be present in this area.

The purpose of the operation was a renewal of the water supply network with installation of a PEHD water pipe, SDR17, 160mm diameter. At this job site it was difficult to find all the known pipes and cables due to the difference in depth between the pilot hole and the buried infrastructure, and the nature of the waterlogged clay ground conditions. At the end of the drill path, however a cable could be detected.

The report centres on the formal field trial on the 5th August in a live commercial ‘Vilkograd’ operation to insert a new water pipe under a public road in Slovenia near the town of Celje. To ensure a smooth operation, on the preceding day, (4th August) the ORFEUS team carried out a test drilling in a test field to ensure that the commercial job went to plan, which it did.

Drill current and voltage monitoring
The power to the remote modem is delivered at 48v and both current and voltage are logged. What has now been observed, through three demonstration operations, and the preceding characterisation and commissioning tests, is that the drill current is a good indicator of operational health of both communications and of the power to the radar. Although the small additional loop resistance introduced per drill rod causes the current to rise as a function of distance, any sharp increase or decrease in current indicates a faulty inter-rod connector.

Conclusions from Slovenia operational trial
The communications and power system worked very well during the demonstration in Slovenia, as shown in the data in this report. The drill head modem and power unit equipment was as used in all three demonstrations. The enhanced diagnostic software and available information now logged vast range of data including both the average gain - indicating drill line losses, and also the spectral performance of the line. Both sets of data and the software tools developed are valuable and will assist in optimising future production systems to a range significantly exceeding 100 metres.

There is a need for further optimisation of the drill rod connectors, and an opportunity to reassess the drill rig wiring to reduce losses and increase range.

Basic diagnostic information on signal losses and line current are again shown to give an early indication of defective rod connectors, and allows avoiding action to be taken to remove them from service.

Live radar data rates and radar power consumption were confirmed by measurement in service, and provide design parameters for optimising the communications and power production system specification and product design.

Work Package 4
Work Package Title: System integration and laboratory tests

WP4 addresses the integration of the system prototype and the execution of tests in controlled environment (laboratory). In detail, the objectives of this package are:
• Task 4.1 Integration of the system prototype (Task leader IDS – Contribution by TT and FE)
• Task 4.2 Integration tests (Task leader IDS – Contribution by TT and FE)

The main objective for the activities described in the WP4 was the integration of the whole ORFEUS bore-head radar and the relevant integration testing. The final design of the Bore-Head Radar integrates sub-systems that have been developed in accordance with the specifications defined in ORFEUS deliverable D1.7. The integration process has been carried out step by step, the components of the system being integrated in sequence and tested separately. Here below the phases involved in the process are listed: integration of
• transmitting and receiving antennas (including electronics)
• the radar control unit with the angle measurement sensor
• the sensing unit (radar control unit, angle measurement sensor and antennas)
• the sensing unit with the modem
• the communication system with the HDD equipment

During the integration process, extensive testing in controlled conditions was executed to verify that the system performs in accordance with the specifications defined in the ORFEUS requirements. At the end of the whole system integration, further tests were carried out in a test chamber and under operational drilling conditions at Tracto Technik plant in Lennestadt (Germany).

Task 4.1 Integration of the system prototype
(Task leader IDS – Contributions from TT, OSYS and FE)

This task addresses the integration process of each system component.

The first tests on antenna integration were carried out with loaded Vee dipoles slightly inclined to look in the forward direction. The development of this antenna is described in ORFEUS deliverables D1.9 and D1.11. Between the antennas and the metallic case was placed a dissipative material to avoid interferences and reflections from the metallic material. The first experimental setup was designed to estimate, in air, the maximum angle of antenna beam-width as the elevation was varied. According to previous evaluations it was expected to be forward-tilted by about 30°. The rod was positioned, horizontally, on support trestles. A metallic pipe, horizontally-placed and acting as target, was moved, backwards and forwards, at a fixed vertical distance of about 50 cm from the rod.

Antenna design revision
The results of the experiments had suggested a revision of the antenna design. In the former ORFEUS project, a very dense magnetic absorber was used in order to dielectrically load the antenna and mask the cavity and consequently to mitigate the interaction phenomena. This magnetic absorber has the disadvantages of decreasing the antenna efficiency and leading to unreliable electrical characteristics. Therefore, it was decided to employ a loading with a material broadband absorber made from graded layers of open-cell plastic foam (in short Radio-Wave absorbing Material, RAM).

The integration in the rod was performed and the top of the antennas were potted with a resin to securely fix components and to protect them from strong vibrations

The first test carried out with the bow-tie antenna integrated into the ORFEUS rod was with the second experimental setup in order to compare the results with the ones obtained with the Vee-dipole antenna system.

The backscattered signal was well identified, even without background cancellation. With respect to the results of Vee-dipole antenna with the same experimental setup the multiple reflections and cross coupling were measurably reduced.

This has led to the final decision to continue the integration with this new design for the antenna.

The test of this new integrated-system was carried out with the following setup in the sandbox. Two different tests were performed: in the first one the ORFEUS equipment mounted in the drill rod housing was planted vertically in the middle of the sandbox and rotated from 0° to 360° in order to detect the two targets immersed in the sand which were a metallic pipe and a metallic sphere of 3 cm diameter.

The first measurements were performed to evaluate the antenna beamwidth. ORFEUS was planted vertically in the middle of the sandbox and rotated from 0° to 360° in order to detect the two targets immersed in the sand, i.e. a metallic pipe and a metallic sphere of 3 cm of diameter.

To perform measurements to evaluate the beamwidth, the sphere was moved at greater distances from ORFEUS. From the normalized power at different target distances (L), the rotation beamwidth at -10 dB is evaluated to about 100°.

The maximum power of received signal corresponds to an angle of about 15° - 20° (from the normal axis of the antenna feed point); this value is comparable to the one measured in air with the previous antenna

Stress tests of the Angular Position Sensor and the Radar Control Unit
An important requirement is the evaluation of the capabilities of the Angular Position Sensor and acquisition chain of the Radar Control Unit. These system components must survive, and function properly, during high shock and vibration conditions. As these cannot be simulated with laboratory equipment, a practical test was devised.

The serial output of the Angular Position Sensor was programmed to transmit both raw data, measured by the inertial sensors, and the roll angle estimated by the processing algorithm on board. By means of a Serial to WI-FI converter, such information was collected by a PC. At the same time the analogue signal of the roll angle acquired by the Radar Control Unit was transmitted to the PC by means of an Ethernet to WI-FI converter which was connected to the Ethernet port of the Radar Control Board.

During the first, test the bore-head was pushed whilst it was rotated at several speeds into a pre-existing hole, in a concrete block, with a diameter larger than that of the bore-head. In such conditions the bore-head was subjected to high levels of vibration. Probably such conditions should be worse than experienced in a real case, because in soil the bore-head will be pressed by the earth and the movement should be smoother than in air. It was found that the acceleration measured on the sensor board is very high in the plane orthogonal to the direction of drilling, up to 200g, and lower in the drilling direction.

The measurement of the roll angle directly measured by the Angular Position Sensor and the same information collected by the Radar Control board uncovered a problem in the algorithm for the estimation of the roll which seemed not to work properly during high shocks. However the electronics appeared to work continuously in such severe conditions because the two data sets could be superposed without dips or interruptions.

A new test was carried out using the hammering system of the HDD machine to prove the reliability of the damping system. In this case a hydraulic system pushed the bore-head to repeatedly hit the concrete block for few seconds. During the hammering, the electronics worked as expected, without dips and interruptions.

From the results of these tests it is clear that the electronic system is reliable, even in the worst operating conditions. However, there are some issues in the roll angle estimation algorithm that must be addressed.

Field operating test
Finally, in order to verify the behaviour of the Angular Position Sensor in a real operating condition, and to refine the algorithm, a field trial was carried out in Lennestadt using a Tracto-Technik drilling machine. The carbon fibre tube with electronics was assembled inside a real drill rod. The data link and power supply were implemented by a commercial modem module mounted in the drill rod near the electronics and the drill string was built with wired rods specifically designed for the ORFEUS project. The commercial modem module substituted for the communication module being designed for the ORFEUS project, which was not yet ready for these trials.

When the drill head penetrates into soft soils, the measurement of the roll angle is always accurate. When it reaches harder soil sometimes the alternative less accurate estimation method is used and errors are possible. The error appears as a discontinuity in the measurement when the shock condition disappears.

During the trials, a portion of the soil was so hard that the drill head could not go further forward. In such conditions, not having been able to use the bentonite as a lubricating and cooling liquid, the bore-head internal temperature increased very rapidly, which could be dangerous for the electronics.

All field and laboratory tests proved the effectiveness and reliability of the Angular Position Sensor in several operating conditions. When a greater accuracy in the estimation of the roll angle is required, e.g. in case of highly accurate reconstruction of the target position by means of the radar images, a good procedure may be to push or pull back the drill head, rotating it slowly, thereby avoiding high vibrations on the system.

Communications link
The communications link provides the means of transmitting data and power to and from the surface equipment to the radar system located at the drill head. This component of the system was the subject of an integration programme that ran in parallel with the activities associated with the radar system.

Drill rods and slip ring systems
Work was carried out at TT, supported by OSYS, to integrate and test the functionality, and performance, of the drill rods and their connectors and the slip ring system connecting the drill string to the stationary drill rig.

Communications module and in-cab unit
First stage integration of the communications module was carried out at OSYS to ensure that radar Ethernet data, generated by an IDS radar control unit simulator, could be reliably passed through the drill tip modem, which converted them to a spread spectrum data stream, passed along a simulated drill string, then reconverted to a standard Ethernet data steam by the surface based modem. This allowed a local area Ethernet connection to be implemented between the drill head radar system and the surface based operator’s computer.

The communications module, including its in-built power supply, and the surface based in-cab unit, including its power supply and modem, were delivered to IDS, where the integration of the radar system, including the antenna module and the mechanical components supplied by TT were completed. This activity allowed the total functionality of the system to be evaluated, and some minor wiring and earthing issues to be resolved. OSYS used a laboratory test rig comprising up to 350 metres of cable (in 50 metre increments) and lumped attenuation, to approximately simulate the losses in the drill rods so that performance could be assessed prior to delivery to IDS.

IDS delivered the integrated, functioning, system to TT, where final commissioning took place to produce the completed system. This consisted of;
• The drilling rig and slip ring system
• Special purpose connectors to pass power and data from the cab to the slip rings
• Sufficient special drill rods to provide a maximum drill string length of 100 metres
• The integrated drill head radar, modem and power supply system
• Standard position locating sonde system

Task 4.2 Integration tests
(Task Leader IDS – Contributions from TT, IDS and FE)

The whole system was integrated in an operational drilling rig and a hole was drilled in a test chamber built by Tracto-Technik near its operational headquarters in Lennestadt, Germany. The site was designed to simulate the common situations to be encountered in real drilling operations. The knowledge of both the position of the pipes and the composition of the soil permitted the evaluation of the detection capability of the GPR system mounted into the bore-head during the former ORFEUS project. The soil used for the measurements was sand and all the pipes were plastic. The dimensions of the test chamber were: length 6 m; width 3 m; height 3 m.

Communications link

Drill rods and slip ring system
Special purpose built test equipment was supplied to TT, by OSYS, including a data logger and Toughbook to allow the performance of the power transmission capabilities of the slip ring and drill rods. Tests were carried at TT’s Lennestadt facility to evaluate the series resistance and leakage current performance of the drill rod connectors when pressurised with Bentonite fluid and operating over drill string lengths of, up to, 100 metres, with the objective of assessing the ability of the drill string and surface power supply to deliver the necessary power to the radar system and communications module. As a result of these tests, design improvements were identified and implemented to improve the performance, resilience and durability of the drill rod connectors.

During the tests, the input voltage and current to the drill string, as measured at the in-cab unit, were recorded for post test review. Analysis of the data showed that the most reliable indicator of drill string performance is the current drawn at its input. Using this parameter, it is possible to identify individual rods that adversely affect the ability of the drill string to supply power to the drill tip equipment, and replace them. The principal cause of poor performance of individual drill rods was found to be excessive shunt current caused by the ingress of Bentonite fluid into the connectors. In order avoid this issue causing problems during the planned field trial work, the sleeve inside the connectors was extended.

Communications module and in-cab unit
During the operation of the drilling equipment, it is necessary periodically to interrupt the power supply to the drill head equipment as new drill rods are added to the drill string. When the operation is complete, and the new drill rod has been connected, it is necessary for the communications module (power supply and modem) to restart reliably, and quickly, to allow the resumption of radar data collection. The first activity of the integration testing of the modem was designed to evaluate the modem’s and power supply’s ability to restart after disconnection. This aspect of the communication modules behaviour was found to be acceptable, with power and communications being reliably restored within a second or two.

Results from the power supply tests, being carried out in parallel in Lennestadt, yielded data that allowed test equipment to be designed to mimic the electrical load represented by any arbitrary length of drill string up to 100 metres. This allowed the power supply performance to be assessed under laboratory conditions, and its operating envelope to be established. This was difficult to calculate because the switched mode power supplies, at each end the drill string, operate in a non-linear manner. The results from the OSYS laboratory testing, and the practical tests carried out at TT, allowed guidelines to be established for the operators to identify, and replace, faulty drill rods before they entered the ground during field trials. This proved to be essential during the demonstrations of the system under field conditions.

The lumped element test equipment, that proved satisfactory for power supply testing purposes, was inadequate for testing the modem because it could not mimic the time delay caused by a long transmission line. To progress this aspect of the test work, it was necessary to construct a delay line, consisting of several reels of commercially available cables, cascaded to provide a length of 350 metres in 50 metre steps, and with lumped attenuation added as required to represent a ‘worst case’.

Tests of communications range were being simultaneously carried out by TT in Lennestadt using a drill string composed of drill rods with clean waterproof grease filled connectors, correctly pressurised with Bentonite drill head lubricating fluid. Under these conditions, the maximum range of communications was found to be 60 metres. The tests at OSYS, using the simulated delay line confirmed the TT assessment. This range limitation was unexpected, and after investigation of the two modems, it was concluded that the in-cab modem was implemented with a chip set that was not optimised for operation with the communication module modem. Replacing the in-cab unit modem with a version compatible with the communications module modem allowed the range to be extended to 100 metre, which was the limit of the field measurement capability due to the availability of rods.

The communications link, and the radar system were successfully integrated, and this configuration was used in field trials. Feedback from the field trial work allowed system improvements to be identified and implemented in the time between demonstrations. In effect, the laboratory test work continued into the field trial phase with intensive performance monitoring both of the radar and communications link systems.

Work Package 5
Work Package Title: Operational field demonstrations

The main objectives were to produce input for the development work-packages by using the Bore-head radar prototype developed during the previous ORFEUS project (Framework Programme 6). This will include; performing Bore-head ground-probing radar demonstrations under defined demonstration site conditions and to analyse and assess the results

Test sites for the ORFEUS bore-head radar are described in terms of the required nature and configuration of the buried plant present. These include the material of construction, their type, size depth and plan position relative to each other and to identifiable reference points.
Requirements for the determination of key parameters prior to test site selection are given, including the important considerations of soil type and condition. All test work carried out in public places under the ORFEUS project must pay due regard to
• the relevant health and safety issues
• the environment,
• the general public, who may be inconvenienced by the associated street works

Operational test sites for bore-head radar testing have to be characterised in terms of:
• existing pipes and cables
• Soil conditions
• Topography
• Work permits and documentation

Task 5.1 - Proof-of-concept demonstration
(Task leader IDS – Contribution by TT, FE, GDF)
Objective of this task is the assessment of performance of side and front antennas developed in the previous ORFEUS-project. This task was programmed to be completed at the end of the month 8 from the beginning of the project; however, it has been carried out after the antenna design revision.

After the integration of the sensing unit with the antenna, the system was tested in a dedicated test site purposely built in an area close the IDS site. The objective of this setup was to test the partially-integrated ORFEUS prototype (antenna unit and angle measurement sensor) in terms of detection of a target buried inside a medium The basic idea was to pass the ORFEUS prototype through an empty plastic pipe. An artificial sandy gravel mound was built over the pipe and the whole structure was covered with a clay layer. To determine the penetration depth accuracy of the ORFEUS prototype in measuring the thickness, the interface between the sandy gravel and the clay was designed with a varying profile.

During the filling with sand, several 3 m long pipes were placed transversally with respect to the main green duct placed longitudinally:
• Metal pipe, 80 mm diameter
• Fibreglass pipe, 40 mm diameter
• Empty PVC pipe, 100 mm diameter
• Metal pipe, 160 mm diameter

The setup for testing the ORFEUS integrated sensing unit (i.e. radar control board, antenna) included:
• ORFEUS unit

• Reel with a 100 m length of cable
• USB encoder
• Wi-fi modem
• PC

The cable on the reel was directly connected to the ORFEUS unit, providing Ethernet and serial connection. Radar data coming from the GPR control unit inside the ORFEUS were transferred via Ethernet to the Wi-Fi modem, which provided the connection to the PC. The encoder was simply a wheel that measures the unrolled cable, with a digital unit producing a serial string, converting the encoded measurement into centimetres (transmitted via USB to the PC).

The objective of this test was to confirm the main working frequency and bandwidth and to evaluate internal ringing suppression and detection capability.

Standard GPR processing steps were applied when analysing data. It was possible to distinguish in the radargram not only the hyperbolic patterns generated by the buried pipes, but also the geometry of the sand-clay interfaces

Task 5.2 - Demonstration site requirements and selection
(Task leader TT – Contribution by GDF, VILK, DUB)
Soil conditions and underground-objects to be detected
The main objective of Task 5.2 is the selection of suitable sites for demonstration of the developed radar drill tip. For this purpose the sites are being characterised to allow the assessment of the Bore-head GPR in terms of
• range of soil conditions the Bore-head GPR shall operate in
• range of underground objects to be detected (material, geometry, size, position)

Selection of drill rig and equipment
HDD rigs are used for various applications with a wide range of bore rigs being available. The different drill rigs are subdivided into classes differentiated by the pulling force

Mini-Rigs are systems with a pulling force of up to 150 kN. They are suitable for installing small pipes and cables.

Midi- Rigs have a pulling force between 150 kN and 400 kN. They are used for installing small to medium-sized pipes. They are also suitable for producing small under river crossings.
For installing bigger pipes and large under river crossings Maxi Rigs with a pulling force of 400 kN – 5000 kN are suitable.

The test and demonstration sites that are part of the ORFEUS project can be executed using MIDI class drill rigs. Suitable models among others are Grundodrill 15N, Grundodrill 15XPT and Grundodrill 18 ACS. Additional to the drill rig a range of equipment is required for the test. A list of equipment has been created and circulated to the contributing partners for this task in order to check and finalise the list.

For the tests in Germany and France, a drill rig type GRUNDODRILL 15N was used. This drill rig was manufactured by the company Tracto-Technik GmbH & Co. KG in Germany.
For the test in Slovenia another drill rig of the same type was modified and used for carrying out the tests
The following technical performance data are properties of the drill rig:
Length (mm) 6290
Width min./max (mm) 2060 / 2995
Height depending on inclination (mm) 2280 - 2700
Weight incl. 210 m rods (kg) approx. 11500
Traction force (kN) 167
Pushing force (kN) 167
Max. torque (Nm 7000
Max. rotation number of the spindle (rpm) 200
Max. Bentonite pressure (bar) 80
Max. flow rate Bentonite (l/min) 160 / 320
Max. motor performance (kW) 106

Rods specially designed within the bounds of ORFEUS are used for the drilling operation. These rods are of the type TD 73 are manufactured by TRACTO-TECHNIK GmbH & Co.; they are equipped with a special internal conductor to establish electrical power and communication channels between the drill rig and the ORFEUS system at the drill head.

The drill string consists of a number of drill rods approximately 3 m in length. Each rod consists of an outer pipe for transmitting power and torque from the machine to the drill head and an internal conductor for transferring signals and electric power between the machine and the ORFEUS drill head.

The internal conductor consists of a glass fibre member in which the conductor is embedded. The internal conductors are linked by a special plug connection when the rods are screwed together

The ORFEUS system, comprising the drill head, radar antenna, radar electronics, tilt sensor and communication electronics, is situated in the front point of the drill string.

Selection of suitable sites
Following jobsites has been identified as suitable for the intended demonstrations:

Test field of TRACTO-TECHNIK GMBH & CO KG, Lennestadt
Dachswaldweg 120, 70563 Stuttgart-Vaihingen/Germany
Place Georges Braque, La Courneuve, 93120

Further information regarding these locations see below.

Task 5.3 - Demonstration on European sites
(Task Leader VILK – Contributions from GDF, TT and DUB)

Phase 1 – Germany and France
Task Leader VILK – Contribution by GDF, TT, FFE, OSYS, IDS, DUB

Part 1 Demonstration on Test site in Lennestadt 04/20/15

In WP 5.3 Part 1, the execution of a test with the complete drilling system as described in chapter 2 was planned. The aim of the test was to reassess the functionality and efficiency to allow final optimisation before implementing the intended operational job-sites, if need be.

The drill tests were carried out on the test site of the company TRACTO-TECHNIK GMBH & CO. KG in Lennestadt/Germany.

Test in wooden Test box

A wooden test box, built within the scope of the ORFEUS 1 project, was used for the first part of the test. The internal dimensions of this wooden box are 3 x 3 x 6 m.

Five plastic pipes in several defined cross positions are installed in the box. These are delineated green in the following drawing. An additional pipe (yellow) runs through the box beneath the cross pipes at a shallow angle. The pipe drawn in red was previously used for pushing an ORFEUS drill head through the box manually, which was not needed for this test. The whole box is filled up with wet sand.

During this test, the drill rig was used to rotate, and push the radar system through the box in a longitudinal direction, running beneath the cross pipes while leaving a space of 15 cm. The data from the radar system were transmitted to the receiving and evaluating units via the drill rods and the slip ring system with cable connection. Here, the data were saved and visualised.

Test on TRACTO-TECHNIK test site in Lennestadt 04/21/15
The test on the Tracto-Technik test site was aimed at confirming the system behaviour in situations that were as close as possible to those that would be encountered under real operating conditions in the later stages of the field trials programme, The following points required special considerations:

• mechanical stability of the housings, drill rods including internal conductor and the slip ring system
• resistance of the electric and radar components towards vibration and shock in the process of drilling
• impermeability of all components against drilling fluid penetration
• quality and speed of data transfer from the radar system to the evaluation unit
• quality of radar measurements in reference to speed and precision
• quality of results of the evaluation software for radar measurements
• quality and suitability of the visualising software for the practical use

Test arrangement
A test track for the test with varying objects was prepared, their exact dimensions, material and position being well-known.

The following objects were selected:
• Metallic pipe OD 170 mm
• PVC pipe OD 110 mm
• Hole filled with sand D 100 mm
• Aluminium pipe 20 x 40 mm
• Copper pipe OD 35 mm
• Hole, empty D 100 mm

The objects were consecutively installed vertically in the soil of the drill path, one after the other, and covered with sand.

During the test, the ORFEUS radar drill head was used to drill into the soil, maintaining a clearance of 0.5 m from the installed objects and a depth of approx. 1 m beneath the surface.

Soil conditions
Lennestadt is located in the Rhenisch Shale mountains, a low mountain region in the very western part of Germany. The shale mountains are mainly of Devonian Age, and the geology is determined by hard shales, some greywacke layers between and some reefal limestone stocks between. The landscape and the valleys (and Gleierbrück is a location in the Lenne Valley) is determined by the shale. This shale has a maximal compressive strength of 140 MPa, by weathering the shale gets loose in form of split and cornered shale stones. In a valley ground, loam from the weathering process is collected below the meadows. The loam cover is 1 - 2m in thickness, then loose shale stones are following in the ground. The compact unweathered shale is to be found in the valley ground of Gleierbrück in a depth between 3 - 5 Meters.

Process of drilling
The objects were by-passed, leaving a lateral space of 50 cm at a depth of 100 cm.

Part 2 Demonstration on Site in Stuttgart/Germany 06/05/15
Within the bounds of WP 5 Task 5.3 Part 2, the plan was to execute a job site in Germany under authentic conditions.
TRACTO-TECHNIK contacted other enterprises to find suitable partners for job sites. The company Leonhard Weiss agreed to carry out a job site project using the ORFEUS technology.
Leonhard Weiss GmbH & Co. KG is a German contractor. The headquarters of the company are in Satteldorf in Germany. A total of approx. 4200 employees work for the company. One division of the company is concerned with horizontal fluid-assisted drilling.
The company Lenonhard Weiss was commissioned by its customer, the company EnBW (Energy Baden-Württemberg) to install a protection pipe for a gas line. This assignment was carried out within the scope of the ORFEUS project by Tracto-Technik.
Data of the drilling operation:
Address: Dachswaldweg 120, 70563 Stuttgart-Vaihingen/Germany
Pipe intended for the installation: protection pipe for a gas line 160 x 14.6 mm
Length of the drill path: approx. 65 m
Installation depth beneath the surface: 0.90 – 1.60 m

Preparation of jobsite
In the course of job site preparations, elaborate survey measurements in the surroundings of the job site were carried out. The drill path at issue was planned in detail. All already existing lines in the vicinity of the planned new line were investigated and added to the drill path plan.
In the course of the drill path, three obstacles are crossed:
18 m after the start (obstacle 1): sewer, 1.70 m in diameter, top edge1.30 m beneath
the road surface
38.5 m after the start (obstacle 2): bundle consisting of four pipes, bottom edge of the bundle 0.9 m beneath the road surface. This bundle was additionally installed by the company Leonhard Weiss.
49.5 m after the start (obstacle 3): power supply line upper edge 0.80 m beneath the road surface

Soil conditions
Stuttgart is located in a region of a large Triassic outcrop belt, extending diagonally through South Germany. Stratiform layers of the Upper Triassic, the so called "Keuper", determine the geology of the city area. Stuttgart has large topographic differences (more than 200 m in the city). The Keuper is differentiated in alternating layers of sandstone zones and marl zones, so on the slope areas of the city, sandstone rocks and marl sequences (soft ground) are alternating.

In the "Dachswaldweg", a marl zone, the so called "Knollenmergel" in the upper Middle Keuper is directly below the street basement (in this case 2 street basements are overlaying) ground determing. The "Knollenmergel" is a high clay containing marl, even with a content of swelling clay minerals. So for construction works, this zone can get critical for creeping and sliding effects during strong water contact. The borehole had to be protected against swelling effects. For the radar signals of the ORFEUS-drill head, it is a difficult and "absorbing" ground. But, as to be seen during the test, the ORFEUS-system shows even a high resolution and penetration effectivity even in such ground conditions.

Process of drilling
The aim was to install the pipe at a depth of 0.9 - 1.6 m. In the course of drilling, the crew frequently encountered unexpected obstacles like concrete boulders etc. This indicates that the remains of an old road might be lying beneath the contemporary road surface. As a result, the intended drill path could not always be followed as planned. Target 1 was passed with a distance larger than 50 cm, that is the maximum radar detection range. Target 2 was passed with the intended interspace. Target 3 had to be under-crossed at a very great depth, and ultimately it was not possible to track it with the radar.

Part 3 Demonstration on Site in Paris/France
Within the bounds of WP 5 Task 5.3 Part 2, the plan was to execute a job site in France under authentic conditions. The company Gas de France took over the task of tagging a suitable measure. They opted for a building measure in La Courneuve in the fringe area of Paris. The task was to install a PE pipe with an outer diameter of 125 mm. The installation of the pipe was carried out by order of the subcontractors of Gas de France, the company BIR, by the Tracto-Technik company.
Data of the drilling operation:
Address: Place Georges Braque, La Courneuve, 93120
Pipe intended for the installation: pipe for a water line 125 x 12.5 mm
Length of the bore: approx. 75 m
Installation depth beneath the surface: approx. 1.60 m

Preparation of jobsite
The measurement to be carried out was part of a voluminous rehabilitation project. Elaborate research and surveys took place in the run-up. From the information in existing maps and the results of the specific survey with surface radar, a detailed layout of the site was drawn up.

At six different locations along the bore course, pits were excavated to clarify the exact position of the existing infrastructure.

Soil conditions
The test site is located in a geological basin of sedimentary rocks in suburb of Paris known as La Courneuve.

According to geological maps of this area, the soil of the test site consists of old alluvial deposits and lower of gypsum marls (upper Bartonien (Ludien)).

The old alluvial deposits (sand, gravels and silt originates from water from a nearby. (Cf. Map and notice geological Paris XXIII-14 BRGM)

The ORFEUS drilling was located in this clayey sand, with pebble benches and beds of gravel and sand. La Courneuve is a large and densely populated area, with significant of development having been carried out over the last 50 years. Consequently, there is now 2 to 3 metres of surface cover consisting of backfill, containing sand and gravel with a small amount of clay.

Process of drilling
The equipment used for the tests was identical with the equipment applied in Stuttgart.

Drilling was performed according to the drill plan in close agreement with the customer. A significant challenge was posed by the high density and the small distances between the buried pipes and cables present.

The objects were crossed beneath or above, leaving only very little space in between (sometimes only 20 cm).

The greatest difficulties arose when unknown obstacles had to be drilled through. These were probably the remains of old basement walls.

The pilot bore was carried out in close coordination with the customer on site.

48 m after starting to drill, a property service water line was damaged. It was necessary to stop drilling so the water line could be repaired. This line, which was not charted in the plans, were detected by the ORFEUS system. Due to a communication error, however, between the ORFEUS team and the drilling crew, the drilling progress was not stopped in time. After the repair of the line, the pilot bore continued.

The next interruption occurred after 66 m of the pilot bore. Here, the ORFEUS system identified a further obstacle not included in the plans. The drilling course was stopped and a search pit was established beside the bore section. The tracking system had actually discovered a power cable which was not drawn in the plans. The drilling operation continued without damaging the cable

Task 5.4 – Demonstration on European sites
(Task Leader VILK – Contribution by GDF, TT, FFE, OSYS, IDS, DUB)

Phase 2 – Slovenia
Demonstration on Site in Sentjur/Slovenia
Preparation of jobsite
Organised by the company Vilkograd, a ‘User’ participant in the ORFEUS project, the final field testing was carried out at two locations identified by the company. The test fields were selected on the basis of the determination of credible results that can be expected at this stage of the project. The first test was performed on August 4th 2015 on a grassy plot near the headquarters of the company, the second test took place on the following day, August 5th, at a location close to the motorway exit – AC Dramlje
Preparation of test field at Vilkograd
The length of the HDD test drilling on the test field at the Vilkograd site was 69.5 m from the point of entry. Electric power and telephone cables cross the trajectory of the HDD test path. A power cable ran 100 cm deep, while a telephone cable was installed at a depth of 80 cm beneath the surface of the terrain. Both cables were excavated before drilling to determine their exact positions.

On the test site, several »dead« buried utilities were also present (HDPE and cast iron pipes). The depth of these conduits were at depths that were approximately the same as the existing power and telephone lines.

In the direction of the HDD operation, the first pre-installed cable was located at a depth of 70 cm, the second at 150 cm, a third at 120 cm, the fourth and fifth are »live« cables, and the sixth pre-installed cable was located 80 cm beneath the surface of the slightly rising terrain on site. (Annex - situation and section). The entry point of the drilling head is also the starting pit that had dimensions of approximately 2 x 1 x 1.5 m. In this pit, the drilling mud was collected while the test drilling was in process.

Preparation of test field at Dramlje
The length of the HDD test drilling hole on the test field AC Dramlje was 85 m, measured from the point of entry. Electric power and optical cables already ran parallel to and across the trajectory of the HDD test path. The objective of the drilling operation was the renewal of the water supply network; the old pipes were to be replaced by HDPE water pipe, SDR17, fi 160 mm. The HDD path crossed two electric power cables (red line) and 1 optical cable (orange line). The final section of the drill hole ran parallel to the optical cable over a length of, approximately, 30 m. The electric power cable was located at a depth of, approximately, 80 cm, while the optical cable ran approximately 100 - 110 cm beneath the surface of the existing terrain.

The test field was adapted to the existing utility lines and maintained an axial clearance of a minimum of 50 cm. The existing supply lines shall be excavated before drilling to determine their exact position. The entry point of the drilling head is also the starting pit with dimensions of approx. 2 x 1 x 1.5 m. This pit was used for collecting the drilling mud during the drilling process.

At both locations of the test field, the drill rig consists of the following equipment:
• Drill rig Grundodrill 15 N
• Special drill rods with sonde housing for ground radar and standard drill head
• Mixing system for drilling fluid
• Tracking system
• System for monitoring ground radar
• Pavilion with table and bench

Soil Conditions

The geological geo-mechanical soil composition at the location of the test field Vilkograd
According to geological maps of the Republic of Slovenia, the soil at the test field Vilkograd consists of Miocene marl sediments. In the upper horizon, the soil is covered with thicker (valleys) or thinner (hills) layers of weathered marl and sand in the form of mostly heavy kneading semi-silty clay soils. The valley plains are fundamental and sandy clay soils, mainly of medium wrought consistency, while the composition of the sand layers is slightly solid.
The test site Vilkograd is situated on a gently sloping hillside in north-western direction of the upper part of the lower hill. Looking at the micro-location of the test site, weathered clay soil is found in the outer layers extending to a depth of approx. 1 - 2 m beneath the surface of the terrain. The basic soil - Miocene marl (M1) - continues beneath the clay soil layer.

The geological geomechanical soil composition at the location of the test field AC Dramlje
At the location of the test field AC Dramlje, the soil consists of Pliocene (PL, Q) sediments of clay and gravel, which cover the Miocene marl sediments (M1). So the top soil cover consists of thicker or thinner layers of mainly silty clay soils of varying textures. At the foot of the valleys, the soil is formed mostly by the alluvium (al) of small creeks (gravel, sand, clay).

The test site is situated on the flat grassy plateau next to the main road Šentjur - Dramlje or near the exit of the motorway - AC Dramlje. The micro-location of the test field exhibits outer layers of weathered sandy clay soil with individual pebbles.

Process of drilling

Test field Vilkograd
The test drilling was carried out according to a predetermined test field. As already mentioned, the drilling depth was adapted to the existing cables, max. 1.5 to 1.7 m beneath the ground surface. The maximum distance of the drilling head axis from the existing and installed cables was planned to be no greater than 0.5 m, otherwise the radar would have been unable to detect the targets. In the course of the drilling progress, the results of the radar detection were recorded simultaneously. Direction and depth of the drill hole was monitored by the conventional tracking method, radio guidance with a DCI F5 device. All data collected by the ground radar will be saved in the corresponding software; it was not analysed concurrently.

Task 5.5 – Analysis and syntheses of results
(Task Leader IDS – Contribution by OSYS, TT)
This task addresses the performance of the bore-head prototype achieved during the field trials programme.

Analysis of data from Lennestadt (Germany) trials:
Lennestadt test trials included six targets, of different characteristics, placed vertically in the ground. The drilling trajectory was horizontal to the ground surface, at a distance of 20-30 cm from the targets. The measurement was taken by moving the bore head at about 1-2 cm/s speed and 30 rpm continuous rotation.

Fixed angle radargrams, as reported in the deliverable D5.19 show the correct detection of the 4 pipes: the metallic pipe, the copper pipe and the aluminium pipe are identified by the hyperbola in the radargram cut at angle 90°.

It can be noted that the empty hole and the hole filled with sand are not so evident in the radar profiles, because the discontinuity between soil and void (or soil and sand) is lower than that of the pipes with the ground.

Analysis of data from Stuttgart (Germany) trials:
The intention of the Stuttgart test was to execute an operation under authentic conditions. In the course of the drilling, the crew frequently encountered unexpected obstacles; as a result, the intended drill path could not always be followed.

Some of the obstacles located in the drill path were out of the radar detection range because they were under crossed at a very great depth. A bundle of four pipes at 0.9 m depth and another pipe at 2m depth were installed only for the trial. The radar passed at about 1.3 m of depth.

The main issue arising from the Stuttgart trial was the identification of what actually happens under drilling under real conditions: it was found that the bore head does not rotate, or move at constant velocity, but sometimes, depending on ground conditions, it rotates only partially (paddling) or moves forward without rotating (pushing).

The target hyperbolas in the radargrams are not as well defined as in Lennestadt test, because of the loss of spatial resolution due to the increased rotation velocity (60 rpm, whereas was 30 rpm in Lennestadt test).
The depth of penetration in Stuttgart trial has been estimated at about 70 cm, as in Lennestadt tests.

Analysis of data from Paris (France) trials:
Trials in Paris were performed under authentic conditions. The job site contained a very dense set of obstacles, e.g. pipes and cables (some of them not being reported in the plans), old basement walls, etc. The objects were crossed by the pilot bore beneath or above, leaving very little space between. In addition, several pits were excavated to verify the position of existing infrastructures. Some of these were filled in on the day of the test or on the day before, leaving a discontinuity in the soil that was detected by the radar.

After about 38 m from the start of drilling a water pipe, which was not identified in the plans, was damaged. A few metres before, another obstacle (probably a basement wall) was penetrated. Before encountering the water pipe, the bore head was paddling at an angle of about 250°, so the radar was effectively blind. The drill head started to rotate when it reached the pipe, but this was not sufficient to produce a complete image in the real time software. In the post-processed radargram the water pipe is visible when the antenna starts to rotate. The last part of the radargram must not be considered for data analysis because the system was stopped but the radar collected the signal reflecting from the water that flowed from the broken pipe.
After the water pipe was repaired, the drilling operation was resumed at higher velocities, which did not permit the effective use of the radar:
• Rotation: about 100 rpm
• Very high variations in drilling velocity

Although the drilling operational mode was not ideal, a gas pipe parallel to the drill path was detected by the radar and displayed by the software. Also a target was identified at the end of the survey. The measurement was repeated at lower velocities and the unknown object detection was confirmed. In the following figure, the radargram related to the target is shown. A search pit was established beside the bore section: a power cable which was not drawn in the plans was found. This is a remarkable result because certain damage to the electric cable was avoided.

Analysis of data from Sentjur (Slovenia) trials:
Vilkograd d.o.o. company provided two field trials in Sentjur: a test site and a commercial job site

The length of the test site was 69.5m. It included six different targets:
• PEHD pipe (3pcs) – 0.7 m depth
• PEHD pipe (2pcs) – 1.5 m depth
• Ductile iron pipe (oblique) – 1.2 m depth
• Electric cable – 1 m depth
• Telephone cable – 0.8 m depth
• PEHD pipe – 0.8 m depth

The measurement ended before the last pipe was crossed. Results of target detection are the following: PEHD pipes (3 pcs) are identified as two hyperbolas, because the third one was probably too close or masked by the other pipe. The shape of the ductile iron pipe in the radargram is not hyperbolic because it was placed obliquely to the drill path.

The other targets were not detected by the radar, because of the poor detection range in the prevailing soil conditions (wet clay). Maximum penetration depth was below 50 cm.

In the commercial job site, the HDD path crossed two electric power cables (red line) and 1 optical cable (orange line). The final section of the drill hole ran parallel to the optical cable over a length of, approximately, 30 m.

In the first part of the test no targets were detected, because the pilot bore ran at a depth considerably greater, with respect to the known targets, than the detection range of the radar. The known pipes and cables were buried at about 1 metre, whilst the distance of the pilot bore was 2.5 metres. In the second part of the test the depth of pilot bore decreased and passed to the left of an electric cable at about 65 metres from the launch pit. This longitudinal cable was correctly detected (see deliverable D5.19). The real time 3-D view of this target is shown in the following figure (details about real time software are described below).

Real time software
Feedback from the trial tests led to modification of the acquisition software described in the deliverable D2.12. In particular, it was identified that the only 3-D representation was not sufficient for the drilling operator for correctly interpret the results. A 2-D view and the radargram were added to the interface to facilitate target identification. The software interface comprises:
• 3-D view: data after threshold detection are displayed in polar coordinates. The centre of the disk represents the drill rod. The processing algorithm works on an entire disk and then the result is displayed in the 3-D view. If the bore head is “paddling”, the visualization is not updated, causing a blind area in the cylinder view.
• 2-D view: display of the target detection on the last processed disk. The red circle is the “alarm” zone (~30 cm) and the yellow circle is the “warning” zone (~80 cm).
• Radar view: radargram without angle information. It continuously displays every acquired trace.
• Angle view: diagnostics of operational conditions of radar and angular position sensor

Examples of outcomes from tests show that targets parallel to the drill path is easy to interpret in the 3-D view. The shape of the pipe is recognizable because many disks are plotted at the same angle of orientation.

Contrarily, when a target is located orthogonally to the drill path, the shape would be, theoretically, a hyperbola in the 3-D visualization. However, target visibility and interpretation is complicated because of the low data density, that is the target is illuminated for a shorter period with respect to a longitudinal pipe.

A real time target tracking algorithm was also implemented in order to correlate subsequent disks and generate a synthetic map with the detected targets. Outcomes from field trials show that the algorithm works well with longitudinal pipe, whereas it had difficulties to find correlation for orthogonal targets, again because of low data density.

Work Package Number 6
Work Package Title: Standards Planning

Objectives - For the tool that will be developed through this proposal to be commercially successful it must address the needs of industry. We need clearly to establish any barriers to its adoption in the street works sector, and make sure they are addressed both in our design, and in standards and codes that underpin critical issues such as safety and usability. Standardisation is an important means for achieving openness of the project results, enabling wide adaption of the results in industry, ensuring a long-term impact, and justifying the public funding of the task. To ensure the standardisation of project results, the ORFEUS partners are committed to the identification of current and emerging relevant standards and the alignment of project results with such standards, as well as the identification of opportunities for establishing new standards and contributing to existing standardization activities.

Task 6.1 Identification of any ‘barriers to market’ and industry issues in adopting HDD-GPR
Task leader WELL – Contribution by OSYS, GDF, TT, IDS, VILK, DUB, MCL, GEO
• Review relevant market surveys
• Contact all relevant ‘trade’ bodies
• Survey members of the user community (European utilities etc.) to establish adoption barriers
o Safety/operational
o Contractual/liability
o Practical/technical
o Statutory issues
o Economic issues
The consortium has identified the following items as potential barriers to successful marketing of the ORFEUS HDD-radar:

• Market growth and volume for HDD Technology: Are HDD machines being operated? Is the market growing?
• Competitive structure of a market regarding HDD: Are there any HDD-radar competitors?
• Import duties, norms restrictions, cultural and political parameters
• Technological standard of the markets: Degree of maturity regarding technology / infrastructure
• Price sensitivity in the market

The conclusion is that particularly Europe is a highly attractive market for an ORFEUS HDD-radar system as most of the positively influencing factors are given. However, if the use of equipment is not classified as mandatory by the safety organisations and codes of practice then the technology may not be used. Even then, if the equipment price and thus, the price per metre drilled, are uncompetitive with other excavation methods with all their negative aspects to public life and environment, then it may not be used. Pipe laying, trenchless or excavating, is a very price sensitive industry. Contractors will only buy if they can recover the costs from their customers (network owners) and if the necessity to use such equipment applies to every contractor, i.e. there must be rules and regulations which dictate the use of such safety equipment.

Within the bounds of the ORFEUS project the consortium investigated whether existing property rights might concern the results of the project and to what extent. The conclusion is that the technology developed within the ORFEUS project shows considerable differences to the state of technology.

The consortium identified excavation equipment as the largest indirect competitor for HDD-radar. The market share for urban pipe and utility installations carried out by excavating trenches can typically vary between 25-80%.

Task 6.2 Identification of standards bodies and ‘opportunities’ in emerging standards relevant for ORFEUS
Task leader JPGEO – Contribution by OSYS, GDF, IDS, VILK, DUB, MCL, WELL

• Identify national and international standards or code-of-practice and work in ‘trade’ bodies (see elsewhere in this proposal for examples cited)
• Follow up ORFEUS pre existing contacts with CEN and standards developments.
• Contact relevant sub-committee secretariats in above committees
• Identify standards or codes in-draft or for revision or where necessary codes and standards are missing and would be useful.

After thorough investigation of the relevant standardisation bodies the ORFEUS consortium worked with the German Standards Authority (DIN) to prepare a publically available standard associated with Horizontal Directional Drilling and the use of the ORFEUS technology.

During the last year a sub-group from the ORFEUS consortium has held a range of planning meetings and workshops to develop an appropriate PAS. Under the direction and collaboration of DIN this has now been completed and is available online. Copies of the DIN PAS are available for purchase from the DIN website.

Task 6.3 Recommendations standardisation and dissemination
Task leader GDF – Contribution by OSYS, GDF, TT, IDS, VILK, DUB, MCL, WELL, GEO

• Identify and review existing standards
• Make the above bodies aware of HDD-GPR and Provide advice and assistance to them to incorporate in their work
• Offer drafts that could be used by bodies in such standardisation
• Offer similar drafts to the user community to inform early adopters of HDD-GPR good practice in advance of codes and standards.
• Prepare information suitable for dissemination and training


The ORFEUS consortium has been working with the German Standards Authority (DIN) to prepare a publically available standard associated with Horizontal Directional Drilling and the use of the ORFEUS technology. A sub-group from the ORFEUS consortium (standards committee) has held a range of planning meetings and workshops with external participants to develop an appropriate PAS. Under the direction and collaboration of DIN this has now been completed and is available online. Copies of the DIN PAS are available for purchase from the DIN website.

The PAS has the Title:
DIN SPEC 91322: Bore head radar for horizontal directional drilling (HDD-radar) – Environment, conditions and limitations of use.

Potential Impact:

Utility services such as water, sewage, electric, gas, telephone, cable and other services to industry, business and homes are vital to the quality of life and the economic potential of society. There are more than 2 million km of underground utility services in the UK alone and each year across the world 483000 km of underground utilities are installed at a cost of more than €31 billion. Not only do the costs of installation, maintenance and replacement have significant environmental and economic impacts but also cause a significant social impact in terms of disruption to daily life through temporary loss of service, highway obstructions and high decibel noise. Furthermore, any accidental damage to existing services causes further impacts on society.

One solution to tackle this problem would be to increase the use of innovative work techniques, such as horizontal directional drilling (HDD), which presently is used for less than 5% of street works despite its environmental and cost advantages over traditional techniques, which should result in it quickly becoming one of the main pipe laying techniques. ORFEUS unique because it offers drill rig operators information directly from the drill, in real time, allowing objects to be avoided, a unique feature that will enhance safety and efficiency, reduce risk, and environmental impact (e.g. damage to natural habitats, CO2 emissions).

The environmental benefits of HDD techniques are:
• Reductions in excavation lengths, traffic disruption and work delays
• Elimination of the need for any new refill material: this means less excavation waste to deal with and a reduction in lorry traffic around the work area (and less noise). Analysis shows that 30% of horizontal drilling use saves between 10 and 20 million cubic metres of refill materials, with consequent reduction in lorry traffic, pollution and the release of gases from Diesel engines that are prejudicial to human health, and contribute to global warming.
• By 2020, it is estimated that the total number of motor cars in Germany will exceed 52,500,000. Assuming that they are all driven by internal combustion engines, and if they were all held up in traffic jams caused by unnecessary open trenching road works for an average of, say, 15 minutes per year, then the excess CO2 emitted would be 325,500 kg. The European Union has a total population of more than 500million citizens. If congestion could be reduced in all member states, proportionate to car usage per country and by population density, then pollution of the environment would also proportionately be reduced.


Existing methods of installation, management and repair to underground infrastructure involves trench-based examination based on existing maps, surface electronic mapping and operator experience. The cost of damage to buried assets caused by construction work in Germany alone is estimated to be more than €200 million per year. This is despite 93% of the work being performed following the most up to date information being made available regarding the location of underground services.

Although most operators seek to minimise potential damage to existing underground services by careful preparation and execution of maintenance and replacement projects, in Germany it has been determined that the cost of the damage caused by such work is, at least, €200 million per year. Of the projects undertaken, 93% obtained the best information possible prior to the commencement of the work and, of the damage caused, 79% was by excavation equipment, and 55% by operator error.

The annual global production of HDD rigs was in excess of 3,500 units, but world-wide recession reduced this to between 1,800 and 2,500, a market value of €500 to €600 million. Up to 200 rigs are produced in Europe every year; 80% by Tracto-Technik.

Presently, the fastest growing segment of the HDD market is China. With China facing major economic and population growth, exploring alternative construction methods for sustaining the vast underground utility network has been a priority. Minimally-disruptive and cost-effective trenchless technologies are now being employed in China to address their ageing and expanding infrastructure.


To realise the environmental and economic benefits outlined above, benefits a major necessity is the proper training of drill rig operators on good drilling practices. The ORFEUS bore-head radar system will provide end users, local authorities, policy makers and the general public with economic, environmental, health and safety benefits through reducing the incidents of damage, destruction and disruption of infrastructure through significantly more effective and accurate trenchless drilling using this radar mounted onto the drill tip.

The impediment to the adoption of efficient and environmentally friendly HDD techniques in congested urban areas is that it is a blind process, prone to causing damage to existing buried infrastructure. The ORFEUS project has produced practical equipment that addresses this problem, and should lead to an increase in the use of the technology. In order to complement the equipment development programme and to encourage the adoption of the technique, the project has cooperated with the German technical standards authority (DIN), to produce a standard that defines guidelines for the use of the technology in practical situations.

Within Europe a number of policy, standards and guidance documents have been produced relating to the installation, maintenance and replacement of underground utilities. These documents cover the majority of aspects associated with the specialised area of operations. However, with the advent of new horizontal directional drilling (HDD) techniques a range of new standards, policies and guidance documents are being produced at member state and European levels. The ORFEUS project has examined these documents and identified the need to seek a new Publicly Available Standard (PAS) which could ultimately provide the basis for a new European Standard relating to HDD applications.

The ORFEUS project developing a new HDD technology is seeking to establish the PAS to promote the development of a new standard around the technology in order to facilitate technology adoption and maximise exploitation of the project results. The new ORFEUS HDD technology has the potential to revolutionise the HDD industry and significantly reduce the economic and environmental costs associated with underground utility installation particularly in urbanised areas.


Three peer reviewed technical scientific papers have been produced and published by the IEEE. Two of these have been presented at the 14th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, and the 8th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar. The third paper will be presented at the 16th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar in Hong Kong on the 30th June 2016.

In addition, a number of oral presentations, on the project have been given at a range of scientific events, workshops and exhibitions. The most notable of these are;
• The No-Dig BAUMA Exhibition in Germany in April 2013
• A workshop held in the UK by the Institution of Engineering and Technology in February 2014
• An exhibition and tutorial event organised by TT as part of their customer awareness programme, and held at their manufacturing facility in Lennestadt, Germany
• Exhibition stand at the 32nd International NO-DIG event held over 3 days in October 2014 in Madrid, Spain
• Final ORFEUS workshop held in association with the CzSTT – 20th Conference on trenchless Technology held over 3 days in Trebon in the Czech Republic in September 2015
• Project presentation at a scientific workshop organised by ACQUEAU – Making water smarter, held in Paris, France in September 2015

All of the presentations were supported by presentational materials in the form of exhibition stand pop-up stands, project flyers and brochures.


As a result of the project research and development activities, equipment was produced that satisfied the major performance and functional requirements for a successful drill tip mounted radar object location system. With a modest amount of further engineering development, the consortium are confident that the production a marketable product can be achieved. In terms of an immediate exploitation opportunity, this is the major outcome of ORFEUS.

The consortium have also identified other exploitation opportunities, which may lead to other products either by cooperation between consortium members or as stand-alone initiatives

IDS – The development of the miniaturised radar system, including antennas will find uses in other radar sensor, both for HDD and other bore-hole logging applications in other drilling related industries. The innovative development of new graphical techniques to simplify display of complex geometrical data will also be used in more general drilling applications
OSYS – Communications in high noise and low signal strength conditions have industrial uses that are not necessarily limited to the present application. The ability, however, to deliver reliable high data rates and power along a drill string, opens up the possibility of a integrating a range of other sensors into the HDD head
Florence Engineering – the sensor technology to sense the orientation of the drill head in a high vibration environment can be further developed to provide a more comprehensive data set that could be used to provide high quality position information. This would open up the possibility of this low cost technology providing a map of the drill path
Tracto-Technik – TT is a key member of the consortium whose interests lie in integrating the technology already delivered by the project, and in providing and marketing innovative drilling equipment to extend their marketing opportunities


The ORFEUS project will deliver a new technology for the HDD market which will provide
commercial opportunities for the consortium participants and wider supply chain companies. The potential societal and environmental impacts have been described above and through the development of new potential international standards for HDD the project will support European expansion of the HDD market.

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