CORDIS - EU research results

COmplete Vehicle Energy-saving Technologies for Heavy-Trucks

Final Report Summary - CONVENIENT (COmplete Vehicle Energy-saving Technologies for Heavy-Trucks)

Executive Summary:
The CONVENIENT project targets a 30% reduction of fuel consumption on long-haul heavy-trucks, by developing a suite of innovative energy-saving technologies and solutions.
The focus of the project is to leverage on a holistic approach to energy management of complete vehicle, considering the truck, the semi-trailer, the driver and the mission as a whole.
In the course of the project, 3 heavy-trucks have been developed by CONVENIENT Consortium, which comprises 3 major EU truck manufacturers (IVECO, VOLVO, DAF), 10 suppliers Tier1/Tier2 and a network of 9 research centres and Universities, with the common aim to demonstrate and to validate the fuel-saving solutions adopted on validator vehicles, featuring:
innovative energy efficient systems, including hybrid transmission, electrified auxiliaries, dual level cooling system;
- parking HVAC;
- energy harvesting devices, like photovoltaic solar roof for truck and semitrailer;
- advanced active and passive aerodynamics devices for the truck and for the semitrailer;
- Holistic Energy Management system at vehicle level;
- Predictive Driver Support to maximize the energy saving benefits;
- Novel Hydraulic Kinetic Energy Recovery System for the semitrailer.

The Project activities were organized in the following Sub-Projects:
• SP A1: Prototype Truck 1 (IVECO)
The main objective of SP A1 was to develop the IVECO long-haul truck prototype capable to achieve the challenging target of 30% fuel-saving, by means of the chosen energy-saving technologies.
• SP A2: Prototype Truck 2 (VOLVO)
The main objective of SP A2 was the development of advanced predictive energy management control strategies for VOLVO long-haul truck prototype.
The technologies developed in this project are applied to a tractor semi-trailer combination.
• SP A3: Prototype Truck 3 (DAF)
Main deliverable of this SP is the hybrid electric prototype truck DAF XF Euro VI, tractor with semi-Trailer (40 tonne), for application as long-haul refrigerated transport.
The target for the vehicle equipped with the new functionalities is 21-30%of fuel savings, w.r.t. suite of driving cycles for the reference vehicle DAF XF Euro V with MX13 engine.
• SP A4: Vehicle Simulations and Final assessment (CRF)
The main objective of SP A4 was to evaluate the enhancement of proposed technologies in terms of fuel efficiency for the complete vehicle, by means of the selected simulation tools, PERFECTS and AVL Cruise respectively, both well-established tools for such fuel-consumption evaluations.
• SP B1: Friction Reduction (MERITOR)
The main objective of SP B1 was the reduction of friction generated by rear-axle bearings and lubricating oil in the differential case. The outcome of this SP is a novel rear-axle prototype to be integrated both on IVECO truck and on DAF truck.
• SP B2: Holistic Energy Management & Fuel-Saving Systems (CRF)
The Sub-Project B2, led by CRF, is a cluster of activities aimed to develop several technologies to be transversally used in the ‘vertical’ SPs A1, A2 and A3.

Project Context and Objectives:
The EU Commission is promoting policy for a mobility that is efficient, safe, secure and environmental friendly. Complete vehicle energy management is an enabler to achieve significant reduction levels of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. One of the aspects to address these challenges will be to propose innovative solutions for improved vehicle efficiency and better integration of components (currently designed independently), which is achievable through intensive collaborative research.
Fuel efficiency is a first priority for Customers of long-haul trucks, because of its major impact (30%) on the Total Operating Costs. The efficiency of heavy duty vehicle can be improved in a relevant way by operating on both the tractor and the semi-trailer.
The long distance freight transport plays today and will play in the next decades a very important role for the European economy but, according to the future scenario, any further development should be sustainable and affordable. This represents a challenge that can be faced only with the contribution of all the stakeholders and with the aim to develop a new generation of efficient and affordable vehicles for road transport.
The main objective of CONVENIENT project was the development of a novel long-distance heavy-truck prototype featuring a suite of technologies, enabling up to 30% reduction of fuel consumption.
The most relevant content of the project was represented by the proposed holistic approach to on-board energy management, aimed to consider the tractor, the semi-trailer, the driver behaviour and the mission as a whole issue.
The project includes the development and integration of the following technologies, applied to the trucks:
• innovative energy efficient systems and energy harvesting devices
• advanced active and passive aerodynamics devices
• energy management at vehicle level
• driver support to maximize the benefits of different energy saving systems.

The CONVENIENT Project addressed the contents of the call with a wide panel of technological solutions and approaches, providing a deep knowledge and possible incoming solutions for facing the overall need in reducing fuel-consumption for long-haulage heavy-trucks, ensuring sustainability criteria from an industrial point of view.
As already mentioned, the Project activities were organized in six Sub-Projects, according to the scheme presented above.
The concept of CONVENIENT approach is to address three main Sub-Projects (SP A1, A2 and A3) conducted by the truck OEMs, additional transversal sub-projects were aimed to develop common technologies, i.e. “B1 - Friction Reduction” and “B2 – Holistic Energy Management & Fuel-saving Systems”, that can be adopted by the OEMs and integrated into their vehicles. Finally, a “bridging” sub-projects (A4) is included, to ensure knowledge and technology transfer from all sub-projects into a common task, for numerical simulations and final experimental assessment of the fuel economy targets. The three main sub-projects SP A1, A2 and A3 carried out by IVECO, VOLVO and DAF, cover different approaches with regard to the adoption of fuel-saving technologies on each demonstrator truck.
These activities were supported and fed by the close collaboration with the two transversal sub-projects B1 and B2, respectively leaded by MERITOR and CRF. In the frame of SP B1, low friction components have been developed and tested in close collaboration with IVECO but the evaluations related to the adoption of the low-friction rear axle has been transferred to DAF truck as well, since the differential group of its rear-axle is similar.
The Project goals placed very challenging demands on leading edge research expertise, high capacity to translate research results into practice, and a strong anchoring in the vehicle development and manufacturing context. Achieving the efficiency gains set out in CONVENIENT is not possible through isolated technical breakthroughs, but requires an advance of the state of the art across the entire powertrain component spectrum, as well as the capacity to integrate new advances and components without loss of efficiency into working engine systems. For this reason, the CONVENIENT consortium included three of Europe’s strongest automotive OEM’s, to provide the overarching system and vehicle perspective needed to ensure that the efficiency gains in CONVENIENT can be realized in practical, commercial application. Each of these actors worked closely with suppliers and engineering actors in the respective work packages of CONVENIENT to utilize their respective, complementing competences to find opportunities for optimization and integrate these toward the goal of the CONVENIENT project.
The CONVENIENT consortium is strongly grounded in the commercial automotive context and the vehicle manufacture supply chain. Each of the sub projects was headed by one of Europe’s largest truck and heavy vehicle manufacturers, coordinating and integrating the work of supplier and engineering actors with which it has previous experience and working relations, in a structure very similar to the traditional vehicle manufacturing value chain. The suppliers and engineering actors were responsible for providing leading specialist knowledge in their respective fields that are most relevant for component optimization, including friction reduction and after-treatment solutions (sub-projects B1 and B2 respectively), while the OEM’s provide a system perspective and expert understanding of how these components interact in the engine for optimal efficiency, developing the solution for three engine configurations (see sub-projects A1, A2, and A3). Each of the OEM’s also possesses significant experience with emissions testing and efficiency standards, and has already launched their own initiatives toward meeting the requirements of Euro-VI. These development initiatives contribute to the understanding of the optimization challenges faced in CORE, and the learning’s from such development give the CONVENIENT consortium a competitive advantage in planning and carrying out the final system assessment (see sub-project A4). In addition to the expertise of OEM’s and suppliers, the project incorporates European universities with leading profiles in relevant research areas, to ensure that the most up-to-date advances can be evaluated and implemented in project activities.
In this way, the composition of the CONVENIENT consortium uniquely matches the specific challenges of the call and the overall purpose of the Green Cars Initiative; to drive technological advances for a sustainable transport sector in a way that ensures practical benefits for society, contributes to the Lisbon agenda, and can be feasibly implemented within the allotted call budget. The three OEM’s with primary responsibility in the project share not only a history of separately working to develop new solutions for tough environmental standards, but also a history of collaboration and joint development. Through past collaboration in a large number of FP7 projects, including several within Sustainable Surface Transport such as the Hybrid Commercial Vehicle (HCV) project, and the High efficiency Powertrain System for heavy duty vehicle (HIPS) project (building in turn on collaboration within the FP6 project Green Heavy Duty Engine (GREEN)), the partners in the CONVENIENT consortium have built up excellent working relations and have already eliminated the barriers to collaboration that exist between unfamiliar partners. Besides this valuable experience, the main partners in the consortium also work together in organizations such as the European Automobile Manufacturer’s Association (ACEA) and the European Council for Automotive R&D (EUCAR). Within these organizations the primary members of the consortium had further contact interfaces between each other’s respective organizations and also disseminate results and knowledge appropriately to the rest of the European automotive sector.

Consortium overview (General Assembly):
Steering Committee
No. Partner name Description Role in CONVENIENT
1. IVECO Industrial vehicle manufacturer CONVENIENT project coordinator
Coordinator of and responsible for SP A1
2. Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A Industrial vehicle manufacturer Coordinator of and responsible for sub-project A4
3. VOLVO Industrial vehicle manufacturer Coordinator of and responsible for sub-project A2
4. DAF T Industrial vehicle manufacturer Coordinator of and responsible for sub-project A3
Sub-project Committee
5. CONTINENTAL Automotive supplier Supplier of e-Horizon telematic platform
6. AVL Privately owned company for Supplier of fuel consumption simulation tools
development of powertrains
7. IKA Institute of RWTH Aachen University active in the field of Contribution to Holistic Energy Management System
applied automotive research
8. TNO Non-profit research organisation Contribution to Energy Management Previewer
9. ECS Engineering Center Steyr GmbH Development of Electrified Auxiliaries
& Co KG (ECS) - world leading
engineering service provider
10. IDIADA Global partner to the automotive Aerodynamic CFD simulations
11. TUE Eindhoven University of Technology Contribution to Holistic Energy Management development
12. DUT Delft University of Technology Contribution to adaptive vehicle aerodynamics
13. SKF SKF GMBH is part of the SKF Group, Development of low rolling resistance bearings
the leading global supplier of products,
solutions and services
14. MERITOR Supplier of axles Coordinator of SP B1 – developer of low rolling resistance axle
15. HUTCHINSON Diversified supplier of automotive Development of flat heat exchanger, thermal energy storage, super-capacitor
16. MATTEI Supplier of air compressors Supplier of electric air compressor
17. UNAQ University of l’Aquila Development of mathematical model of electric air compressor
18. IAM Consortium of SME manufacturing Development of enhanced semitrailer
19. WEBASTO Supplier of thermal systems Development of photovoltaic solar roof
20. ZF Supplier of transmissions and chassis Development of hybrid transmission
21. FRAUN Research Organization Development of simulation models, contribute to aerodynamics devices
22. KTH University Contribution to Predictive Energy Management

Table 1 – CONVENIENT Consortium overview.
Project Results:
SP A1: Prototype Truck 1 (IVECO)
The main objective of SP A1 was to develop the IVECO long-haul truck prototype capable to achieve the challenging target of 30% fuel-saving, by means of the following main energy-saving technologies:
• hybridization of the transmission
• electrification of auxiliaries
• passive and active aerodynamic solutions
• Dual-Level Cooling system
• low-friction rear axle
• predictive eco-driving HMI
• energy-saving solutions for parking, like photovoltaic solar-roof and electric HVAC system.

WP A1.1 (Leader IVECO) - main objectives of WP A1.1 Concept analysis and simulations were:
- Perform fuel-consumption simulation for the new systems under development on the IVECO heavy-truck vehicle concept in SP A1, by means of the simulation tools developed in SP A4;
- Perform a specific CAD layout study for the main devices, with the aim to define the installation layout of the new (main) components considering the existing constraints and to delineate the mechanical interfaces. This task has generated also the 3D models for the subsequent prototyping phase:
- Define the technical specifications of a Dual Storage Battery/Super-Cap system.
The focus has been laid on the adoption and integration of hybrid powertrain onto the reference vehicle, the IVECO Stralis long-haulage truck. The hybridization is done by means of electric motor, high voltage battery and more importantly the control strategy to maximize the efficiency of e-powertrain thereby improving the fuel economy of the heavy truck. The simulation has been performed using PerFECTS for IVECO Hi-Way Stralis truck on the custom reference mission cycles – Regional ACEA Cycle and Regional ACEA Modified Cycle. The simulation results demonstrate that a relevant improvement of fuel economy can be reached under the reference mission profiles by adopting a hybrid powertrain.
The adoption of E-assist strategy for the effective usage of the hybrid powertrain has resulted in the improvement of fuel economy by about 5% fuel saving.
Moreover, a sensitivity analysis of the driver profile has been performed using SW PerFECTS, in order to find out the impact of different driving styles on the vehicle performance in attaining the mission and also on the fuel economy. It has been evaluated that the adoption of aggressive driving styles (under the hypothesis adopted in this simulation activity) will bring to worsening the fuel-consumption by about 3.6%. Henceforth, it is advisable to adopt a driver supporting system, helping the driver to operate the vehicle in a proper “eco-driving” mode, that is acting on the longitudinal controls of the vehicle (namely the accelerator-pedal, the gearshit-lever and the retarder lever) in a clever way, so as to optimize the speed profile of the vehicle safeguarding the fuel consumption. Such kind of driver assistance system should support the driver by suggesting the proper “eco-driving” behaviour.

WP A1.2 (Leader CRF) –: technical specification definition of Eco-Driving system for IVECO truck demonstrator, with main focus on developing a Predictive Cruise Control system. After developing the e-Horizon telematics platform (in SP B2), CONTI integrated this system also on IVECO demonstrator truck. CRF and IVECO updated and refined the algorithms already developed inside the simulation tool for the Predictive Eco-driving HMI.
The focus of this activity was the development of the E-Horizon (intelligent cruise control) and its integration onto the vehicle architecture. To better understand and develop real time solutions, benchmarking the commercially available tools is indispensable and the commercially available solutions for the e- horizon technology have been studied. The second part of the activity was focused on the development and optimization of the E-Horizon technology for the prototype IVECO Stralis vehicle. The hardware, software platform and electronic horizon were developed by Continental and CRF - IVECO develop the sophisticated control algorithms.
With the sophisticated algorithm in place, E-Horizon strategy intelligently controls the vehicle speed depending on the topographical data fed onto the system. This strategy capable of actively predicting the topography and intelligently controlling the vehicle speed paves the way to save significant amount of fuel in case of heavy duty trucks. The E-Horizon strategy has been developed and integrated onto the vehicle model and the same has been tested under ACEA Regional and ACEA Regional Modified cycles. The simulation results have shown that the adoption of E-Horizon Strategy would lead to a fuel save in the range of 4 - 5%, achieved with the increase in time of about 30 seconds to complete the mission.

WP A1.3 (Leader CRF) –: the system architecture and a proper simulation model of a Dual Level Cooling system have been developed. Dual loop cooling system has been developed so as to increase the efficiency of the cooling systems. An integrated thermal management system has been developed for ICE, hybrid motor, battery, e-auxiliaries and HVAC. In addition to this, new flat heat exchangers have been developed for the secondary cooling circuit that could substitute the conventional heat exchangers only for secondary cooling circuit in dual loop circuit.
CS - KULI: the transient models were set up and measurements of the standard cooling circuit (e.g. temperatures at different places, mass flows at various thermostat openings) have been performed.
ECS - CFD: the final CFD run of a producible configuration of the FHX at the under floor showed promising results regarding the total amount of rejected heat at the FHX. Further steps could be the simulation of an optimized position of the FHX panels, in particular the front FHX panel and the combined investigation of the extern aerodynamics of the FHX together with the water cooling jacket in a conjugate heat transfer simulation.
CRF - PerFECTS: the engine cooling system models have been developed by ECS for the Standard Cooling Circuit and Dual Loop Cooling Circuit. The engine cooling systems have been integrated onto PerFECTS using the KULI Simulink Toolbox. Co-Simulations have been done involving KULI and PerFECTS. The improvement in fuel consumption owing to the adoption of Dual Loop cooling circuit and Flat Heat Exchangers (FHX) has been simulated using the models provided by ECS_MAGNA and the models have been refined and fine-tuned for the ACEA Regional and ACEA Regional Modified Cycles.

WP A1.4 (Leader CRF with the cooperation of IVECO) –: aerodynamic CFD simulations, with the aim to define the proper active and passive aerodynamic solutions to be adopted on the IVECO truck, focusing on Active Grill Shutters combined with novel devices for wheel-arch flow-control on the tractor, together with proper aerodynamic fairings (which include side-wings, boat-tails and spoilers) on the semi-trailer.
The tasks of this WP were the following:
- Reduce the aerodynamic cooling drag by developing active shutters for the front radiator grill, capable to control the air flowing into the engine bay in such a way to guarantee the efficiency of the cooling systems in all the situations, with the minimum increase of drag.
- Reduce the aerodynamic wheel drag by developing control systems of the flow around the wheel arches, in conjunction with the control of the under hood flows.
- Develop other active and passive means, in order to reduce flow separations at cab corners and optimize the aerodynamics between the cabin and the trailer to reduce the drag in different wind conditions and increase safety during cross winds.
- Optimize aerodynamics devices for the semitrailer developed by IAM, to be used in combination with the IVECO truck, to increase the rear base pressure and therefore to reduce the complete vehicle drag.

The results of CFD aerodynamic simulations of Active Grille Shutters show that AGS in closed position give about 5% reduction of Cx.

Fuel consumption tests at “Constant Speed”
Vehicle: Stralis Hy-Way AS440S50T/P (SP A1 Prototype Truck 1).
For each speed there has been a systematic reduction of consumption: in the next round (shutters closed) and the previous round (shutters open).

Fuel consumption tests at “Coast Down”
Vehicle: Stralis Hy-Way AS440S50T/P (SP A1 Prototype Truck 1).
Considering the FR (total resistance) at 80 [Km/h] we obtained a reduction of about 0.5% between the two configurations (active shutters closed vs. open). This result is in line with what has been obtained from the consumption tests at “Constant Speed”. The “Coast Down” tests do not allow to assess differences significantly below 1%, then the evidence obtained from the delta at a “Constant Speed” is more reliable.

WP A1.5 (Leader WEBASTO) – Solar roof demonstrator: development and integration on the truck roof of high performances PV panels in terms of lightweight, flexibility and efficiency. The activity output was the built up of solar roof kit and the installation on vehicle demonstrator realized by IVECO.
The physical installation of all components was made accordingly the study performed by IVECO and the specification defined by CRF and Webasto.
The WP was split in three main tasks:
A1.5.1 – PV panel specifications and system design
Objectives of this task were the definition of PV panel specifications, solar cells technologies selection and complete system design for the final integration into truck roof. Specifications in terms of available area, geometries and shapes were chosen in order to compare different PV technologies.
A1.5.2 – Development and components fabrication
The task is mainly dedicated to the fabrication of the energy harvesting PV panel and the fabrication of all the sub-components needed for the integration of the panels onto the roof: frames, connections, supports and all mechanical guides, kinematics and latches.
A1.5.3 - Installation of smart roof on-board vehicle
The PV roof was integrated on vehicle. The vehicle has been modified to allow system integration on the basis of the final specifications and design.

WP A1.6 (Leader CRF) –: Park Cooling Integration – development of an Electric Air Conditioning system, featuring a high-voltage electric compressor, supplied by the high energy battery, with a target autonomy of 8-10 hours.
The WP is fully devoted to the development and on board integration of an advanced HVAC system able to guarantee the thermal comfort both while driving and while parking. The system is based on the use of an electric compressor integrated in a high efficiency vapour compression cycle and on additional electric heaters. A specific energy storage unit (electric battery) allows to guarantee the HVAC system operation overnight, while energy saving control strategies will minimize the system energy demand.
The Air conditioning system and the park cooling system has been studied, simulated and the components have been sourced so as to install on-board the vehicle to see the potential benefits in real time.
Considering the ACEA regional cycle, the use of an electrical compressor allows to reduce the fuel consumption due to the use of the air conditioning of about 0.6%.
For that concern the park cooling during the night pause, the comfort in the cabin is reached discharging the high voltage battery of about the 30%, passing from the 80% to the 50%.
This means that after the night pause, during the normal use of the truck, there is an increment of fuel consumption due to the fact that the hybrid powertrain works in order to restore the standard SOC, requiring more thermal engine power.

WP A1.7 (Leader CRF) – the on-board Electrified Auxiliaries Integration.
The focus has been laid on the electrification of the auxiliaries working on low and high voltage connections. The benefits of the electrified auxiliaries in terms of fuel economy have been assessed through the simulation using the PerFECTS tool. The prototypes have been received from the partners in charge and installed on board the demo vehicle and the same has been tested experimentally to validate the potential benefits foreseen. The main objectives of this WP were the following:
• Modelling of the auxiliaries which have to be electrified with the power being drawn from the low voltage and high voltage plants accordingly.
• Evaluation of expected fuel-economy related to each sub-system in the reference missions by means of simulation.
• Development and integration of the new electrified auxiliaries prototypes on the prototype vehicle.
• Validation of the simulation results with the experimental results done on the roller bench tests and proving grounds
• Verification and validation is essential with the aim to measure their performance and also to prove the reliability of components being safety critical, like the steering pump and the braking compressor.
ECS has developed the Electro-Hydraulic Power-Steering system (EHPS), while the supplier MATTEI is developing the electric-driven brake air-compressor, with modelling support from Univ. Aquila.
CRF evaluated the power request (peak and mean values) of conventional auxiliaries and their impact on the overall vehicle fuel consumption. A priority list for engine auxiliaries electrification has been defined, based on fuel saving and replacement/integration cost estimation. CRF provided specification of electrified auxiliaries in order to meet the same performance as the conventional ones and to allow the integration on the electric power net of the vehicle. The mechanical and electric requirements for vehicle integration (mechanical layout and E/E schematics) was defined as well. Several electrified auxiliaries were developed in WP B2.2 e.g. for electro-hydraulic power steering. Then, in this Task, CRF supported the installation on the Demo Truck 1 by defining the mechanical and electrical interfaces.
The three auxiliaries which are to be electrified have been modelled and integrated onto the vehicle model simulation environment. CRF and the other involved partners developed and integrate the auxiliaries’ models into the IVECO standard PerFECTS.
The power steering systems employed in IVECO Stralis are of Hydraulic type, sourcing the energy from thermal engine. It has been decided to electrify the hydraulic power steering powering the steering pump from the low voltage electric plant. ECS Magna, one of the members of the consortium of Convenient has been in charge of the model development of EHPS. ECS Magna has provided the EHPS model to Centro Ricerche FIAT (CRF) in the form of s-function so as to integrate onto vehicle simulation environment. The model in the form of s-function has been integrated onto simulation environment.
Electric-driven Brake Air Compressor is a complex energy system: its operation involves fluid dynamic phenomena as well as friction and lubrication ones. Furthermore, the need of investigating multiple design configurations to optimize energy performances of the electrified auxiliary required a parametric approach in the modelling activity. For these reasons, theoretical models were developed and further implemented in a simulation platform.
In order to design the electric-driven Brake Air Compressor, a preliminary gathering of all the specifics related to the compressor operation was required. Among them, the parameters that significantly affected the design procedure are the following:
Air flow rate = 200 L/min
Delivery absolute pressure = 12 bar
Revolution Speed = 1500 RPM

Furthermore, the four fundamental components of A/C systems and their model have been defined: compressor, condenser, thermal expansion valve, and evaporator.
The compressor performances are usually provided in terms of generated refrigerant power and absorbed mechanical power as a function of RPM in one test condition. This test condition usually specifies suction and discharge pressures, superheat and sub-cooling.
The condenser model based only on the efficiency implies a high level of approximation, but the identification result shows a good agreement with the experimental data.
The complete simulation of a mechanical valve’s behaviour is complicated and requires lots of data normally not known; usually, a generic datasheet valve reports the superheating at the evaporator outlet as function of the evaporation pressure.
To simulate the thermal power exchanged by the evaporator the same model chosen for the condenser can be adopted. Nevertheless, it has to be remarked that the influence of humidity on evaporator performances sometimes cannot be neglected. Usually, suppliers provide the evaporators characteristics in one only condition of temperature and humidity.
The thermodynamics properties of refrigerant fluid have been stored in matrix calculated by means of NIST Library. The software has been developed using R134a. Calculations whit other refrigerant fluids are easily possible (e.g.: R152a, R1234yf), selecting them from a fluid library.
The auxiliaries which have been the subject of the electrification have been modelled and the advantage of electrifying the auxiliaries has been valuated using the standard software tool called PerFECTS. The electrification of the auxiliaries has been grouped according to their working voltage range, i.e. low voltage and high voltage. The hydraulic power steering electric auxiliary has its working range compatible with the low voltage whereas the other two auxiliaries air brake compressor and HVAC compressor have their working range at high voltage. The electric hydraulic power steering is developed by our partner, ECS. The electric air brake compressor is developed by MATTEI in collaboration with University of L’Aquila. The HVAC compressor has been sourced from DENSO.
The integration of the auxiliaries onto the global vehicle model of PerFECTS has been done and evaluated on ACEA and standard IVECO missions. The electro hydraulic power steering model has been shown below on the interface of PerFECTS developed in Matlab and Simulink.
The EHPS was commissioned on an Iveco Stralis 500 E5 which was made available to ECS by Iveco Ulm within the scope of the COnVENienT project. The Stralis is equipped with a ZF 8098 steering gear box and a standard ZF steering pump, the maximum steering pressure amounts to 170 bar.
The conventional pump was kept in the vehicle for safety reasons. The EHPS was integrated into the vehicle in parallel to the conventional pump by using an emergency valve. This emergency valve switches to the conventional pump in case the flow rate of the EHPS drops below a certain value.
The EHPS was mounted on the front right side of the chassis. The operating strategy was implemented on an external electronic control unit (ECU), which was placed inside the driver’s cabin.
CRF has installed the electrified components, air brake e-compressor and A/C e-compressor on the Stralis 500 AS E5 named Proto NGA2. The vehicle has been modified from the mechanical point view, in order to install the electrified components, and from the electric point of view, in order to feed the new system and integrate the new management logics with the conventional one.
From the mechanical point of view the vehicle has been modified for auxiliaries’ installation.
Functional tests have been performed for Mattei air brake e-compressor and for the DENSO A/C e-compressor and the compressor behaviour, with results from the other tests, have been illustrated in a dedicated deliverable, the D106. All the details related to the Electrified Auxiliaries integration process are included in the dedicated deliverable D107.1.

WP A1.8 (Leader IVECO Altra) –: main objective of this work package was to integrate onto the IVECO Stralis truck the hybrid transmission, the lithium-ion ESS, the super-caps ESS and the physical installation was made accordingly the study performed with ZF and IVECO 3D models.
The hybridization of transmission is considered one of the most promising technologies available today, with the aim to reduce the overall fuel consumption of the long distance overhaul trucks. Therefore, a proper Diesel-electric parallel hybrid powertrain has been adopted: CRF has worked with one of the partners of consortium – ZF who has been in charge for the hybrid transmission of IVECO Stralis prototype vehicle.
This activity was performed in Genoa by third party ALTRA S.p.A. according to the installation study by IVECO Engineering; both mechanical study and virtual validation were performed.
In order to install the new driveline it was necessary to remove the normal production driveline, ZF ASTronic; due to longer transmission, it was necessary to introduce a shorter shaft.
Main layout modifications were related to wirings and cooling, being necessary new lines for the electric machine and the retarder.
ZF and CRF/IVECO have jointly defined the E/E architecture; ZF has provided technical data of TraXon Hybrid transmission to allow CRF to model it.
The benefits of the hybridization in terms of fuel economy have been assessed on the ACEA Regional Delivery that can be considered realistic enough to represent the real usage of this kind of trucks in day-by-day life. The vehicle prototype has been tested experimentally, to validate the potential foreseen benefits.
WP A1.9 (Leader IVECO) –: Prototype Truck 1 build-up & calibration: the main objective was to build-up the IVECO demonstrator truck, by preparing and integrating all the new systems in the truck and to calibrate the on-board controls. Subsequently, the vehicle systems has been fine-tuned in view of final testing phase.
Regarding hybrid functionalities and dual energy storage system Hutchinson, IVECO and ZF worked together so to integrate both from mechanical, electrical and electronic point of view all subsystems.
Furthermore Magna ECS EHPS and Solar Roof by Webasto were integrated.
The physical installation of all the components was made accordingly to the study performed by IVECO. The modification was actuated starting from normal production tractor Stralis Hi-Way AS440S50T/P.
Main functional features of base vehicle are: retarder, CAN open interface, TPMS, aerodynamic kit, lane departure warning system, axle load measurer, adaptive cruise control, FMS, hill holder.

On demonstrator Truck 1 have been installed:
- ZF hybrid driveline
- Magna ECS EHPS
- Webasto Solar roof
- Aerodynamic features
- Active shutters.

SP A2: Prototype Truck 2 (VOLVO)
The main objective of SP A2 was the development of advanced predictive energy management control strategies for VOLVO long-haul truck prototype. This addressed cohesive control of cooling systems, propulsion systems and adaptive aerodynamics (by means of controllable air-deflectors).
Also the electrical architecture as well as the electrical power supply needs to be further developed to encompass the new highly integrated control strategies.
Moreover, controllable electrified auxiliaries have been used in this prototype truck: an electrically driven cooling pump and an electro-hydraulic power-steering pump, in order to reduce energy demands; both components contributing in different ways to improve the fuel efficiency of the vehicle, depending on the operating conditions.
Prediction and integrated controls are applied on several subsystems featuring electrified actuators. The technologies developed in this project are applied to a tractor semi-trailer combination.
WP A2.1 (Leader VOLVO, AVL) –:Main objective of this work package was to evaluate the performance and the potential fuel savings of various concept variants and support the hardware procurement. An additional objective is to develop plant models that enable early controller testing and development in order to shorten the testing time and reduce the experimental iterations.
This work package developed validated models of the complete vehicle, including the cooling system and the electrical system. Advanced plant models are developed for off-board simulation. In addition a model with reduced complexity for on-board simulation purposes is developed.
In order to assess the fuel saving of the Volvo CONVENIENT truck, the advanced plant models are used to compare the Volvo CONVENIENT truck with a reference truck, representing a Volvo truck that is currently in production. This comparison assesses the fuel savings that are due to the hardware changes of the Volvo CONVENIENT truck. The optimal predictive controller that is developed in work package A2.5 also contributes to reduced fuel consumption. Therefore, this report assesses the potential of optimal control design by applying dynamic programming on the reduced complex model. The plant models that are developed in this work package do not capture all potential fuel saving of the Volvo prototype Truck therefore, the dedicated report also assesses the influence of the electro-hydraulic power steering and the improved aerodynamics.
The analyses performed shows promising results for the hardware and controls changes of the CONVENIENT truck.
In order to evaluate the results, proper driving cycles should be chosen. A simple driving cycle and a more complicated one are chosen in this work. The former is an imaginary cycle with up and downhill developed purely for this study it is called simple cycle in the rest of the report. The latter is based on a real cycle which is a distance travelled between two cities in Sweden. It is called real cycle in the rest of the report. Since the model for vehicle in this study is simple and does not include model for gear changing, etc., the truck is modelled in Autonomie using this cycle, and different outputs from Autonomie have been used as the inputs for simulations in this study. Autonomie is a Matlab/Simulink based software which is used to analyse different powertrain systems primarily for energy efficiency and emission comparisons.
During the simulations, an improvement in the fuel consumption can be noticed when comparing the simple controller and the global optimal case. Although the exact values of improvements cannot be determined due to lack of accurate data (accurate engine map, accurate parameters in the thermal system model, etc.), the potential of improvement can be confirmed. In the case of the simple cycle, an improvement of 1.5% could be observed. The ambient temperature is assumed 25 (C). It is expected to get results that are more accurate and probably better efficiency improvement by fine-tuning DP.
WP A2.2 (Leader VOLVO, ECS-MAGNA) –: this WP was focussed mainly on preparing the electrical and functional architecture of the VOLVO prototype truck, packaging the electrical actuators and sizing the electrical systems (batteries, generators, etc.) for higher electrical power consumption. The implementation plan of the reference system architecture intended to be used in development of control systems for the CONVENIENT A2 truck.
The main objective of these tasks are evaluation and implementation of a structure for vehicle functionality in the context of AUTOSAR WP-I-Chassis (former WP-10.3) Roadmap for Application Interfaces for Trucks, hence definition and implementation of structure for functionality and interfaces for controllable auxiliaries and other controllable motion devices.
Another topic in this WP relates to the electrical architecture and its implementation of a dual voltage system to support electrification of auxiliaries in conjunction with integration of a kinetic energy recovery system. This system will be primarily used to supply the electrified auxiliaries; this other topic is not addressed within the dedicated deliverable D A2.2.
While formal verification is not in scope of this work, implementing this structure should effect the partitioning of functionality. Additionally, the relations between the layers should be reflected in the simulation models of the control functionality by use of typing the main signals between the layers with the operation types: Operation Control, Operation Status and Operation Capability. Subsequently, it should be possible to at least analyze that the principles are in effect in the design.

WP A2.3 (Leader CONTI) –:this activity was focussed on the eHorizon system that collects GPS data and map data. The dedicated deliverable D A2.3 documents the test and validation results of the work package A2.3 with the title “e-Horizon system”. The test & validation results in the test truck is reported in D206.1.
The main objective of this work package was the development and integration of an e-Horizon system to be used for the predictive vehicle controls related to energy management and thermal management. Thereby includes definition of interfaces and preview information contents to be utilized by the predictive control systems. This work package involves the Volvo and Continental teams, whereby Continental is in the lead. The partners agreed to split the work package into two phases:
Phase 1 - State-of-the-art e-Horizon (initial sample)
The purpose of this phase is to acquaint Volvo with Continental e-Horizon technology by delivery a state-of-the-art system solution comprising of hardware and software. This enables Volvo to perform first bench tests of their own control algorithms with e-Horizon data.
Phase 2 – Beyond state-of-the art e-Horizon (software update)
The purpose of this phase is to design and deliver connected e-Horizon system. With this technology the e-Horizon system is connected to a backend which can collect, aggregate and download map and attribute data. This beyond-state-of-the-art technology is being developed by Continental
Significant progress was made in this work package leading to the following results:
1. Complete alignment of electrical and mechanical interfaces of e-Horizon system between Volvo and Continental;
2. Alignment between Volvo and Continental for approach regarding transition between state-of-the-art and beyond state-of-the-art systems;
3. Alignment between Volvo and Continental on use cases for beyond state-of-the-art e-Horizon system;
4. Continental delivery of state-of-the-art e-Horizon sample hardware to Volvo based on LEAP hardware platform and own e-Horizon provider software;
5. Volvo bench text of Continental sample hardware.
An e-Horizon ECU sample was delivered from Conti to Volvo in September 2013. This was a unit tested in series applications. When attached to 12V power supply, ignition, a GPS antenna and a J1939 vehicle CAN, it analyses the vehicle position and calculates a most likely path from this position based on a Conti proprietary algorithm. The topology and other attributes of this path is retrieved from the on-board map database and then coded and broadcasted on the vehicle CAN by the e-Horizon provider software in the ECU. This most likely path and coded data have been implicitly verified by the results of the customers with this unit and/or software in the field. The picture below shows an exemplary graphic representation of the most likely path. This is obviously dynamic with the motion of the vehicle.

The development of the Human Machine Interface (HMI) was performed in WP A2.4. It is believed that a good communication between the control system, the driver and the back-office reduces the fuel consumption. Driver use-cases and HMI strategies has been developed. Volvo has received a full dynamic instrument-cluster from the partner Continental, which has been programmed according to the developed strategies. The prototypal HMI includes a full digital cluster unit, which is used to develop the graphical user interfaces and the signal converter provided by CONTI, which converts DVI signals to LVDS and makes it possible to transfer the graphical interfaces from a desktop computer to the full digital cluster itself. This prototypal HMI has been documented by the Deliverable Report D204.1 “HMI System for Driver evaluation and coaching”, issued by VOLVO.
This report documents the Deliverable D A2.4.1 within WP 204, i.e. the prototype of an HMI development platform for Driver evaluation and coaching, to be installed on VOLVO demonstrator vehicle.
The deliverable is connected to the Task A2.4.2 HMI, whose main objective is to develop a prototypal HMI hardware platform and the related strategies to communicate and support the driver, in order to operate the truck in accordance with the CONVENIENT systems with respect to energy efficiency and traffic safety. The HMI should include also driver coaching capabilities in order to support the driver to operate the vehicle in a fuel efficient manner. The HMI system can also advice the driver on selection of best route considering traffic situation based on transport mission, if such data is available. The development of this system is jointly done by VOLVO and CONTI, where VOLVO is responsible for the control strategies development, while CONTI is responsible for implementation and HW support for this task.
The partners Volvo (WP leader) and Continental have cooperated towards this delivery and its content. CONTI has developed and provided a full digital cluster and a converter for DVI to LVDS video signals to the full digital cluster. The technology of full-digital clusters makes it possible to design, evaluate and re-design instruments, gadgets, messages etc. displayed to the driver and to meet requirements e.g. in terms of usability, acceptance, safety (attention vs. inattention, clarity, ambiguity etc.) as well as compatibility with associated system architectures and signal processing.
The deliverable prototype includes a full digital cluster unit, which is used to develop the HMI and graphical user interfaces, and the signal converter provided by CONTI, which converts DVI signals to LVDS and makes it possible to transfer the graphical interfaces developed on a desktop computer (with software such as Flash) to the full digital cluster itself.
The full digital cluster is used in this early phase of the CONVENIENT project for development and verification of different HMI and GUI concepts and strategies. The simulations also enhance the communication and cooperation between different parties in the HMI-development.
In conclusion, the eACC concept developed in Convenient is not dependent of changing the drivers’ driving behaviour, which is often the case with other eco-driving systems on the market and which is often difficult to achieve. The eACC concept only requires that the drivers activate the eACC. Moreover, the information to the drivers in many eco-driving systems are often instructive (do, don’t this/that), which in the long-term often is perceived by the drivers as annoying, superfluous or difficult to follow. Therefore, the eACC concept only asks the driver to activate the function in order to save fuel. The feedback to the driver is the benefits from using the eACC, i.e. is the fuel savings in real time with the eACC.
The results from the subjective assessments of HMI for the eACC were overall positive in terms of understanding messages and symbols, perceived usefulness and eased of use. The participants’ attitudes regarding their intention to use the eACC were also in favour. The HMI was perceived as easy, clear and concrete in communicating the value of the eACC. The workload with the eACC was perceived as low. Moreover, the eACC’s logic was based on the logic of the existing ACC-function, which probably limited the participants’ unfamiliarity with the eACC. However, simulator studies provide limited data about users’ experiences of systems, such as the eACC, compared to real life long term usage. Therefore, long-term field tests are required to get better understanding of the interactions between the drivers and the eACC in normal driving conditions.
WP A2.5 develops the Predictive Energy Management system to be used to control the electrified auxiliaries. During the first year, the activities have included: literature studies, set-up of the control structure and decision on approaches to be considered. Moreover, a thermal system model has been developed and optimized for on-board controllers. Improved aerodynamics by using adaptable air deflectors are considered in WPA2.5.3. IDIADA has assessed the optimal air deflector angles by means of CFD simulation, while Volvo is responsible for controlling the adaptable deflectors. WPA2.5 has progressed according to work-plan.
The work in A2.5.1 includes a development of a controller for the cooling system, the battery system and the vehicle speed. Hence, the scope of the work is wider than is indicated in the title “Predictive Thermal Management system: report on model.”
A primary project goal is to develop a model-based optimal controller that uses predictive information in order to minimize fuel consumption. Another goal is to develop a control structure that supports both optimality and modularity since there is a need of adapting the controller to various truck configurations. A high-level controller controls several energy buffers in an integrated and optimal way using model predictive control. Several buffers are considered, such as the cooling system, the battery, and the vehicle kinetic energy. Controlling the vehicle kinetic energy means that when in cruise control mode the vehicle speed is varied with respect to the set speed in a fuel efficient way.
The technologies developed in this project are applied to a long-haul tractor and semi-trailer combination. An e-Horizon system is used to predict the future road topology.
Development of simplified but sufficient accurate models in order to use them for the predictive controller, that coordinates the sub-systems in an optimal way, has been carried out. A proper abstraction level of the models are needed to both have enough accuracy and be light enough to be able to be handled in the real time application. This task has been performed by FRAUN.
A controller has been designed that use the information regarding the road attributes ahead transmitted by the e-Horizon system. The e-horizon data is used as input to functionality that calculates predictive trajectories for speed and torque on vehicle level. The prediction is used to calculate energy-optimal trajectories for actuators. The main part of this task has been performed by KTH.
The control algorithms have been implemented and packaged to run in the demonstrator vehicle. This includes adaptations of the control design to enable it to run on the selected hardware. It also includes interface development for all added HW components as well as CAN and LIN interfaces for networks set up for the project and existing networks on the truck. This task has been performed by VOLVO.
Here are some conclusions and remarks from the work on predictive optimal control of the thermal and battery system.
• The predictive optimal battery/thermal system controllers (DP/MPC) shows clear improvements compared to the non-predictive PI-controller. Knowing the future engine torque demand makes the predictive controllers behave more rational.
• Nevertheless the actual FC gain of using MPC/DP for the battery and thermal system on the BLB cycle is limited. The main reason for that is that the need of cooling power from the EWP and fans are limited when driving 85 km/h on the BLB cycle. The air flow through radiator that is caused by the wind speed contributes with a substantial cooling effect.
• The controllable radiator shutter is an interesting actuator in this context. It is reasonable to believe that a predictive controller is better suited to compensate for the reduced cooling caused by a closed radiator shutter. Also, the radiator shutter fits well in to the MPC/DP problem formulation in the sense that no extra state is needed.
• The requirement on the minimum pump flow is needed to protect the engine from local hot spots. In these simulation this requirements is conservative which causes a high minimum pump flow. There is a potential so gain FC if the requirement on minimum pump is relaxed.
• Model errors reduce the performance of MPC/DP. This project especially observes uncertainties in modeling the lead-acid battery which has a strongly non-linear behavior. Also, the airflow and air temperature passing through the radiator is difficult to estimate with the current sensor set-up.
• The variable speed controller shows significant improvements compared to a non-predictive PI-controller.
• A final remark is that one has to be careful when comparing FC estimations. In fact all energy buffers, such as the average vehicle speed and battery SOC, have to be included in order to make a relevant FC comparison.

SP A3: Prototype Truck 3 (DAF)
Main deliverable of this SP was the hybrid electric prototype truck DAF XF EuroVI, tractor with semi-Trailer (40 tonne), for application as long-haul refrigerated transport.
The target for the vehicle equipped with the new functionalities is 21-30%of fuel savings, w.r.t. suite of driving cycles for the reference vehicle DAF XF Euro V with MX13 engine.
The envisioned vehicle functions are:
- Hybrid electric powertrain:
- Electrified auxiliaries, with enable full electric driving;
- ePTO function (reefer supply) and battery charger (plug-in socket);
- Smart Powernet by means of Complete Vehicle Energy Management and E-horizon;
- Active friction reduction in driveline;
- Active aerodynamics package for tractor and semi-trailer.

WP301: This work package formulated the vehicle requirements and defined the vehicle mission. Only limited activities have been done for task A3.1.4 on HMI design.
The target application is a longhaul vehicle (tractor-trailer combination, 40 ton) driving pan Europe; a series production vehicle (DAF XF 105, EURO VI) is selected as basic vehicle and fuel saving technologies were investigated for this vehicle configuration.
This section provides a description of the advanced hardware solutions (i.e. electrification of powertrain and auxiliaries, new aerodynamics, friction reduction technologies) and related energy management functions (incl. e-horizon sensor) that has to be applied to the vehicle configuration.
An overview is given of the general requirements for each technology and how integration was done in the vehicle. The expected fuel saving potential for all these technologies together is estimated between 21 and 30%.
Furthermore, this section specifies the design framework for complete vehicle energy management. This holistic energy management system requires integration of different energy management functions, taking into account the mechanical, electrical and thermal domain. It is build up around the smart vehicle powernet taking advantage of smart auxiliaries. A rapid control prototyping system was used to implement all the vehicle energy management functions. The requirements for the underlying E/E architecture are also specified, including a description of the contribution from each partner.
Measurement data logged in the field has been used to come to a drive cycle definition. Three different longhaul routes across Europe have been selected and they were used for development, analysis and testing in SP-A3. Additionally, the ACEA longhaul reference mission (currently under development by ACEA) has been selected as common load cycle for the final assessment in SP-A4.
The last part of this section focusses on the HMI design: a graphical display is used to inform the driver about the actual vehicle status. Furthermore, dedicated buttons and switches are specified which offer additional functionality to the driver and enable interaction with the energy management system.
WP302: The development of a complete simulation model for the SP-A3 proto truck takes a central role in this work package. The simulation model developed in task A3.2.1 and A3.2.2 is completed. Since not all vehicle parameters are available, some assumptions have been done and preliminary simulations are performed. The results are reported in deliverable D302.1 that documents the executed work in WP 302 – Holistic energy systems design.
The main objective was to establish a vehicle simulation model to simulate and evaluate the mechanical, electrical and thermal energy flows in the vehicle in a systematic way. On this basis, advanced energy management functions can be design to operate the hybrid system as well as the electrified auxiliaries in an energy optimal way. Further, the simulation model can be used to quantify energy savings of energy management strategies as well as to evaluate the quantitative layout. For the simulations, results from vehicle mission definition (D301.1) were used as input. As a detailed example of a simulated vehicle system the proposal for an adsorption storage system is explained.
The simulation platform was available for the partners from SP A3. for the development process, the underlying models have been shared through a subversion server (SVN). This allowed a joint development from all the partners and it also enables future control development and simulations with a common model platform.
A first study has been done with the simulation platform to investigate the potential fuel benefit of the hybrid powertrain. The simulation platform was primarily validated at component level; final validation of the complete simulation platform was performed on the prototype vehicle built up in WP307.
Using this simulation environment, a parameter study has been conducted, varying the power capability of the electric machine as well as the battery energy content. An electric machine size between 60 and 110 kW and a battery energy content above 5.5 kWh has been identified as a feasible configuration to achieve the targeted fuel consumption reduction. The hybrid system is able to compensate a reduced engine performance, so that a downsized engine can be used. Therefore, the smaller engine expands the fuel savings.
A DCDC-converter offers a further fuel savings potential for the hybrid truck, as it supplies the 24V powernet during combustion engine off periods and with an overall higher efficiency than a conventional alternator.
To assess the dimensioning of the components and further to develop an energy management strategy, a modular and multi-domain simulation environment has been created. An analysis of the energy flows during route simulation showed plausible and consistent values.
Simulation studies on different routes and different payloads show that an electric machine size between 60 and 110 kW, and a battery energy content above 5.5 kWh seems feasible to reach the targeted fuel savings. Hybridization of the truck offers the possibility to downsize the combustion engine, which offers a further fuel potential. Simulations show that the average speed of the truck does notsuffer from the weaker engine, as the electric system is able to compensate the reduced combustion engine performance.
The use of a DCDC-converter is advised in a hybrid vehicle, as this device is able to supply the 24V powernet when the combustion engine is stopped. Substituting the alternator or using the DCDC in parallel offers a fuel consumption benefit, as the DCDC operates with higher efficiency.

WP303: This work package developed the aerodynamic package for the SP-A3 proto truck with semi-trailer. The final aero-concept has been selected in task A3.3.1: Active shutters and active mirror flow guides are mounted on the tractor. The semi-trailer is equipped with Side-Wings and a boat tail. The aerodynamic prototype hardware was developed for the SP-A3 DAF XF prototype vehicle. Aerodynamic optimization is considered for both the tractor and semi-trailer; in total 4 aerodynamic devices are developed for the prototype vehicle.
Development of the aerodynamic devices was done with help of CFD simulations and PIV measurements (Particle Image Velocimetry). Also rapid prototyping experiments have been done, as well as full scale experiments. Altogether, the following fuel savings are determined from experiments:
Aerodynamic Device Fuel saving
Active mirror flow guides --
SideWings 1,5
Boat tail 1,1

The assessment of potential drag reduction devices for a semi-trailer resulted in the selection of aerodynamically shaped side skirts for the lower side of the trailer and a boat tail to reduce the base drag of the vehicle. The aerodynamically shaped SideWings were initially developed in close cooperation with the TU Delft and make use of wing profiling technique to reduce the locally the aerodynamic drag. Additionally, the panels are covering the wheels further improving the drag level of a semi-trailer.
Full-scale prototypes where tested on different tracks throughout Europe, as determining the fuel saving is a complex matter. Most of the tests are conducted at TCL in Lelystad (Netherlands), but also tests with different tractors types and configurations (i.e. cab and axle configuration) were performed at DEKRA (Germany), LPG (Belgium), INTA (Spain) and LPVG (France) in different circumstances to further understand the behaviour and performance of the SideWings in changing circumstances. When all the test data are taken into account an average fuel saving of 1.5 l/100km is being observed for highway speed.
Boat tails reduce the base drag of semi-trailers and are a well-known and applied solution. Especially in the USA market many trailers are equipped with tails. Within a European context, boat tails are rather new as the shapes of the EU vehicles are different but more important its cruising speed is lower. Also, European reg ulations only allow a tail of 50cm (instead of 1.5m for the USA).
These factors imply different flow behaviour around the vehicles and require a designated design process.
During spring 2013 several numerical simulations with the aid of CFD were performed to identify first potential drag reductions. The first results indicated a drag reduction of 8%. In August 2013 a wind tunnel campaign started to further optimize the aerodynamic design of a tail. With the aid of a rapid prototyping machine many tails where 3D-printed and tested resulting in a maximized drag reduction of 11%.
After the successful numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments the design of the folding mechanism (which is operationally important and demanded by the regulations) and the mechanical (material selection, strength and stiffness) design started towards a first prototype. Fuel savings tests were conducted at the test track in Lelystad during the summer period of 2014. Fuel savings up to 1.1 l/100km were obtained. Surface flow analysis revealed potential improvements on certain trailer configurations. The first prototype is therefore being redesigned to improve the aerodynamic (more stable performance on all trailer types) and mechanical performance (simpler, less weight, less parts, etc.) even further.
WP304: This work package focusses on the development of the OVMP (Open Vehicle Management Platform). The communication mapping (deliverable D304.1) is defined and a database is constructed to host all CAN and Flexray messages used by the OVMP. The OVMP has been designed in task A3.4.3 and a prototype was built in task A3.4.4.
This report documents the first results from “WP304 – Open Vehicle Management Platform” regarding communication requirements and software layout, covering tasks A3.4.1 A3.4.2 and A3.4.3.
The main objectives of these tasks are to investigate the required communication of the open vehicle management platform in the hybrid truck and to distribute the energy management functions in an efficient way on the control units in the vehicle.
The hardware interfaces to be implemented in the platform can be derived from the investigation of the communication. It is decided that the Open Vehicle Management Platform operates in parallel with the Paccar Energy Manager. The final communication architecture is presented in this document. Based on this communication architecture, the IO interface for the Open Vehicle Management Platform is defined and the final processor has been selected.
A concept is developed to map the energy management signals to the suitable control signals in the vehicle. The associated CAN communication messages are documented and stored in a database file (DBF). The underlying development steps are also explained.
As TU/e was responsible to develop the auxiliaries’ energy management functions, ika was responsible to provide the communication framework. In order to provide TU/e with this information, ika has prepared a document, listing all available signals to and from the energy management related components. TU/e selects from this comprehensive list the signals, which shall be received and sent by the energy management system. The identified signals can then be routed by ika from the CAN-transceiver to the energy management functions and vice versa.
This report documents the results from WP304 – Open Vehicle Management Platform regarding the prototype of the platform.
The main objective was to develop a versatile hardware platform, being able to execute algorithms for the holistic energy management in a real-time environment. A holistic energy management requires a multitude of information. Therefore, the platform must be able to communicate with a large variety of sensors and control units in the vehicle. One of the control units hosts a part of the energy management functions, so that a high data transfer rate is needed. A FlexRay communication is planned for this task.
A hardware layout is designed based on the Freescale MPC5674F processor with regard to the requirements, i.e. a wide variety of in- and outputs as well as sufficient computing power and memory. Further, a corresponding operating system and the software drivers are developed.
The final version of the prototype platform is assembled and the communication with other control units is tested. A first draft version of the energy management strategies developed in WP 305 by TU Eindhoven is compiled and downloaded to the platform. A test with a virtual vehicle environment reveales that the platform is able to execute the communication and energy management calculations in real-time.
A prototype for the open vehicle management platform is developed: it meets the requirements and is proven to be both reliable and operational.

Further work includes extending the drivers, increasing AUTOSAR compatibility as well as minor performance optimizations. Furthermore, boot-loading and self-programming features as well as XCP support are being worked on.
Finally, the MPC6574F platform can be integrated into a Simulink-based toolbox (similar to dSpace products), allowing non-programmers to create and maintain projects based on the open vehicle management platform. This toolbox is currently under development.

WP305: The smart vehicle powernet development was the goal of this work package. Task A3.5.1 defined the communication protocol for the smart powernet and the smart powernet. In task A3.5.3 the universal algorithms from WP602 (Smart vehicle powernet) are mapped onto the OVMP. Initial simulations have been done for a limited set of auxiliaries, later on extended to all auxiliaries.
This section presents a simulation and performance analysis of the Smart Vehicle Powernet, which is a concept for holistic energy management (EM) of auxiliaries with energy storage elements in vehicles. The objective is to have an EM concept that is plug&play in the sense that auxiliaries with energy storage elements can be easily added/removed, while guaranteeing (close to) minimal fuel consumption and satisfying environmental and technical constraints, without the need to calibrate the control system. This report concludes the tasks from WP A3.5 and is preceded by the concept development that was delivered in WP B2.2.
Two concepts for developing a Smart Vehicle Powernet were analysed, i.e. a Game Theoretic (GT) approach and a Distributed Optimization (DO) approach. Both methods enable the plug&play concept for controllable components. This distributed architecture (the so-called Smart Vehicle Powernet) consists of a price/market mechanism, in which the power supply and request of each component is determined based on an energy price, which evolves over time (according to the total power from all auxiliaries incl. preview information of the drive cycle).
This energy price is coordinated by a so-called Energy Management System Operator (EMSO), see Figure 1. All components optimize their power request based on the current and future energy price and the EMSO should ensure that prices are such that (close to) global optimality of the power consumption (and hence fuel consumption) is guaranteed. As concluded in D602, both methods showed good performance in terms of fuel consumption reduction but further refinements were needed for direct implementation in the truck.

The two concepts are refined and implemented in a high fidelity simulation model developed by Institute fur Kraftfahrzeugen Aachen (IKA) in WP A302. The simulation model consists of a long-haul truck with the following special features: a hybrid powertrain, a highIII voltage battery, a refrigerated semi-trailer, an electrified air-supply system, a low-voltage battery and a heating ventilation air-conditioning system. Simulation studies are performed for both EM concepts to illustrate the feasibility of the developed algorithms for implementation in the real truck.
The simulations are performed using two real-life driving cycles, being the so-called Aachen-Cologne-Aachen (ACA) cycle and the Brenner cycle. The number of controlled auxiliaries is large enough to illustrate that both methods can handle complex situations, thereby demonstrating the scalability and the ability to add components in a plug&play fashion for both methods.
When compared to a conventional truck, it is seen that the two methods show comparable fuel reduction: around 0.8 % on the Aachen Cologne Aachen cycle and 0.69 % on the Brenner cycle.
However, each of the methods shows different favourable properties, so it is difficult to judge which method is better because this depends on the user’s preference. For example, if storage capacity is more expensive than computational power, than DO is preferred and vice versa. Based on the promising simulation results, the next step is to implement and validate both concepts of the smart powernet in the real truck.
WP306: The main activity in this work package was the development of an engine and after-treatment previewer mode. Task A3.6.2 prepared the engine and after treatment models. The fit-tools were developed in task A3.6.3 which estimate the model parameters according to measurement data. The models and fit-tools are validated by performing engine tests on a dynamometer (DAF MX-11 engine). Finally, the previewer was developed in task A3.6.4. The first part of this previewer estimates the future vehicle speed and corresponding torque demand from e-horizon map data. The second part of the previewer contains the fast numerical models for the engine and after treatment (from task A3.6.2) to calculate the fuel consumption and emissions for the upcoming period. This information will deliver input signals for the smart powernet in WP305.
WP307: Building up the SP-A3 proto truck was done in this work package. A layout study has been done for task A3.7.1. Unfortunately, it turned out that the envisioned high voltage battery was no longer available. Therefore, a redesign was needed, which caused a delay for task A3.7.2 (manufacturing and assembly of the truck). Another difficulty is the design of the cooling system. The implementation of shutters in combination with extra radiators for the hybrid powertrain leads to packaging problems in the engine bay.
This section describes the realization of the SP-A3 DAF XF prototype vehicle. The report describes the activities carried out for the layout study and the corresponding engineering activities (task A3.7.1). Next, the realization of the subsystems as well as the assembly of the complete proto-truck is described (task A3.7.2).

The styling department from DAF created a styling proposal for the prototype tractor with semitrailer. This design is shown in the picture below. The styling design consists of striping for the tractor, the backdoors of the semi-trailer and the boat tail. The logos on the side of the trailer are printed directly on the curtains.

WP308: This task was devoted to commissioning of the proto truck and static calibration.
The OVMP and the individual auxiliaries (i.e. shutters, electric steering pump, electric air compressor, reefer trailer and plug-in charger) are tested separately to check their communication and set them into action. This front loading activity will continue in the coming months and should help to eliminate the delay from WP307.
One of the main objective was is to set the vehicle and energy management subsystems into operation. This was performed starting with the communication and the subsystems and general functionality have been tested.
A large part of this work was focused on testing and the integration of the Open Vehicle Management Platform developed in WP 304. It is completely operational and is able to handle communications and the energy management calculations developed in WP 305 by TU Eindhoven in real-time. Testing and the integration of the FlexRay-based Open Vehicle Management Platform are presented as part of the energy management system.
Furthermore, excerpts of vehicle CAN communication is shown in order to show that the components are able to communicate with each other. The other vehicle subsystems rely mainly on the CAN bus system for intercommunication.
The main objective was to calibrate the functions of the hybrid system and the (electrified) auxiliaries in a static way in the prototype truck. The report shows measurement logs of different tests (step response and controls) and also of a test drive. Thereby the functionality of the different vehicle subsystems and functions under operating conditions is shown. All described subsystems are calibrated in a static way and operate in the prototype truck.
In the deliverable D308.2 some measurement logs of the desired vehicle functions are presented under operating conditions. The logs show the static calibration of the different functions. For that purpose, excerpts of vehicle CAN communication are shown in order to see the functionality of the subsystems and its components. The focus on the hybrid system includes high voltage battery, the electrified auxiliaries, the 24 V supply and the controllable shutter position.
For the electrified auxiliaries the focus lies on electric hydraulic power steering, the electrified water pumps, the electrified air compressor and the electrified power take-off. The 24 V circuit can be supplied by an alternator and a DCDC converter.
A multi-mode inverter (MMI) was used to power the electric air compressor and the electrified power take-off from the high voltage circuit. The MMI provides AC voltage at 50 Hz to the components on individual outputs. These outputs can be switched on or off. Thus an on-off control is available for the electric air compressor and the electrified power take-off.
The conventional drivetrain is advanced to a hybrid drivetrain by a high voltage battery and an inverter with an electric machine. The battery is controlled by switching the main contactors on and off. To improve the fuel savings further, some electrified auxiliaries are assembled to the truck. An electric hydraulic power steering is supplied by the 24 V circuit. The speed of an electric machine which propels the hydraulic pump can be controlled. Thus this system can control the volume flow of the hydraulic steering circuit on demand.
Electrified water pumps are used to control the volume flow on demand in the coolant circuit of the high voltage battery and the electric machine (inclusive inverter). The water pumps are driven by a speed controlled electric machine. The pumps are supplied by the 24 V circuit.
The electrified air compressor and the electrified power take-off only provide an on off control.
The EHPS is provided by Magna and uses its internal control strategy. The supervisory control enables the EHPS by a command signal. The EHPS calculates its motor speed by internal rules using the information of vehicle speed and steering wheel angle.
The water pumps for the coolant circuits of battery and electric machine (including inverter) are electrified and therefore have a controllable speed.
The electrified air compressor is powered by the MMI from the high voltage circuit. The MMI provides AC voltage at 50 Hz at the output of the electrified air compressor. This output can be enabled or disabled for controlling the electrified air compressor.
The electrified power take-off is also powered by the MMI from the high voltage circuit. As for the electrified air compressor, the MMI provides AC voltage at 50 Hz at the output of the electrified power take-off. This output can be enabled or disabled for controlling the electrified power take-off.
In the beginning the MMI already consumes around 1300 W: this is used by the DCDC converter for supplying the 24 V circuit. At 972.4s the electrified power take-off is switched on. A 14 kW heater is used as consumer on the output of the power take-off. After switching on the electrified power take-off the power consumed by the MMI increases up to 15300 W.
On the truck the 24 V circuit can be supplied by a controllable alternator and a controllable DCDC converter. Both systems are controlled by a voltage setpoint. In addition the DCDC converter can also be enabled or disabled. In general the DCDC converter is faster in controlling the voltage.
The alternator can be controlled via a voltage set-point: if this set-point is below battery voltage no power is supplied to the battery.
The DCDC converter is also controlled by a voltage set-point and an additional enable command.
The voltage set-point is kept constant at 27 V for this scenario. In the beginning the DCDC converter is disabled and no DCDC current occurs. At 948s the DCDC converter is switched on. As a result, there is an increasing DCDC current which charges the 24 V battery. The battery voltage is controlled close to the voltage setpoint by a changing DCDC current. The DCDC current is reduced over time. At 993.5s the DCDC converter is disabled again and the DCDC current reduces to 0.
The shutter position in the truck can be controlled.

As long as the coolant temperature of the internal combustion engine is below a specific temperature, the shutter is closed. Around second 750 this temperature is reached and the shutter is opened completely. A variable shutter position is then enabled at around 2300s. The shutter is opened between 65 % and 90 %. This results in a slightly increased coolant temperature.

SP A4: Vehicle Simulations and Final assessment (CRF)
The main objective of SP A4 was to evaluate the enhancement of proposed technologies in terms of fuel efficiency at complete vehicle level, by means of the selected simulation tools, namely PERFECTS and AVL Cruise respectively, both well-established tools for such fuel-consumption evaluations. Correspondingly, an important goal is to define the scope of the simulation by identifying appropriate reference missions to be used for the simulation activities.

WP A4.1 – Assessment Criteria
The activity led to define the reference assessment criteria, to simulate the average fuel-consumption of a complete heavy-duty vehicle (truck-semitrailer combination), hence enabling also the validation of such simulations during the successive developing phases of the project.
During this activity, the interested partners of CONVENIENT have agreed that the reference missions should be coherent with the activities underway in the Working Group “Heavy-Duty Vehicles” of ACEA (; in particular, it has been decided that the reference assessment mission in CONVENIENT will be the “Standard ACEA Regional Delivery cycle”, together with a modified version named ‘Legal ACEA Regional Delivery cycle’, coherent with the speed limitation in force in Italy. These reference cycles are reasonably well correlated with the available experimental data-base related to IVECO Stralis long-haul trucks; their compliancy with real-user missions of Iveco fleet has been checked by CRF.
Moreover, in addition to the ACEA “Regional Delivery” cycle, other real-usage missions have been used during the course of project, with the aim to evaluate deeply some solutions under specific usage conditions. E.g. the ACEA “Urban Delivery” cycle will adopted for the evaluation of fuel-efficiency improvements related to hybrid transmission, while the on-highway mission Turin-Genova-Turin will be largely used for an overall comparison against real-usage data extracted from IVECO testing Data-base.
The main scope of the activity described was the definition of the reference assessment criteria to enable the use of selected simulation tools, namely PERFECTS and AVL Cruise respectively, both well-established tools for such fuel-consumption evaluations, in order to simulate the fuel-consumption of a complete heavy-duty vehicle (truck-semitrailer combination), hence enabling the validation of simulations during the successive testing phases of the CONVENIENT project, bearing in mind that one of the main objectives of SP A4 is to evaluate the technology enhancement of proposed advanced systems in terms of fuel efficiency at complete vehicle level, by means of a simulation tool. Correspondingly, the main goal has been to define the scope of the simulation and the input data by identifying appropriate reference missions to be used for the simulation activities. The general assessment criteria for this selection has been the need to assess fuel efficiency of the vehicle in realistic operational conditions and hence the potential reduction in CO2 emissions, and additionally to investigate the energetic balance of the high-voltage battery (S.O.C.) of the electric hybrid system in detail.
The main conclusion drawn from this activity is that both the Standard ACEA Regional Delivery cycle and the ‘Legal ACEA Regional’, defined to respect the speed limit in force in Italy, are reasonably well correlated with the available experimental data-base based on IVECO Stralis vehicle. Correspondingly the proposal is that both Standard ACEA Regional Delivery cycle and ‘Legal ACEA Regional’ are considered acceptable for use as reference cycles within the CONVENIENT project, in order to be able to analyse the enhancements of the vehicles in terms of fuel efficiency. Furthermore, it has been agreed that a series of additional cycles could also be defined during the project, in order to evaluate deeper the single solutions or specific roads scenarios (e.g. Mountains, Urban scenarios etc.). For example, the ACEA Urban Delivery cycle will be probably adopted for the evaluation of fuel-efficiency improvements related to the adoption of the hybrid transmission.
For these reasons it is proposed that both Standard ACEA Regional Delivery cycle and ‘Legal ACEA Regional’ are considered acceptable for use as reference cycles within the CONVENIENT project, in order to be able to analyse the enhancements of the vehicles in terms of fuel efficiency.

WP A4.2 Development and validation of enhanced vehicle simulation tool
Within CONVENIENT specific simulation tools will be used to evaluate and assess various technologies in the context of the entire vehicles. This report describes the method which will be applied for the assessment and the validation of new technologies by an example.
Various energy saving technologies for heavy trucks are assessed / validated by means of projections to real driving conditions. This means that various physical modelling approaches have to be coupled. This method has been demonstrated by an example which considers the integration of electrical hybrid components to the powertrain of a truck.
The evaluation of hybridization concepts requires sequential investigations of the vehicle dynamics, electrical requirements, specification of electrical components and their integration to the powertrain by optimum hybridization strategies. Usually, several iteration loops are required in order to achieve optimized concepts which depict benefits.
In a first step of such an evaluation the simplified approach shown in this report represents an efficient methodology to get the basic requirements and specifications of hybrid electric components such as the battery which was exemplarily elaborated herein. In a further iteration loop a detailed vehicle simulation model will be build up in AVL CRUISE and PerFECTS, which will also include the detailed models of the hybrid electric components and an appropriate hybrid controller. The latter is necessary to operate the hybrid components and to execute the designated hybrid functions and operational strategies in the simulation environment.
Case studies demonstrate the calculation of statistical profiles of requirements for the battery and other electrical components. The individual cases did not yet depict any direct fuel consumption benefits because due to unfavourable interactions individual components were brought to their limit of operating ability and thus prevent any benefit of the entire concept (such as e.g. the limited capacity of a battery). Consequently, any benefits of the hybridisation concept can be evaluated only if suitable components and correspondingly optimized calibrations of operational strategies are applied.
The accomplishment of such tasks requires an improvement of the simulation models, especially for the coupling of various physical modelling approaches developed in other work packages of the project.
The enhanced model developed in AVL Cruise environment has been used to assess the fuel saving achievable on DAF and VOLVO trucks, while the enhanced model developed in PerFECTS environment has been considered for IVECO truck.

WP A4.3 – Full-vehicle simulations of energy-saving systems
Within CONVENIENT various technologies are evaluated which focus on an improvement of the fuel economy of long haul trucks. These technologies refer to components of the entire vehicle and also to new control strategies for a holistic energy management. Some concepts, which have been developed in the first phase of the project, are analyzed and assessed by simulations. Thus, the concepts are represented as realistic technology packages which are optimized in terms of their specifications (e.g. battery capacity, power of alternator, etc.) and with respect to its control. An interim report already defined the technology packages and described the modelling approach. This final version of the deliverable report analyzes some case studies and evaluates the potential for fuel savings with hybrid electrical approaches.
CONVENIENT evaluates technologies for fuel saving in long haul heavy truck applications. The focus is laid on the energy balance of the entire vehicle which includes a critical analysis of all energy sources and consumers, the minimization of power losses and the optimization of operation strategies of auxiliaries such as engine cooling and lubrication systems, servo drives, air conditioning etc. Some of the auxiliaries are actuated on demand and thus can be applied e.g. for an accurate control of engine coolant and lubricant temperatures. On the other hand, sufficient electrical energy must be produced, buffered and distributed which requires intelligent recuperation strategies, sufficient battery storage capacity and smart controllers which guarantee for a stable supply system on board.
The structure of CONVENIENT defines three “vertical” subprojects. Each of these is coordinated by an Original Engine Manufacturer (OEM) who defines and provides one demonstrator vehicle within each “vertical” subproject. These vehicles are the platforms for the evaluation of specific devices which are adapted for the purpose of improving the fuel economy.
AVL contributes with the development and provision of vehicle models which simulate the longitudinal driving dynamics of the vehicles and depict all energy flows such as mechanical energy flows for vehicle propulsion and auxiliary drives, thermal energy flows in engine cooling systems and other heating/ cooling devices (for cabin, trailer) and electrical energy flows in the generator/ electric motor, battery and the electricity consumers. Only if all energy flows of the total energy balance of a vehicle are accessible and controllable, optimum strategies for fuel savings can be evaluated. In particular the following technologies have been evaluated related to specific tuck application:
• Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Iveco Truck
• E-Auxiliaries; strategies for “on-demand” operation and holistic energy management for VOLVO truck
• Low voltage recuperation & smart boardnet control for DAF truck
The fuel-consumption simulation for the IVECO heavy-truck demonstrator has been performed by CRF. The proprietary tool for fuel-economy and energy-management simulation, named PerFECTS has been used to simulate the models of novel subsystems and also the new complete vehicle. The complete vehicle model will include the new sub-systems integrated onto the normal production vehicle resulting in hybrid vehicle configuration. Once the virtual vehicle model is updated, each subsystem is fed by proper parametric values so as to specify the characteristics of the subsystems and refine the models. In this way, the novel sub-systems can be optimized in a way that will improve the efficiency of the vehicle. To optimize the complex architecture, proper control strategies have to be devised for the energy management at the sub-system and also at the system level.
Different methodologies have been adopted depending of the subsystem model level; one of most interesting was the co-simulation involving the PerFECTS and KULI in order to investigate the dual loop circuit. The standard engine cooling system and the dual loop engine cooling system developed in KULI has been integrated onto PerFECTS and the same has been simulated at overall vehicle level so as to evaluate the benefit in terms of fuel consumption under ACEA Regional and ACEA Regional Modified cycles.
In addition analysis on improvement of active and passive aerodynamic characteristics, electrified auxiliaries, hybrid powertrain, driver behaviour and predictive ecodriving system has been performed including in the virtual vehicle platform dedicated models developed in Matlab / Simulink.

WP A4.5 – Final assessment of 3 demonstrator trucks
In this section are described the fuel saving results obtained for the three prototypes of IVECO, VOLVO and DAF involved in the project; the goal of WP A4.5 was the final assessment of the fuel saving that can be achieved in the three prototypes. This assessment is mainly based on virtual simulations using the tools PerFECTS and AVL Cruise.
In the following is available a detailed description of the use cases considered, the methodology adopted and the fuel consumption results. The final fuel saving assessment of the use cases considered in the project shows a result that can be considered significant respect the initial target.
It is impossible to give an absolute value of fuel saving achievable thanks the different technologies investigated in the project, because it depends on different conditions such as the missions, the driving style. For this reason several cycles, reference for heavy duty vehicle and also some OEM standard, have been considered.
It is important to underline that several technologies have been analysed and the simultaneous use of them in an unique virtual vehicle allow to reach a fuel saving that it is not the aggregations of the single contributions; this is one of the reason for the distance between the target and the final assessment.
As it was expected at the beginning of the project, additional technologies should be considered in order to improve the fuel consumption in order to be closer to the initial target; this is demonstrated in the final assessment of DAF truck where thanks the downsizing of the engine and the use of low rolling resistance tires it is possible to get a fuel saving up to the 27%.

SP B1: Friction Reduction (MERITOR)
The main objective of SP B1 was the reduction of friction generated by rear-axle bearings and lubricating oil in the differential case. The outcome of this SP will be a novel rear-axle prototype to be integrated both on IVECO truck and on DAF truck.
Prototypes were developed integrating also the pinion, differential and wheel end bearing provided by SKF; SKF has worked on the development of models of specific bearing design and friction model with detailed knowledge of the sources of friction (bearing friction, gear friction, lubrication splash losses) on rear-axle.
During the first year of activity, MERITOR has worked on the estimation of the drag reduction due to the new solution implemented, the results of this investigation are summarized in the deliverable report 501.2.
During this test campaign MERITOR has tested also some of the new oil specifications in order to verify any improvement on efficiency; in the meantime, SKF started the development of low friction bearings.
Meritor has performed a design study with DAF to integrate the new axle in the new DAF demonstrator. The Demo bench with the new Friction Reduction Lubrication System was showed during IAA exhibition (Hannover, October 2014). During the exhibition, MERITOR showed the live demonstration of oil level control system in the differential.

WP B1.1 - Low friction prototype axle
This section documents the prototype deliverable of WP B1.1 (WP501), which is aimed to develop and build-up a prototypal low-friction rear-axle to be used onto the trucks under development in the CONVENIENT project.
The company Meritor, Sub-project Leader of SP B1, has developed a high efficiency rear-axle system, which is engineered to actively monitor the vehicle operating conditions. Meritor’s system is an intelligent drive axle system: enabled by electronic controls, the drive control unit constantly senses the oil-temperature, the speed, the braking and torque conditions, with the aim to apply the optimized amount of lubrication to the axle.
The system addresses the two main areas of power losses in axles: gear and bearing friction and oil churning due to rotation of gears.
This system is an effective solution for improving the efficiency of the vehicle, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions and optimizing the vehicle operating costs.
Meritor solution has overcome the paradigm of typical non-active axle systems by employing advanced controls leading to an “intelligent axle” system, which provides tangible benefits to the customer. The system integrated in the rear-axle is able to reduce or to increase the amount of oil in the differential case according to the mission of the truck, thus providing the needed lubrication to the gears without unnecessary losses related to oil-churning due to rotation of gears.
The intelligent drive system operates the control-valve for increasing/reducing the oil level in the differential case according to the following control strategy:
• In normal cruising conditions the control system reduces the quantity of oil in the differential case to the minimum level (control-valve closed, auxiliary tank filled of oil), thus reducing the level of oil around the crown-gear and therefor reducing churning losses; in this way, the system improves the efficiency of the axle and reduces the fuel-consumption at vehicle level
• In more demanding conditions, in High-Torque, Braking or Low-Speed conditions, when a higher lubrication is required, the intelligent drive system operates (control-valve open, auxiliary tank empty) in order to increase again the oil to the standard (max) level, thus increasing the lubrication of gears and reducing frictions and wearing.
In the testing phase system’s efficiency and durability have been verified under operating conditions. The tests performed on the prototype axle were:
- 17X Power Loss Test with internal reservoir: aim of the tests, carried out on a Lubrication bench test in Cameri, was to determine the axle power losses at several lubricant quantity using an internal reservoir.
- 17X Efficiency test and Lubricant validation: aim of the tests, carried out on a dynamometer bench test in Cameri, was to understand the axle temperature increases at several lubricant quantity and the efficiency performances with new prototype carrier, with different oil types.
The test performed as baseline with Q8T65 lubricant has confirmed the results obtained during previous tests: a power loss of 3,6 kW (97% of input power) at 80°C of oil temp and 80 Km/h (condition IV). With the same test conditions were tested other three lubricant and he complete comparison of each efficiency test conducted on dynamometer test bench is showed in the graph below:

The influence of high lubricant quantity is evident, every oil tested gives the same performance till 9.5 litres, so there is room to reduce the sump filling.

WP B1.2 – 502 - Development of Low Friction Bearing Units for Wheel-End and Final Drive
This section reports the delivery of D502.1 prototype low-friction final drive bearings and prototype low-friction wheel-end bearings. The prototype bearings for final drive and rear axle wheel-end have been delivered and tested: all bearings, including the front axle bearings, have been successfully tested in the laboratory, on the friction test rig: the tests results show an average friction reduction of over 30%. A similar friction reduction is expected when the bearings are integrated in the sub-systems and in the complete truck.
The low-fiction prototype bearings for the rear axle showed 30% lower friction torque compared to the series type bearing. The average friction value was 5,7 Nm compared to 8,2 Nm for the series bearing. The set of low-friction prototype bearings for final drive consists of the pinion bearings, head and tail and the left and right differential bearings. In the different conditions considered, the measurements performed give values of friction reduction ranging from 19% to 45%.

WP B1.3 – 503 - Friction model of rear-axle and driveline – Validation phase
Aim of the test was to evaluate the carrier efficiency of MS17X Evo/2.64 with Logix Drive system in four configurations:
Without tank – baseline test;
With tank open;
With tank close;
With tank close and Pakelo Arm gear lube 5 75W85.
Tests were conducted on 700 hp axle dynamometer rig, using only two sides (pinion and right wheel); all tests were carried out with engaged diff. lock.
To avoid any difference in efficiency measurements, the lubricant temperature was constantly monitored by a thermocouple at the drain plug; each efficiency measurement was acquired between 79 °C and 81 °C and efficiency was estimated with the following equation:
η= T_out/T_in *100
The test showed different fuel saving depending on the LLC configuration:
The fuel saving curve trend presents rising values from the lowest speed till 80 km/h and the fuel saving can be quantify in ~1 % at 80 km/h and 85,56 kW.

SP B2: Holistic Energy Management & Fuel-Saving Systems (CRF)
The Sub-Project B2, led by CRF, is a cluster of activities aimed to develop several technologies to be transversally used in the ‘vertical’ SPs A1, A2 and A3.
The WP B2.1 (WP601) contributes to develop a Holistic Energy Management system; the deliverable report D601.1 entitled “Roadmap and concepts for smart vehicle powernet” has been issued by TUE; this concept for smart vehicle powernet was implemented in DAF prototype vehicle in SP-A3.

WP B2.1 – 601 - Roadmap of on-board Energy Management
The ultimate goal of the CONVENIENT project is to develop a strategy for complete vehicle energy management: this means that all different energy domains (like mechanical, thermal, electric and chemical domain) are taken into account as well as their associated subsystems: a holistic vision. Vehicle energy management is the scope of this WP’s activities, as a viable technique for reducing the CO2 emissions emerging in the transportation sector.
The underlying energy management strategies in hybrid and battery electric vehicles optimize the overall conversion efficiency and minimize energy losses. In this WP, the focus is on state-of-art energy management strategies that take advantage of energy storage buffers present in (commercial) vehicles. Energy storage allows freedom to schedule the supply and demand of power and allow power converters to operate in their most optimal operating range.
Nowadays, a wide variety of energy management strategies exists, ranging from heuristic strategies to mathematical optimization strategies. An extensive literature study has been done and the different solution concepts (i.e. heuristic strategies as well as optimal control methods) are presented in the dedicated report, including also important trends on smart auxiliaries like smart alternator control and vehicle thermal management. It is recognized that besides energy storage buffers, also communication technology is an important enabler for energy management. The added value from communication sensors like e-horizon and V2x are discussed.
It is observed that current research on energy management strategies typically rely on centralized control concepts. Most advantageous of a centralized control concept is that all relevant vehicle information is available in a central control unit to decide on the optimal control actions and achieve maximum energy efficiency. A difficulty with the centralized approach is to keep complexity limited and to avoid an extensive communication architecture.
A distributed control concept is an attractive design concept, with the ability to keep complexity manageable with the possibly to achieve maximum energy efficiency. Moreover, a distributed solution allows scalability, flexibility and plug&play capability: just adding an additional component does not require to reprogram the centralized algorithms. An important result is that the plug&play concept should also apply to auxiliaries in the vehicle: this property keeps complexity limited and the development time and calibration effort remains acceptable when more auxiliaries are being introduced in the vehicle. Plug-in hybrid vehicles are designed for connecting to the electricity grid.
Lean development will be one of the major achievements of the smart vehicle powernet. Systems that will be connected to the smart powernet can be developed independently and require minimum knowledge of the rest of the vehicle. This leads to short development time and also calibration effort will be limited.
Having accurate preview information about the future driver’s demand as well as information of surrounding traffic will help to bridge the gap between on-line implementable strategies and non-causal optimal strategies like DP. Owing to new communication hardware and ICT services, the amount of prediction information is rapidly growing. The main challenge for predictive powertrain control will be to organize and structure all the available information and come with the most reliable prediction information.

WP B2.2 – 602 – Smart vehicle powernet concept development
This section presents a design and simulation study of the Smart Vehicle Powernet, which is a concept for holistic energy management (EM) of all energy storage elements and auxiliaries in vehicles. The objective is to have an EM concept that is plug&play in the sense that auxiliaries and/or energy storage elements can be easily added/removed, while guaranteeing (close to) minimal fuel consumption and satisfying environmental and technical constraints, without the need to calibrate the control system.
In WP B2.1 (601), it was concluded that a distributed architecture is needed to enable the plug&play concept for controllable components. This distributed architecture (the so-called Smart Vehicle Powernet) consists of a price/market mechanism, in which the power supply and request of each component is determined based on an energy price, which evolves over time (according to the total power from all auxiliaries incl. preview information of the drive cycle). This energy price is coordinated by a so-called Energy Management System Operator (EMSO). All components optimize their power request based on the current and future energy price and the EMSO should ensure that prices are such that (close to) global optimality of the power consumption (and hence fuel consumption) is guaranteed. As concluded in WP B2.1 control of the smart vehicle powernet can be based on ideas from control of smart grids.
In conclusion, an online implementable and distributable solution for Complete Vehicle Energy Management is presented using a receding horizon and a dual decomposition method. The results show that the computational load of the proposed solution is small and that the performance is close to optimal in terms of fuel consumption reduction.
Moreover, the results are obtained without a need for parameter tuning and rely completely on component models and prediction information. Due to this strong dependency, an interesting extension to this research amounts to investigating the robustness of the algorithm against modelling errors.

B2.3 – 603 - Enhanced simulation models of electrified steering pump and electrified water pump
The main objectives of WP B2.3 were the following:
• Development of energetic simulation models built up in MATLAB® Simulink® and KULI using differential equations and mathematical relations that show the interaction between the total components in the different domains as mechanics, electronics, hydraulics and thermal fluids. These models are used to analyse the energetic flow of both the steering pump and the water pump and to simulate the system’s reaction to modifications of input parameters and state variables. The model parameters are extracted from measurements on demonstrator vehicles or system simulations and are supplied by IVECO, VOLVO and/or DAF to ECS.
• Analyse downsize and on-demand control potential: regarding the conventional system, both the steering and the water pump are connected to the engine. To guarantee high performance also at idle the pumps are oversized in most cases. By electrifying the system the pumps get independent of the combustion engine, so as any rotational speeds can be delivered by the electric motor at any time. A new operating point will be defined leading to opti mum efficiency auxiliaries. Therefore the pumps can be downsized and the required driving power can be delivered under all operating conditions.
• Integration in entire vehicle simulation tool: the developed models will be handed over as compiled code models and integrated by CRF in SP A4 in the complete vehicle simulation tool for evaluation of fuel consumption reduction.

WP B2.4 – 604: Electrified Auxiliaries Prototypes
In this WP, ECS was involved in the development and testing of a functional prototype of a 24V Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering unit. The EHPS is a fully integrated power pack containing vane-pump, e-motor and power electronics in a single housing.
Moreover, in the Task B2.4.2 ECS is also developing an Electrified Water Pump (EWP), based on the requirements of VOLVO, using the same 24V electrical architecture of the EHPS. In this case, the power electronics for driving the EWP is separated from the EWP housing in a passive cooled external box to avoid the thermal impact of the hot cooling water.
A functional sample of an Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering (EHPS) unit was developed and manufactured. The unit consists of a brushless DC-motor, power- and signal electronics on one board and a hydraulic pump. These components had to be integrated in a compact package with the target to enable easy installation on truck with low demand of clearance. General benefit of this component is to lower fuel consumption of heavy trucks. The power electronics of this component is integrated in the main housing with close contact to the hydraulic pump flange whereby the steering oil is used as indirect cooling. Additionally we use a separate Hybrid Control Unit (HCU) with an implemented operating strategy for the intelligent control of the unit.
A new component test bench was built up with the possibility to test the motor alone as well as the complete package in a hydraulic circuit. The EHPS was tested on an IVECO Stralis at the ECS proving ground.
A functional sample of an electrified water pump (EWP) was developed and manufactured. The e-motor and the power electronics are sharing the same platform as at the EHPS. In opposition to the EHPS, the power electronics is external mounted in a separate box which can be water-cooled.
The electrified water pump was tested including the refinement of the 1D simulation model. The vehicle was basically used for parameterization of the EHPS and subjective tests with trained test drivers, nevertheless measurements were made with the Iveco Stralis and measurements with the conventional steering system have been made for comparison, in the same conditions to the greatest possible extends (weather, ambient temperature and street conditions).
Dynamic steering manoeuvers were done on the ECS proving ground in St. Valentin to evaluate the EHPS motor dynamics. Within the scope of these tests also the double lane change according to the standard ISO 3888 was performed; the test was performed at a vehicle speed of 40 km/h.
In general, all tests performed showed that for dynamic steering manoeuvers – such as double lane change or steering wheel step input at vehicle speed > 20 km/h – high volume flow rate is required. In contrast to this, steering manoeuvres at a low vehicle speed need high steering pressure to increase the steering support.
The subjective evaluation of steering at standstill showed that no difference in the steering feeling can be detected although the hydraulic power of the actual EHPS sample is limited to 3,3 kW compared to approximately 7 kW hydraulic power of the conventional system.
Well trained and experienced test drivers were asked to test and evaluate both the conventional and the electrified steering system. Therefore a 50 km long cycle was chosen consisting of long haul application, city driving, suburban driving and shunting.

The electrified steering system was overall equally or even better evaluated than the conventional one. The reason therefore is the adaptive steering support depending on the vehicle speed and the steering wheel angle.

B2.5 – 605 - Prototypes of Hydraulic Kinetic-Energy-Recovery System for Semitrailer
The main objective of this WP, led by CRF with the cooperation of IAM, is to develop a hydraulic system capable to recover Kinetic Energy (H-KERS) during deceleration/braking of the semi-trailer CRF has made some extensive analyses to define the architecture and for sizing the main hydraulic components (hydraulic pump/motors, hydraulic accumulators).
Task B2.5.1 Performances requirements and functionalities analysis. This phase represent the basis to define the functional characteristics in terms of performance, missions, terms and conditions of intervention.
Task B2.5.2 System architecture definition and components specification. In this activity we have defined the architecture which better fulfill the requirements. We have performed a preliminary system design in order to define component functional specification and selection. The architectural hypothesis has be verified in simulation.
Task B2.5.3 System modeling. Here we have designed and verified the proposed architecture as well as we have carried out the control design with the help of a model based environment based upon an appropriate computing code (AMESim), to simplify the control design and “Software in the Loop” verification and validation process.
Task B2.5.4 Control Design and Development. Using model based development environment developed in task,the system control architecture has been defined, and all the main control functions have been designed.
Task B2.5.5 Support for Prototype realization. This phase includes the CAD installation design and the preparation of the hydraulic and electrical schemes for the prototyping phase, which will be performed by IAM.

WP B2.6 (606) – Efficient Semitrailer Development
The efficiency of heavy duty vehicle can be improved in a relevant way by operating on both the tractor and the semi-trailer. In order to optimize the semi-trailer air-drag, without compromising the operational efficiency of cargo handling, has been foreseen the integration of passive and active aerodynamic solutions.
This section describes the activities conducted in WP B2.6 led by IVECO – IAM with the cooperation of CRF, aimed to efficient semitrailer development, with different solutions employed to support the fuel saving and energy harvesting, in particular optimizing the new aerodynamic components to be used in combination with the IVECO truck, in order to reduce the vehicle drag and to save fuel.
These activities are strictly related to the WP A1.4 tasks, that is:
- Reduce the aerodynamic cooling drag by developing active shutters for the front radiator grill, capable to control the air flowing into the engine bay in such a way to guarantee the efficiency of the cooling systems in all the situations, with the minimum increase of drag.
- Reduce the aerodynamic wheel drag by developing control systems of the flow around the wheel arches, in conjunction with the control of the under hood flows.
- Develop other active and passive means, in order to reduce flow separations at cab corners and optimize the aerodynamics between the cabin and the trailer to reduce the drag in different wind conditions and increase safety during cross winds.
- Optimize aerodynamics devices for the semitrailer developed by IAM, to be used in combination with the IVECO truck, to increase the rear base pressure and therefore to reduce the complete vehicle drag.
Iveco has been involved in tests activities on the prototype version of the semi-trailer.
IAM and VE&D have checked different possible solutions based on CFD solution and together have defined which areas have more influence on the aerodynamic drag, that is: under trailer area, lower side zone ahead the wheel, wheel area, back skirt area and upper rear zone.
The trailer has been equipped with various aerodynamic parts, that is: frontal part about under trailer area, lower side zone, back skirt, boat tail and side wings.
Furthermore, photovoltaic solar panels have been installed both on the cab-roof and on the semi-trailer roof, in order to harvest energy for charging both the standard battery and the high-voltage battery, thus enabling the use of Electric Air-conditioning system(which includes electric climate compressor and electric heaters) and other in-cab electric devices used during a typical 8÷10 hours parking.

Potential Impact:
The primary goal of CONVENIENT was to develop within 3 years from its start an innovative heavy-truck archetype, featuring a suite of innovative energy-saving technologies and solutions taking an existing vehicle as reference, in order to achieve a fuel consumption reduction of 30%.
The most relevant and characterizing content of the project is represented by the proposed holistic approach to on board energy management, aimed to consider the tractor, the semi-trailer, the driver behaviour and the mission as a whole problem.
The project included development and integration of:
• innovative energy efficient systems and energy harvesting devices;
• advanced active and passive aerodynamics devices;
• energy management at vehicle level;
• driver support to maximize the benefits of the energy saving systems and strategies.
The reference mission is based on yearly usage period and include also overnight parking.
The main objective of the Project was then detailed on three truck applications defined by the three European OEM involved in CONVENIENT: DAF, IVECO and VOLVO.
Each truck manufacturer decided to considered a subset of new technologies investigated and developed in the project and, for that, three different fuel saving target have been set: 25% - 30% for Iveco Truck, 21% - 30% for DAF truck, 15% for VOLVO Truck.
It’s important to highlight that in the deployment phase of fuel saving targets for the 3 prototype trucks, the expected total percentage of fuel reduction was estimated as a sum of the single contribution, assumption that during the project has been demonstrated not completely correct.
At the end, the real fuel saving obtained by the three trucks, evaluated in virtual way by means of the enhanced models developed in the different work packages, was good but not exactly the one that was established as initial target setting phase.
The reasons of that are multiple and can be synthetize in the following points:
• The fuel saving that can be achieved by a single technology can be higher than the one achievable in combination with other technologies; this means that a mutual influence can happen when different devices or systems are implemented in the vehicle, prevent that the overall fuel saving is an aggregation of the contributions. An example of this behaviour is the combination of electrified auxiliaries with the hybrid powertrain: if part of the energy recovered by the hybrid system is used not only to support the electric traction of the vehicle, but also to power the auxiliaries, the fuel saving due to the hybrid powertrain is lower than the one achieved by itself. Another example is the hybrid transmission with the predictive eco-driving: the hybrid system tries to recover kinetic energy during deceleration phases, whereas the predictive eco-driving system would like to maintain the kinetic energy in the moving truck and these two strategies do not allow to maximize the overall fuel saving.
• The fuel saving provided by a technology strongly depends on the mission: an example is the improvement of active and passive vehicle aerodynamics that has showed significant fuel saving (about 5%-6%) in missions with typical motorway characteristics (ACEA Long Haul, Turin – Genoa). But these missions are not the most suitable to underline the fuel consumption benefit due to the hybrid powertrain. In the same way, on the mission with also typical urban cycle characteristics (ACEA regional cycle) an evident advantage can be obtained by the hybrid transmission, but not by the aerodynamic improvements.
• About the new technologies and systems related to the thermal management the results obtained were lower to the target; about the dual level system considered by IVECO Dual Level cooling: the fuel saving obtained is lower than the target values, due to the fact that main advantage is related to the use of air conditioning. In the simulations has been considered an average European environment temperature in the year of 25°C and H.R. of 50% that allow to identify a saving but not as high as the one that can be achieved at higher temperature (i.e. 35°C and 60% of HR standard for summer season). In DAF truck the thermal management strategies did not result in additional fuel savings.
On the basis of all the above considerations, as it was expected at the beginning of the project, additional technologies should be considered in order to improve the fuel consumption to be closer to the initial target; this is demonstrated in the final assessment of DAF truck where the impact of the engine downsizing and the use of low rolling resistance tires were investigated allowing an overall fuel saving equal to 27%.
The activities of the project have demonstrated that the goal of 30% of fuel reduction is really challenging but it is a result that can be considered accessible, even if it is important to remind that the truck mission characteristics can significantly affect it.
This represents a challenge that can be faced only with the contribution of all the stakeholders and with the aim to develop a new generation of efficient and affordable vehicles for road transport.
The long distance freight transport plays today and will play in the next decades a very important role for the European economy but, according to the future scenario, any further development should be sustainable and affordable.
One of the most impacting aspects of CONVENIENT outcomes is the study of the different factors (or systems) that affect the vehicles’ overall energy efficiency: more efficient transport solutions with reduced environmental impact, reduced oil and energy consumption will mitigate the environmental impact and at the same time will enable a further competitiveness increase.
The results of simulations and measurements are promising that future long-haul trucks, including also a certain degree of energy recovery and harvesting systems, can be an effective solution.
CONVENIENT has investigated the integration of existing energy recovery/harvesting technology in the Holistic Energy Management System and multiple energy domains have been explored, i.e. kinetic energy recovery, waste-heat recovery (e.g. thermal storage and thermal-electric converters), photovoltaic panels and plug-in connection with the national electricity grid.
All project partners cooperated to develop innovations that extend the current state-of-the-art technologies in a “stretch technology” approach with the potential to be implemented into high volume production within the end of this decade.
The OEM partners developed each their own demonstrator vehicles and each demonstrator vehicle establishes a different level of integration for energy management with efficient hardware and energy harvesting. The general aim of each demonstrator vehicle is characterized as follows:
• SP A1 (IVECO): Focus on integrating energy management with hybrid transmission and efficient systems, together with energy harvesting from multiple energy domains
• SP A2 (VOLVO): Focus on demonstrating the added value of predictive energy management and predictive eco-driving
• SP A3 (DAF): Focus on demonstrating the integration of energy management with energy efficient hardware in a flexible and easily reconfigurable way.

Dissemination and/or exploitation of project results, and management of intellectual property
The Dissemination Plan aims at describing strategies and activities for successfully and effectively promoting the knowledge and the relevant achievements of the project, by putting the basis for future exploitation of CONVENIENT results. The report identifies also target audience, potential dissemination tools and channels to which address effective dissemination actions and messages.
The CONVENIENT project established a dedicated work package (WP703) to deal with dissemination activities and involvement of stakeholders closely interrelated with other WPs throughout the whole project duration.
A widespread dissemination of the CONVENIENT project’s activities and results is considered as crucial for the success of the project, and facilitates the exploitation (market introduction) and deployment of the project’s outcomes.
The CONVENIENT project aims to achieve a widespread public awareness of its technologies and solutions among the relevant stakeholders involved in long-distance freight transport:
- industry (automotive OEMs, automotive supplier);
- freight delivery companies;
- Public Administrations;
- final customers and residents.
A detailed implementation plan of CONVENIENT dissemination activities - properly scheduled – is provided inside this deliverable. This plan will be regularly checked and updated on the basis of the project’s progress taking on board also new potential dissemination opportunities.
The CONVENIENT dissemination strategy has been developed to foster project results and impacts, at local, national and international level.
Dissemination activities are fundamental for the project, for this reason CONVENIENT dissemination actions and strategies have been planned and shared.
The CONVENIENT Consortium is constituted by partners experienced in successful dissemination activities at EU level, capable to identify not only specific activities but also project exploitation potentials after project conclusion.
Dissemination is a continuous process taking into consideration that – if well promoted – the project results may promote the development of future next generation long-haulage commercial vehicles.
The main objective is that the proper information will reach, in an appropriate way, all users that could have benefits from it.
The selected audience for CONVENIENT are representatives – having different objectives and roles - of international/national/local key actors, as listed below:
• industry (truck OEMs, automotive suppliers)
• logistics service providers and freight carriers
• Public Administrations
• final customers
The following table provides a list of the interested stakeholders and representatives of the CONVENIENT Consortium. The list of target audience is still in progress and will be continuously improved and extended with new contacts the project will get during its activities (e.g. workshops or consortium direct contacts).
In order to gain the maximum level of “acceptance” from the potential users, the dissemination strategies of CONVENIENT project require certain communication and coordinations standards:
• Every dissemination initiative is encouraged.
• Every initiative shall be communicated to the project coordinator including a copy of the respective paper/article. This also applies for languages other than English. For presentations, date, location and topic is sufficient.
• The Project Coordinator will try to arrange co-operation between different countries.
• If countries plan a joint dissemination initiative independently, the Project Coordinator should be informed.

List of Websites:
The CONVENIENT web-site ( has been activated since April 2013 and it has been periodically updated both in the public area and in the private area.
The public area contains a detailed description of the project objectives and the planned technical activities, including a page for each Sub-project Work-package; the “Links” page contains references to dissemination documents, while the “News” page contains information about period meetings and dissemination actions (e.g. conferences).
The official logo is also available in order to be used for public events.
Non-public deliverables and confidential technical documentations are stored for internal use in the Private Area, which is restricted to the Partners and to P.O.
Public Deliverables are stored for public access in Results / Public Deliverables page, which is fully accessible by external users.