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SYnthesis and functionality of chalcogenide NAnostructures
for PhaSE change memories

Final Report Summary - SYNAPSE (SYnthesis and functionality of chalcogenide NAnostructures <br/>for PhaSE change memories)

Executive Summary:
The SYNAPSE project aims at innovative Flash memories based on either single material (core) or two material (core-shell) nanostructured phase change (PC) alloys. The material basis was provided by an industrially compatible synthesis technique: metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Two different preparation approaches were undertaken. Either the nanostructures were grown selectively with position control on the growth template without any further catalytic assistance or they were prepared by using metal particles to catalytically induce via the vapor liquid solid (VLS) growth approach. At first, suitable precursor chemicals were defined and the growth conditions for the nanostructures optimized for both approaches and different phase change alloys. It was found that the VLS growth mode is best suited for nanowire and controlled nanowire array deposition. Then the nanostructured alloys were characterized as a function of structure and size. The contacting and device layout for single phase change nanowires was developed and the sheet resistance and specific resistivity determined, demonstrating that the nanowires indeed exhibit orders of magnitude difference in their resistance upon switching. It was possible to determine the thermal characteristics of the wires by developing a special characterization method to this end. In this way, the specific characteristics of the wires as a function of temperature and size could be assessed and compared to the accompanying extensive modelling and simulations. It was found that the crystallization in nanowires proceeds with lower speed because of their lower melting temperature, but it still is high for memory applications. The origin of low endurance in PC memories - i.e. the resistance drift in the amorphous phase - was identified. This drift is lower in nanowires than their thin film counterparts. A strong and unusual electron-phonon contribution to the thermal boundary resistance was found which is important for future device modelling. At last cells/devices were prepared and evaluated for their electrical testability. They are prepared for future industrial application.

Project Context and Objectives:
The steady yearly global increase of information storage capacity by around 23% calls for new materials and device concepts, which allow for high speed and endurance in writing and erasing information on the one hand and a higher integration density and lower energy uptake on the other hand. The higher integration density is associated with smaller dimensions. These are not likely to decrease below 20 nm by conventional methods. One approach which may in future help overcome today`s speed and endurance limitations is a non-volatile (Flash) memory based on phase change chalcogenide materials, which utilizes the many orders of magnitude difference in resistance between the amorphous and the crystalline phases and vice versa for switching. This type of memory relies on chalcogenide materials, which are normally glass-like. The rapid switch between the amorphous and crystalline states upon heating produces the low resistance state (binary 1) from the high resistance state (binary 0). In addition, if the programming material`s volume is reduced, by employing nanostructured materials such as nanowires, the challenge of integration density increase and programming energy reduction are also addressed. This is exactly what the ambitious European project SYNAPSE dealt with: the synthesis and functionality of chalcogenide nanostructures for phase change memories. The ultimate goal of this project was to increase the storage capacity per cell and reduce the power consumption and cost of non-volatile (Flash) memories by realizing either single material (core) or two material (core-shell) nanowires (NWs) and providing inputs for improving the performance of next generation memory cells. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is used as the material preparation technique for its control of purity and material composition, its fast deposition rates and its industrial scalability. To this end, suitable MOCVD reactants and their delivery systems needed to be synthesized and installed, respectively. With this technique, metalorganic precursors are injected into the reactor with a carrier gas and react with the heated template to form the desired compound. In this project a major research issue is the choice of suitable metalorganic precursors for the production of nanowires on the one hand and to find the best deposition approach to obtain nanowires - well positioned and vertical to the substrate - on the other hand with suitable characteristics for low energy consumption memories. Different chalcogenide based alloys were investigated for the nanowires with different structural, electrical, thermal and optical properties. Two different approaches conventionally used for nanowire growth were studied comparatively for this new material system. With selective area growth (SAG), a substrate is covered with a masking material in which holes are prepared (by lithography and successive etching). Growth is then induced catalytically by the mask-free substrate area. Alternatively, gold particles are prepared on the growth template, which dissolve/collect the elements and lead to growth at the droplet/substrate interface – the so-called vapor liquid solid growth method (VLS). The experimental preparation of nanowires was accompanied by extensive modelling and simulation work to provide insight into their structural and optical and thermal properties for both the amorphous and crystalline states and as a function of their size and shape. The nanowires and nanostructures were investigated electrically and electrical switching was performed of simple devices. The nanostructures were evaluated thermally as a function of temperature. At last, the simple device structures were characterized.

The main objectives of the project were:
• Definition of template for nanostructure growth
• Choice of suitable precursors and precursor delivery systems for SAG and VLS approaches and for different chalcogenide alloys
• Definition of conditions for nanowire growth for each approach
• Selection of the most suitable approach for nanowire deposition
• Development of theoretical modeling and simulation for alloys in the amorphous and crystalline states also as a function of size and shape
• Characterization of electrical and thermal properties of the nanostructures
• Evaluation of the functionality of simple device structures and assessment of their industrial exploitation

Project Results:
Due to a time delay in the delivery of metalorganic compounds for the project, the consortium centered on the deposition and investigation of single material nanowires and their arrays. Since one partner left the consortium, the task of device testing could not be completed.

The main achievements concerning the science and technology of SYNAPSE can be
described as follows:

Concerning the growth of nanowires:

choice and development of precursors, Ge-Sb-Te (GST) alloys
• For the conditions used in selective area growth, successful growth could only be obtained with the reactants digermane, triethylantimony (TESb) and diethyltelluride(DETe). Nanostructures were grown selectively, their habitus was not nanowire-like. The nanostructures were not suitable for memory cells. However, for the first time, the alloy Ge1Sb2Te4 was grown epitaxially in the thermodynamic trigonal phase on Si(111) in a highly perfect crystalline form. This material will be an important material for understanding the switching mechanism in interfacial phase change superlattices (IPCM) which are proposed to be extremely suitable in low energy consumption memory cells. It is anticipated that the alloy itself may also allow for field induced switching circumventing heating procedures.
• For VLS growth catalyzed by Au nanoparticles, using ALES precursors (Ge:Cl2-dioxane, SbCl3 and Bis-TMESTe) it was only possible to grow Ge, Ge-Te and Sb-Te NWs (i.e. no ternary GST NWs could be synthetized). On the other hand, with SAFC precursors (TDMAGe, TDMASb and DiPTe) Ge1Sb2Te4 NWs were grown on SiO2 substrates. Also, Sb2Te3 NWs were grown with SAFC precursors. Notably, for these NWs a novel metastable polymorph for Sb2Te3 was observed and characterized (E. Rotunno et al. “A Novel Sb2Te3 Polymorph Stable at the Nanoscale”, Chemistry of Materials, 27 (2015) 4368−4373).

Choice and development of precursor, In-Sb- Te and In- Ge-Te (IST and IGT) alloys
• Here, the most suitable precursors for SAG were the ALES In reactant dimethylaminopropyl-dimethylindium (DADI) or trimethylindium together with TESb and DETe. No Ge containing ternary alloys could be deposited. Ternary IST nanostructures were obtained but without nanowire habitus and their crystallinity is poor. They are not feasible for memory cell applications.
• For VLS growth, IST and IGT NWs were synthetized using ALES precursors and a combination of ALES and SAFC precursors (InALES + TeALES + GeSAFC), respectively. The synthetized IST NWs (S. Selmo et al. “MOCVD growth and structural characterization of In–Sb–Te nanowires”, Physica Status Solidi A, (2015)) have much smaller diameters (about 20 nm) than so far reported ones. Also IGT NWs have similar diameters and show an epitaxial relationship with the Si substrate, by which it was possible to obtain their oriented growth. The microstructural characterization of IGT NWs is still ongoing at CNR.

Precursor delivery system
• A stand alone precursor delivery system was developed by ALES and implemented into the MOCVD system at CNR. It enabled the use of the low vapor precursor GeCl2-dioxane at CNR and will allow in future to extend the possible range of metalorganic compounds employed in CVD type applications.

All in all the VLS growth approach is most suited for phase change nanostructure deposition also in arrays. The preferred growth template is an array of holes (aspect ratio about 1:2) into a SiO2 matrix, exposing a CoSi2 film formed on the Si(100) substrate. A stand-alone SUBLIMATOR was developed, implemented and successfully tested in an existing MOCVD kit.

Concerning the modelling of nanowires

On the theoretical side, atomistic simulations have been performed to address several issues on the structural and functional properties of films and NWs of phase change compounds grown and characterized by the experimental partners.
Concerning InSbTe alloys, we uncovered the structure of the amorphous phase for different compositions grown by MOCVD in films and ultrathin NWs. Theoretical models of the amorphous phase with about 300 atoms were generated by quenching from the melt by means of molecular dynamics simulations based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). The simulations revealed that the structure of the amorphous phase of the ternary InSbTe alloys can be interpreted in terms of the structure of the two binary systems InSb and InTe with very few Sb-Te bonds. The local configurations are mostly tetrahedral as opposed to the octahedral-like coordination in the cubic crystalline phase of the ternary InSbTe compound. The same behavior is observed for the isoelectronic GaSbTe alloys that have also been simulated for the sake of comparison. The difference in the local bonding geometry of the amorphous phase with respect to that of the crystal is thus suggested to be the source of the higher crystallization temperature of InSbTe alloys with respect to the most commonly used GST alloys. This feature makes InSbTe and GaSbTe alloys suitable for automotive applications requiring a better stability of the amorphous phase at higher temperatures.
Regarding the crystalline phase, DFT simulations have been performed to study the thermal transport in the bulk of phase change compounds and the thermal boundary resistance at the interface with metals and dielectrics typically present in the memory devices. The calculations revealed that different types of atomic disorder present in the crystalline phase of GST and InSbTe alloys is responsible for an unusual glass-like thermal conductivity in the crystalline phase. Moreover, it has been found that electron-phonon coupling in GST and GeTe gives a sizable contribution to the thermal boundary resistance which must be properly taken into account in the electrothermal modeling of the device.
To address the study of NWs, we developed interatomic potentials from the fitting of a huge DFT database with a Neural Network method. The generation of an interatomic potential with an accuracy close to that of the underlying DFT framework is a breakthrough in the atomistic modeling of phase change materials as it allowed us to address problems not affordable within the simulation frameworks used so far in the field.
Large scale simulations (20000 atoms) with the Neural Network potential have then been performed to study the crystallization kinetics in bulk GeTe. The simulations revealed that the high crystallization speed exploited in the memories is due to the persistence of a high atomic mobility in the liquid at high undercooling where the thermodynamical driving force for crystallization is also large. We have shown that the high mobility at high supercooling is due to the fragility of the liquid and the consequent breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation between viscosity and atomic mobility. Analysis of the atomic trajectories revealed that the breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation responsible for the high mobility in the supercooled liquid is due to the emergence of dynamical heterogeneities at low temperatures. This is in turn due to the presence of structural heterogeneities in the supercooled liquid in the form of chains of homopolar Ge-Ge bonds.
Combined DFT and large scale simulations revealed that the same structural features (chains of Ge-Ge bonds) are also responsible for the aging of the amorphous phase below the glass transition which leads to the drift in the electrical resistance, a major concern for the operation of the memories. A compromise must then be reached between the speed of crystallization (fragility of the liquid) and the extent of the resistance drift.
In the case of NWs, large scale Neural Network simulations revealed that the presence of the free surfaces somehow favors a better structural relaxation during the reset process that leads to a more stable amorphous state with a lower fraction of Ge-Ge chains. This feature can explain the mitigation of the drift phenomenon in NWs observed experimentally and points toward further advantages of using NWs in memories.
Molecular dynamics simulations of the crystallization kinetics in ultrathin NWs have also been performed. The simulations show that the crystallization proceeds from the liquid/crystal interface at all temperatures, with no crystal nucleation inside the melt. The maximum crystal growth velocity is about a factor two lower than the corresponding value in the bulk due to the reduced melting temperature in the NWs. Overall, the simulation results show that the kinetics of crystallization is still fast and that also ultrascaled NWs of diameters below 10 nm can be used effectively in a memory with a fast set speed.
The Neural Network simulations also allowed us to get insights on the effect of nanostructuring on the lattice thermal conductivity. It turns out that in a GeTe NW, 8 nm in diameter, the lattice thermal conductivity is half the value in the bulk. The simulations suggest that a reliable electrothermal modeling of the device requires a detailed knowledge of the thermal conductivity of the specific ultrathin NW under scrutiny, which cannot be inferred from the known bulk quantities. A reduced thermal conductivity is overall beneficial for heat confinement that would reduce the power consumption in memory programming.

Concerning the functional evaluation of the nanowires

In the second period of Synapse, WP5 was focused on the contacting and the electrical characterisation of harvested chalcogenide NWs. The thermo-electrical simulation of PCM devices and characterisation of NW thermal properties were also performed in the second phase of the project.
At Tyndall-UCC the In-Sb-Te (IST) and In-Ge-Te (IGT) NWs grown at CNR were harvested on suitable substrates for contacting and electrical characterisation. It was possible to identify some contact issues and then properly develop and optimize the NW contacting. Pulsed current voltage setup was adapted for NW characterization and the NW switching behavior was investigated.
At CNRS the thermal characterization of phase-change materials in the shape of thin films and nanowires has been performed. In addition the electro-thermal simulation of the phase change memory based on nanowire technology has been achieved based on the development of a finite element code.
The thermal conductivity of Ge-Te and In-Sb-Te thin films was measured using the MPTR (Modulated PhotoThermal Radiometry). Those measurements were required as a reference value for those phase change materials that would allow a comparison with measurements on nanowires based on same alloys.
The thermal conductivity od Sb-Te In-Sb-Te and Ge-Te systems as nanowires was measured using the Scanning Thermal Microscopy within the 3Ω mode.
The electro-thermal simulation of a phase change memory cell based on a phase change material on the shape of a nanowire was implemented. This simulation is based on a finite element code. The conservative and constitutive equations for the electrical and thermal behaviours were implemented, as well as realistic boundary conditions based on the expected industrial device (provided by MIY). The electrical and thermal properties are those measured during the project by Tyndall (electrical properties) and the CNRS (thermal properties). The RESET (melting) and SET (crystallization) were both simulated. Comparisons with simulation from the classical thin film shape (mushroom configuration) were performed, as well as a comparison with known experimental data.

Concerning device testing

Using the above mentioned template (SiO2 as dielectric and CoSi2 film working both as growth catalysts and bottom electrode pf the cell) and selective MOCVD growth of IGT nanostructures (including NWs), a series of devices were fabricated at CNR. These were tested by Conductive-AFM, showing that they are electrically measurable, although the IGT/CoSi2 interface resistance is too high and needs to be improved. Structural analysis of the device was also performed by SEM, TEM and EDX, showing that phase separation between Ge and InTe is occurring in some types of the grown IGT nanostructures.

The foregrounds for the partners acquired in SYNAPSE are described in the following:

Partner CNR
The SYNAPSE project turned out to be a very important chance for CNR to explore the self-assembly, positioning and analysis of chalcogenide nanowires below 50 nm for ultra-scaled phase change memory applications. Therefore, CNR, being an academic partner, plans to use the project foreground for future scientific proposals in the area of non-volatile memories and nanoelectronics, along with the definition of new topics for Post-docs, PhDs and MS students, on the basis of the technological and scientific advancements acquired during the project in the fields of material synthesis (Metal-organic Chemical vapor deposition), chemical-structural characterization (electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence) and functional analysis (electro-thermal characterization). From this point of view, the close interaction with the other project partners is also expected to burgeon new common research activities.
As demonstrated by the CNR publications and conference contributions, CNR could control the MOCVD deposition of chalcogenide nanostructures of the material system (In-Ge-Sb-Te). In the case of nanowires, the main self-assembly mechanism turned out to be the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) one, catalyzed by Au nanodroplets. It has to be underlined that, in the literature, there is no report about the deposition of In-Ge-Te NWs and SYNAPSE allowed the feasibility for the first time of such a process for different compositions. A combination of VLS and Selective Area Growth was also investigated in the case of experiments for the positioning of the NWs and the promising results obtained will enable CNR to explore the realization in the future of a first PCM test device based on nanowires.
Technological development and acquisition of know-how were another exploitable achievement of the Project, in particular, the implementation of the ALES SUBLIAMTOR in the existing Aixtron R200/4 MOCVD reactor represents an almost unique configuration, where both metalorganic and solid, low vapor pressure precursors can be used at the same time through a bubbler- or a canister-type delivery system, with evident advantages for future deposition processes.
It can be argued that the industries involved in PCMs, especially those of Lombardia area in Italy, namely Micron, initially partner in SYNAPSE, could be interested in developing further nanostructures for phase change memory applications, based on chalcogenide NWs.
Finally, the project concurred to the formation of young researchers in CNR, through the temporary positions assigned and the achievement of master degree and PhD titles; some of these young researchers are expected to continue their collaboration with CNR in the future.

Partner ALES
Air Liquide Electronics System (ALES) is a subsidiary of the Air Liquide group (100%). ALES is a design and manufacture center of gas and precursor distribution equipment with a wide range of costumers all over the world. ALES is proud to claim having equipment installed at each of the top 10 IC manufacturing fabs. As an industrial partner in the Synapse project, ALES is going to contribute to the exploitable foreground of this project with its new product SUBLIMATOR.
A new equipment for solid vapor precursor delivery called SUBLIMATOR was developed during the project. Laboratories and research centers are to be the first customers. The main benefit for research centers and laboratories will be the possibility to try new precursors (solid) using a wide range of deposition techniques (CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc). This system could give the opportunity to laboratories and research centers to solve technical difficulties encountered with actual precursors.
The market time for SUBLIMATOR is estimated to be typically before Q3 2016. At the end of the project we still have to work on price optimization, industrialization and commercial offer which will integrate the cost of engineering, commercialization and the marketing team. It is not possible to evaluate the exact price range of the SUBLIMATOR as some additional work on the cost optimization is still to be performed after the end of the project. As a very estimate ALES can announce that for this type of SUBLIMATOR the target price will be less that 100K€.
For the first year of SUBLIMATOR availability on the market ALES will target at least three sells of SUBLIMATOR. The relevant trend is very unpredictable depending on the technical results obtained by laboratories and research centers and the development of new solid precursor molecules by Air Liquide as these two products (both solid molecule and SUBLIMATOR) could be offered as a kit.
As the introduction of new molecules in the semiconductor manufacturing is always going along with an important profit in terms of production time decrease or better final product quality, the main competitors will be all companies that propose solid precursors together with delivery equipment. Right now ALES have identified one competitor (American).
The partner involved in the result is CNR where it was possible to install SUBLIMATOR and resolve the technical challenge to install SUBLIMATOR to an already existing MOCVD tool.
No patent was issued on this project but a large know-how was generated and capitalized.

Partner FZJ
The mission of the Peter Grünberg Institute (Semiconductor Nanoelectronics of the Forschungszentrum Juelich – FZJ) is to investigate new materials and device concepts for energy saving information technology. The SYNAPSE project turned out to be very important since for the first time the growth of epitaxial trigonal GeSbTe films – originally optimized to obtain nanowires using selective area growth – was demonstrated. No reports are found in literature up to now. Even though no nanowires were obtained, this trigonal GST is of interest as a model material to understand low energy consumption interfacial phase change memories. FZJ plans to exploit this project foreground for future scientific proposals in the area of non-volatile memories and nanoelectronics.
During the growth optimization of GST by MOVPE and the template preparation, a PhD student and MS students were trained on growth and characterization of phase change materials. These skills are valuable for employment in research.
Also in future, the close interaction with the other project partners in the consortium is expected to give rise to new common research activities.

Partner CNRS
CNRS performed the thermal characterization of phase change materials produced within the Synapse project at the microscale. Materials were both presented as thin films and nanowires. Dedicated experimental setups were implemented in order to achieve those goals. Modulated Photothermal Radiometry is suited for the determination of thin film thermal conductivity. The GST and IST films were therefore analysed using this experiment from room temperature up to 500°C. New equipment based on the Scanning Thermal Microscopy was developed in order to reach spatial resolution in the order of tenths of nanometers. This was particularly useful to measure the thermal conductivity of nanowires.
In parallel, CNRS performed temperature dependent Raman measurements on IST and GST thin films. This reveals physical processes during the PCM crystallization. Finally, CNRS integrated an EDAX TEXS X-ray wavelength dispersive spectrometer (X-WDS) into a Field Emission Gun Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope FEG-ESEM.
Publications have been written in Peer Reviewed journals that demonstrated the feasibility of thermal characterization of nano objects and their structural and chemical state on a very large temperature range, including the phase change.
A Post-Doc initially hired during the first year of the project has been recruited on a permanent position of Engineer for Research at the CNRS in the I2M laboratory.

Partner Tyndall-UCC
Partner Tyndall-UCC developed knowhow in several areas which is exploitable in future research projects. In SYNAPSE, Tyndall-UCC was involved in chalcogenide nanowire contacting and electrical characterisation. During the project, several contacting methods based on focused ion beam techniques were explored. The possibilities and the limitations of these methods were identified in SYNAPSE and this knowledge will be helping the Tyndall research team moving into other areas where nanoscale objects (such as two dimensional materials) need to be contacted to larger structures for electrical characterisation.
Two undergraduate students spent 3 months each characterising the electrical properties of thin chalcogenide films in the early part of SYNAPSE. These internships provided working experience to the students in a research environment and also provided training in advanced electrical characterisation techniques. SYNAPSE also provided an opportunity for a PhD student from CNR to spend 3 months in Tyndall working on nanowire contacting and electrical characterisation.
A post-doctoral researcher in Tyndall-UCC was in charge of all the electron microscopy and focussed ion beam activities including SEM imaging, FIB contacting and FIB sample preparation and EDX analysis. All these skills were acquired during SYNAPSE and will certainly be valuable for his future research career.
Finally, the results obtained in SYNAPSE will provide a basis for future collaborations between Tyndall-UCC and other members of the SYNAPSE consortium.

Partner UMB
The SYNAPSE project turned out to be a very important chance for UMB to gain crucial insights on the functional properties of phase change materials exploited in memories. Important information has been gained in particular on the atomistic features that control the drift in resistance and the crystallization speed. This expertise gained during the Synapse project triggered a stronger collaboration between the University of Milano-Bicocca and the company Micron by means of a research contract started on November 2015. This activity is not going to deal directly with the systems/materials studied in Synapse but with somehow related systems of interest for phase change memories, which will greatly benefit from the insights acquired in SYNAPSE on the properties of GeTe, Ge-Sb-Te and In-Sb-Te alloys.
The SYNAPSE project has also been an important chance to further develop Neural Network methods for large scale atomistic simulations of phase change material that will be largely exploited in the next few years by partner UMB.
Finally, the project concurred to the formation of one postdoc hired on the Synapse funding, and of three Phd students (at the University of Milano-Bicocca whose thesis was carried out within the framework of the Synapse activity.
Potential Impact:
Since the exit from nuclear and fossil-fuel energy is underway in Europe, all endeavors to reduce energy consumption are most welcome. This also holds for the consumption of energy in information technology. New concepts and materials for memory applications are steps in the right direction towards low energy consumption and higher efficiency information technology, respectively. These goals were addressed and studied in the project SYNAPSE by using nanostructures for low energy consumption and nanostructured phase change materials to improve efficiency and endurance in memory cells.
The development of a new reactant delivery system was achieved by the European supplier for CVD reactants ALES. This is a competitive advantage over other companies and will be of great importance for the semiconductor industry as well as scientists working the field. The sublimator allows an extension of the number of possible reactants with those exhibiting lower vapor pressures and may lead to the deposition of compounds with improved characteristics . A characterization technique was developed which makes the observation of structural changes upon heating visible. The new equipment is based on Scanning Thermal Microscopy and was developed in order to reach spatial resolution of the order of tenths of nanometers. This was particularly useful to measure the thermal conductivity of nanowires. The method is of high benefit to the scientific community working on temperature dependent structural changes.
Two events were organized – a joint European workshop on non-volatile memories and a symposium at the E-MRS Spring meeting 2015 on the same topic were organized by partners of the SYNAPSE consortium. Beside these dissemination activities, the results of the project were presented at all relevant conferences and workshops in the field such as E-MRS, MRS, CIMTEC, e\pcos, EWMOVPE and MOVPE in a total of 37 oral and 19 poster contributions. Furthermore 22 full papers were published in peer-reviewed journals.
Students and Post Docs were trained and their attention drawn to the important application oriented task of low energy consumption information technology.

List of Websites:

Synapse Management Committee

Massimo Longo (Chairing person)
CNR-IMM, Unità di Agrate Brianza
Laboratorio MDM
Via C. Olivetti, 2
20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) - Italy
Tel: +39 039 6035938

Vanina Todorova
Ingénieure Recherche & Développement
Air Liquide Electronics Systems
8, rue des Méridiens - Sud Galaxie - BP228
38433 Echirolles cedex - France
Tel: +33 (0)
Fax : +33 (0)

Hilde Hardtdegen
Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-9)
Jülich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA)
Forschungszentrum Jülich
52425 Jülich - Germany
Tel: 02461 612360

Jean-Luc Battaglia
Laboratoire TREFLE, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers
33405 Talence CEDEX - France
Tel. +33 5 56 84 54 21

Paul Hurley
Dyke Parade, Cork - Ireland
Tel. +353 21 4904080

Marco Bernasconi
Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali
Universita' di Milano Bicocca
Via R. Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano - Italy
tel: +39-02-64485231

Synapse Exploitation Board

Hilde Hardtdegen (Chairing person)
Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-9)
Jülich Aachen Research Alliance (JARA)
Forschungszentrum Jülich
52425 Jülich - Germany
Tel: 02461 612360

ALES Vanina Todorova
Ingénieure Recherche & Développement
Air Liquide Electronics Systems
8, rue des Méridiens - Sud Galaxie - BP228
38433 Echirolles cedex - France
Tel: +33 (0)
Fax : +33 (0)