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European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure - Preparatory Phase 2

Final Report Summary - ECCSEL PP2 (European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure - Preparatory Phase 2)

Executive Summary:
1. Executive summary
The main objective of the ECCSEL Preparatory Phase project was to prepare for the establishment and operation of a world class pan-European distributed Research Infrastructure (RI) for CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS).

ECCSEL (European Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure) addresses the need for a powerful pan-European CCS Research Infrastructure.
The ECCSEL Preparatory Phase (PP) project started January 1st 2011 and lasted 4 years, divided into Preparatory Phase 1 and 2 (which began January 2013). Goal was to bring ECCSEL to the level of legal and financial maturity required for implementation.

ECCSEL is aimed at constructing a new CCS research infrastructure (RI) having a clear European dimension and added value in terms of performance and access. Existing CCS laboratories shall be included into ECCSEL (if they fit the RI’s requirements) and upgraded where possible and necessary. New advanced CCS laboratories (pilots or test sites) shall be planned for later inclusion in ECCSEL.

This RI is foreseen to contribute significantly to the development of European research and innovation capabilities. Emphasis will be placed on preparing the construction of critical new facilities building upon work conducted by the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and on helping researchers to access the best facilities. No distinction will be made between power generation and industrial processes in terms of the CCS techniques addressed. ECCSEL is planned to be in operation in 2015. ECCSEL is defined by the Commission to be on the ESFRI Roadmap as the CCS research infrastructure in Europe.

Experts from relevant ECCSEL partners have identified 91 RI gaps between current research infrastructure and the capabilities that are required to address the critical issues in CO2 capture, transport and storage. Of those 18 are ranked as high priority. The ECCSEL RI is suggested to develop by organic growth in two layers, one layer consisting of network of complementary laboratories and one layer of large pilots and demo sites.

Dissemination of information about ECCSEL at different levels such as the scientific community, industry, national governments, etc. has been carried out for the anchoring of ECCSEL. This shall continue during implementation and operation of ECCSEL.

ECCSEL will continue to explore funding possibilities to ensure that funding for capital investments, operation and access are defined and in place when and where necessary. Funding requirements for investments in the range of €80-120 million are anticipated for the first ten years (2015-2025), in order for ECCSEL to achieve its goals. The total funding is to be provided mainly by the European Union, its Member States, associated countries and third countries, as well as regional and national agencies. Investments in ECCSEL research facilities will be integrated in the national strategies on CCS research.

It is recommended that ECCSEL should be organized as a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). The ECCSEL legal entity should have two governing bodies with decision making powers; the General Assembly and the Board of Directors. ECCSEL should implement secure IPR rules between the ECCSEL members and towards visiting researchers. ECCSEL access policy will be based on the principle of “open access” and the Applicants should bear access costs.
It is vital to ensure strategic industry and political anchoring of ECCSEL in the partner countries. ECCSEL should be recognised as a strategic network of infrastructures for CCS research aligned to EERA, EII and ZEP commitments for supporting the implementation of the European SET-Plan.

ECCSEL has the ambition to support the European Commissions strategy for increasing education and training in Europe within the CCS thematic area.

Main recommendation of ECCSEL PP2 is to start implementation of ECCSEL in 2015 and to prepare for establishing the legal entity, an ECCSEL ERIC, as soon as possible. ECCSEL should be seen as operative
Thus, operation of ECCSEL RI will gradually start in 2015, whilst the ECCSEL legal entity is foreseen to be established early 2016.
Project Context and Objectives:
2 Summary description of project context and objectives
2.1 Concept
It has been pointed out by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), G20 and other global authorities within climate change that we need urgently to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector as well as from the industry. There are many areas in which further Research and Technological Development is urgently needed if Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies are to become viable, cost-effective, global technologies.

The areas where further R&D is needed have been identified by the European Zero Emissions Technology Platform (ZEP-TP), the IPCC, the EERA and in our discussions involving the international research groups working in the field, prior to the submission to ESFRI. The ECCSEL team wishes to develop research infrastructure to tackle these challenges in a coordinated manner, their transnational integration and their use by individual researchers.

The ECCSEL consortium teams up selected Centres of Excellence on CCS across Europe (Norway, Poland, France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Greece, UK, Netherlands and Switzerland). The mission is to develop (i.e. build and operate) a European distributed, goal-oriented, integrated Research Infrastructure, to:
• Provide a dynamic scientific foundation to respond systematically to the urgent R&D needs in CCS at a pan-European level in a short and long term perspective.
• Maintain Europe at the forefront of the international CCS scientific community.
• Increase the attractiveness of the European Research Area, reinforcing the research-based clusters and improving their socio-economic impacts.
• Optimise the value of the Community financial support.

ECCSEL will establish a robust and sustainable legally independent entity. The ambition is to become one of several important instruments that the European Commission initiates and supports to meet the objectives of the SET-plan, and to strategically interact with relevant bodies such as European Energy Research Alliance (EERA), the ZEP-TP, EII, etc.. In particular, ECCSEL aims to serve projects in the European Commission’s Framework programmes, future European industrial initiatives, and education of specialists for the new CCS industry.

The existing and new ECCSEL laboratories will be owned by the involved partner institutions. They will, however, be developed and made available for the ECCSEL program, governed by an overall agreement. It is foreseen that ECCSEL will gradually become ready and accessible starting in 2015.

2.2 Objectives of the Preparatory Phase project
The main objective of the ECCSEL Preparatory Phase project (PP) is to address the primary tasks necessary to establish a new distributed, goal-oriented, integrated pan-European infrastructure for state-of-the-art research on technologies enabling CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS).

ECCSEL PP2 shall complete the preparatory steps and define the prerequisites needed to form ECCSEL as a new distributed pan-European research infrastructure devoted to scientific and technological aspects of the CCS chain in accordance with the vision of ECCSEL.

The PP2 will build on the work done in PP1. It will deepen the analysis and provide a detailed suggestion on the future organization of the ECCSEL RI, including legal, financial, strategic and geographic aspects. It will have the infrastructure development plan ready for implementation. A major part of phase II will be technical work, as well as rules for infrastructure access. Specific objectives of the phase II include the development of the ECCSEL Business plan and to deliver a signed Contract of Association between the ECCSEL consortium members. In addition, funding agreements should be in place, and the location and structure of the ECCSEL Operation Centre should have been agreed upon.

Within two calendar years (2013 and 2014), the new CCS research infrastructure shall be outlined and brought up to the level of legal and financial maturity required for its implementation. The formal, legal, financial, functioning, and structural framework of ECCSEL shall be established, including the principles for management, logistics, planning, governance, financial and legal work (including the rules for IPR) required to shift from the preparatory phase to operations (in 2015).

In this effort, emphasis shall be placed on how to provide the necessary quality, capability and capacity of research facilities and related services to produce breaking ideas via joint research actions and open access across nations. On this basis, ECCSEL aims at gaining recognition as a world-class research infrastructure, made up by leading CCS research facilities.

The operational framework shall take into account the following:
• The research infrastructure shall appear as one unity under the hallmark of ECCSEL.
• Access to the research infrastructure shall be offered to scientists, research teams and student to conduct research on pressing CCS topics pursuant to a subset of criteria and peer review.

The objective will be met via proper planning, prioritising, good governance and networking.

For the planning, a subset of specific, achievable and measurable targets has been stated, to provide guidance for criteria for the selection and prioritisation of research topics to be pursued.

Secondary objectives (stated on work package level)

ECCSEL PP2 shall carry out its tasks, as set out in specific work packages, defined in the individual work package descriptions. The objectives of these work packages are listed below in Table 1.

Table 1: Secondary objectives, as stated in the work package descriptions
WP# Work package name Stated subordinated objectives
1) ECCSEL Business Plan
• Provide the prerequisites for establishing ECCSEL by 2015
• Prepare a consented ECCSEL business plan for sustainable operations of the infrastructure
• Ensure that infrastructure needs of ECCSEL (provided by WP3) are harmonised with the committed funding resources and consented strategy
• Have the statutes of the legal entity for ECCSEL signed by the consortium members of ECCSEL (end of 2014)
• Provide a communication plan aimed at convincing funding agencies in member states and associated countries, regional funds as well as industries to invest in ECCSEL operations

2) ECCSEL Operations Centre – Implementation Plan
• Finalise the prerequisites for establishing the ECCSEL Operations Centre and its underlying services by 2015
• Accomplish specific parts of the ECCSEL Business Plan to accommodate the Operations Centre
• Ensure proper operations and services of ECCSEL by direct partner involvement

3) ECCSEL Research Infrastructure – Implementation Plan
• Enable ECCSEL to form a world-class CCS research infrastructure
• Establish the inventory of ECCSEL – locate and describe existing infrastructure, determine and quantify the needs for upgrades and new laboratories
• Carry out initial studies for technical planning, structuring, and budgeting
• Accomplish the initial logistical planning of ECCSEL

4) Innovation
• Increase the potential for innovation
• Enable ECCSEL RI to deliver knowledge and innovation to market players (industry, NGOs, planning authorities)

5) Communication and Networking – seeking stakeholder engagement
• Make efforts to engage in relevant knowledge markets
• Attract the interest from relevant institutions and industrial players seeking involvement in ECCSEL in actions devoted to integrating activities and joint research
• Provide appropriate communication strategies and communication planning
• Ensure science outreach and public awareness/understanding of the societal potential of CCS

6) Project Management and Coordination
• Ensure effective performance and coordination of ECCSEL PP2

A viable development plan for the implementation of the CCS laboratories into one research infrastructure shall be established with due regard to the tangible contribution and involvement by stakeholders and the outcome of the preceding work resulting from ECCSEL PP1 (2011-2012).

The planning will comprise a subset of operational and managerial principles - including decision making and rules for giving access to third parties to the research infrastructure (e.g. independent scientists, research groups and industrial players). The project will make necessary steps for closing the financial gaps and for concluding the necessary commitments and funding agreements.

Based on this work, ECCSEL PP2 will conduct strategic and technical work directed towards the most significant needs for advanced research laboratory facilities and their prioritisation.

The following targets have been set:
• The ECCSEL Business Plan shall be accomplished and the statutes and specific agreements within ECCSEL shall be developed for partner commitment pertaining to laboratory facilities, as well as human and financial resources. Work also includes solicitation and negotiation of funding of ECCSEL operations and investments.
• The ECCSEL Operations Centre shall be planned to operate after the project period (i.e. 2015) – and be organised with an underlying structure of selected research facilities.
• The ECCSEL research infrastructure shall be planned for implementation of the most advanced CCS research laboratories. These laboratories shall be made up by existing facilities (CAT-1), major upgrades of existing facilities (CAT-2) and new unique laboratories, pilots and test sites (CAT-3).
At the start, the research infrastructure shall assemble - as a minimum – facilities covering the three main capture routes (pre-combustion, oxy-combustion and post-combustion) intended for power generation – or equivalent for industrial processes – selected according to appropriateness, quality and uniqueness. Major upgrades and new laboratories shall be constructed, as required to develop second and third generation CCS technology and emerging concepts (including monitoring and storage).
• Innovation shall apply to the planning, structuring and systemic handling of ECCSEL as a research infrastructure characterised by widespread internal/external interactions.
o Emphasis shall be placed on improvements of the research infrastructure and the related services in order to provide innovative advantage.
o Innovation shall be planned in consideration of CCS research challenges such as techniques and their integration, and in combining technologies into systems likely to become more efficient and less costly than before.
• Three critical dimensions shall prevail that are all deemed essential for CCS to reach the stage of large-scale transition, notably lead time, energy penalty and cost:
o In the planning phase, emphasis will be placed on emerging concepts (rather than conventional techniques) - especially those representing a reasonably high potential for improvement (i.e. efficiency/energy penalty, cost, and expected technological break-through – including HSE issues, and options for tail-end usage of the CO2).
o Preference will be given to processes relevant to the European power sector using coal and natural gas, and alternative CCS concepts related to large point-sources in industry.
• Selection of projects to enter the research infrastructure of ECCSEL shall be made according to either scientific criteria and/or techno-economic potentiality including de-risking of CCS technologies. This mainly refers to the capability of justifying techniques or concepts that significantly:
o Contribute to lowering the efficiency penalty to below 8%-points including compression (in power generation, or equivalent level in industrial processing)
o Limit the cost of CO2 avoided to well below the current level of 50-60 €/ton CO2 (or equivalent numbers when targeting industrial processes).
o As the frontiers of CCS technologies are moved, the targets will be sharpened accordingly
• Qualification of storage sites, pertaining mainly to pre-normative research and testing
o This includes test facilities for monitoring, modelling and validation, verification and calibration of models, and field testing (seismic shooting, core drilling, well testing)
o De-risking of geological storage addressing possible CO2 leakage, risk management and remediation techniques (including HSE issues).

Priority shall be given in two main directions:
• The academic dimension (generic/fundamental research and education)
• Innovation (applied research, operational issues, guidance to regulators). Projects belonging to the latter direction shall be ranked according to their potentiality and capability for reducing the overall energy penalty and lowering the levelised cost of the CCS chain, and also for ramping up the speed and capacity needed for CCS to become widely implemented.
Project Results:
3 Main scientific and technological results and foreground
ECCSEL PP is not a research project as such, but an infrastructure project. The results from the project are therefore not regular scientific and/or technological research reports, but implementation plans and business plans.

Main objectives of the ECCSEL initiative are to:
• Establish and manage access to a world class Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) distributed research infrastructure (RI) in Europe (cooperating closely with the owners of the individual research facilities)
• Integrate and decide on upgrading existing laboratories across Europe and supplement with new ones
• Enhance European science, technology development, innovation and education in the field of CCS.

Main recommendation of ECCSEL PP2 is to start implementation of ECCSEL in 2015 and to prepare for establishing the legal entity, an ECCSEL ERIC, as soon as possible. ECCSEL should be seen as operative.
Thus, operation of ECCSEL RI will gradually start in 2015, whilst the ECCSEL legal entity is foreseen to be established early 2016.

The ECCSEL transitional implementation phase starts when ECCSEL PP2 is finishing and lasts at least until the ECCSEL legal entity has been established. Main objective of this phase is to ensure that ECCSEL is brought from the preparatory phase to the fully operational phase. The transitional ECCSEL consortium will:
• Bridge the gap between Preparatory Phase and fully Operational Phase (with implementation activities)
• Start to cooperate / working together to make use of what we already have
• Start with trials runs of access to existing infrastructure
Nine partner countries (UK, France, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Poland, Greece and Norway have signed a Letter of Intent stating their commitment to joining ECCSEL from its start. Some of those countries have already committed substantial investments into the facilities which will become part of the ECCSEL Research Infrastructure. Other countries will follow and for example Germany has indicated that they would like to join soon too.
Thirteen ECCSEL partner institutions (OGS, SOTACARBO/ENEA, BGS, TNO, BRGM, SINTEF Energy Research, SINTEF Stiftelse, NTNU, CIUDEN, ETH-Z, PGI-NRI, GIG and CERTH) have signed the ECCSEL MoU stating that they will take an active role in the implementation of ECCSEL. All partners will make available resources (in kind contribution) to implement and operate ECCSEL in this phase.

3.1 Implementation strategy to establish the ECCSEL legal entity
3.1.1 Recommendation for legal form and governance structure
In order for ECCSEL to proceed, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on the Establishment of a Consortium of a European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure is signed by the ECCSEL partnership. When Norwegian Law has implemented the European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC) legal framework, the partnership representing organisations in 9 EU countries aims to establish ECCSEL ERIC according to the terms and conditions as set out in the ERIC model .
ECCSEL shall:
1) Be structured as a European Research Infrastructure called the ‘European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure’, referred to as ‘ECCSEL’.
2) Have a legal form in accordance with ERIC incorporated under the provision of Regulation (EC) No 723/2009, however, with exceptions as required for the start-up solution.
3) Be a distributed research infrastructure, as defined in Article 2(a) of Regulation (EC) No 723/2009, located in ECCSEL member countries, as well as in other countries where ECCSEL has made agreements.
4) Have its statutory seat in Trondheim, Norway.
5) Use English as its working language.

According to the terms and conditions of this model, it is required that ECCSEL must "include a Member State of the European Union and two other countries that are either Member States or associated countries. Further Member States or associated countries may join at any time on fair and reasonable terms as specified in the Statutes. Third countries other than associated countries as well as intergovernmental organisations may also join ECCSEL as specified in the Statutes.3 Draft Statues of ECCSEL have been developed and delivered to the Commission (D1.4 Final statutes signed).

ERIC is a legal form that is particularly adapted to large-scale RIs of European interest. It offers a neutral and fairly flexible mechanism for international cooperation. It enjoys privileges as an international organisation (e.g. VAT exemption) and is not subject to the directive on public procurement as implemented in national law. Membership is restricted to countries and intergovernmental organisations. However, Member States may be represented by one or more public entities, including regions or private entities with a public service mission.

It is recommended that the ECCSEL legal entity shall have two governing bodies with decision making powers; the General Assembly (ultimate decision making body) and the Board of Directors (executive body and legal representative of ECCSEL). These bodies are in line with the minimum requirements according to the ERIC Regulations. A Director should be responsible for the day-to-day management of ECCSEL operations. Furthermore, it is recommended to have two advisory bodies, the Research Infrastructures Coordination Committee (with representatives of the Research Infrastructures of the ECCSEL RI) and the Innovation Advisory Board (with high-level representatives from global industrial stakeholders who are independent of ECCSEL). The governing structure will be part of the ECCSEL Contract of Association (i.e. statutes).

Figure 1 Recommended ECCSEL governing structure (see attachment)

3.1.2 Confidentiality and IPR requirements
The ECCSEL IPR Policy should create a common understanding and foundation for efficient utilisation of any IP used or controlled within the ECCSEL RI and should ensure that the rights of ECCSEL and of its members are properly taken into account. It should also set up secure IPR rules between the ECCSEL members and towards visiting researchers engaged in research activity within ECCSEL.

Since the purpose of ECCSEL is to facilitate research by non-members, ECCSEL must apply a generous policy with regard to intellectual property rights. This implies as follows:
1) Intellectual property rights of results created by visiting researchers and users of ECCSEL facilities shall lawfully belong to the inventor.
2) Other intellectual property rights relating to the ECCSEL research infrastructure per se shall be managed by the Board of Directors in accordance with the strategies decided by the General Assembly.
3) ECCSEL shall ensure that users agree to the terms and conditions governing access to results and intellectual property rights of results, and that suitable security arrangements are in place regarding internal storage and handling.
4) ECCSEL shall have in place well defined arrangements for investigating allegations of security breaches and confidentiality disclosures regarding research data and information.
5) ECCSEL shall provide guidance to researchers to ensure that research performed with material made accessible through ECCSEL shall be undertaken within a framework that recognises and acknowledges the rights of ECCSEL.
6) A detailed Intellectual Property Rights Policy, approved by the General Assembly, shall be separately agreed by the parties operating the ECCSEL facilities.

The basic IPR principles will be specified in the ECCSEL Contract of Association (i.e. statutes). The detailed principles will be part of a specific agreement between the ECCSEL members.

Results produced by a researcher visiting a research infrastructure shall be the property of that user. The access provider shall ensure that all visiting researchers enjoy, on fair and reasonable conditions, access rights to the foreground of the access provider, if such foreground is needed to carry out their own work under the research infrastructure.

3.1.3 Access Policy for visiting scientists and students
ECCSEL will provide an inclusive environment enabling high-ranking researchers and scientists from all regions of Europe (and from third countries) to get access to state-of-the-art research laboratories to conduct research actions. Intentionally, this will encourage the European research community to become the most competitive and dynamic CCS knowledge provider in the world.
As required to attract the best researchers from across the world, ECCSEL is determined to create generous opportunities to carry out advanced research. This includes a commitment to grant effective access pursuant to a sub-set of pre-defined criteria. Effective access means that a significant part of the access and/or available time (30 %) will be kept open to researchers from other nations than those involved in ECCSEL. Hence, open access for users will be offered on the basis of scientific excellence and specific criteria, as assessed and recommended by an independent peer review process coordinated and administered by the ECCSEL Operations Centre.
It should be noted however, that open access does not mean that the research facility and services will be provided for free. The operational cost of each ECCSEL facility requires funding from other sources.

Principles of selection for user access
The objective is to help researchers to access the best available research laboratories and facilities of crucial importance to their research work. Access to ECCSEL facilities and related services will be granted on competitive terms and conditions.
Priority to user projects will be given according to:
• Scientific quality
• Relevance to the objectives
• Uniqueness
These aspects are required in order to ensure the capability of moving technological frontiers, and to avoid replication of research actions. It is foreseen that user access to ECCSEL research laboratories and facilities shall be granted on the basis of either open calls, or on availability for a specific facility. The selection of access projects requires specific selection criteria to be updated by ECCSEL on a regular basis.
The procedure for granting access is:
1) A scientific committee will sit to evaluate proposals for user access projects according to pre-defined selection criteria.
2) Evaluation of the funding plan for the proposals (performed by the ECCSEL Operations Centre and the relevant research facility).
3) Final evaluation based on availability of the specific research facility.

Evaluating proposals for topical research and user access
The granting of user access requires specific selection criteria that may vary by case. The guidelines will require reference to:
• Level of research
• Scientific merit
• Competence of the project manager and project group
• Feasibility
• International cooperation
• Dissemination and communication of results
• Relevance relative to open calls for proposals
• Ethical perspectives
• Environmental impacts

In general, these criteria may be applied for user access based on open calls and topical research, as well as for access based on availability. Additional selection criteria may be stated in specific calls for user access proposals.

3.2 Implementation strategy to establish an economically sustainable ECCSEL infrastructure
The financing of ECCSEL as a distributed European research infrastructure relates to the funding of the ECCSEL Operations Centre, responsible for all coordination, and to the operations and required investments in research facilities within the distributed institutions associated with ECCSEL.

3.2.1 Funding plan
3.2.1.1 Funding of operational and access costs for existing research infrastructures
The main operational costs of laboratories from the ECCSEL partners are staff expenditures. The size of the RI affects the operational costs and the type of expenditures, and also the access costs for external personnel. Currently the main funding mechanism for the operational costs is national and European public financing. Private funding is currently limited.

3.2.1.2 Development of funding instruments and mechanisms
Many ECCSEL partners expect that their funding structure will change significantly in the next five years, moving especially towards generating their own funding (for example by renting out their facilities to users). The changing strategies and priorities of the European public funding instruments will lead to increased demand for private funding from industry.
While private funding should be strongly promoted, the public funding should also be developed further in line with research priorities allowing the governments to include these costs in future budgets.

3.2.1.3 International funding outside Europe
Some of the present research infrastructures include funding from countries outside the EU. ECCSEL should aim at strengthening the cooperation with CCS programmes in countries outside EU, such as Australia, Canada, China, India and Japan.

3.2.1.4 Financing the ECCSEL Operations Centre
Linear implementation of the ECCSEL implies that:
• At the outset the Operations Centre will have a lean structure, and its expenses will be covered partly by in-kind contributions.
• Transition to the advanced phase will be kept on a low cost-basis. Member contributions will be optimised while avoiding expenditures that are not deemed necessary to maintain normal operation during the transition process.
• Various funding mechanisms will be considered to guarantee the necessary financial support to ECCSEL.

The annual costs for the Operations Centre are summarised in Table 2, assuming an initial phase of approximately two years, starting in 2015.

The Norwegian Government has offered to finance a third of these costs. Hence, 2/3 of the costs must be covered by contributions from the other ECCSEL members.

Assuming 9 countries (of which at least one is an EU Member State) will be part of ECCSEL in the starting phase, the cost contribution will be:

Table 2: Possible distribution of annual costs for the Operations Centre
Contribution in the starting phase (€) Contribution in the advanced phase (€)
Norway 200.000 333.000
Country n°1 50.000 83.250
Country n°2 50.000 83.250
Country n°3 50.000 83.250
Country n°4 50.000 83.250
Country n°5 50.000 83.250
Country n°6 50.000 83.250
Country n°7 50.000 83.250
Country n°8 50.000 83.250
Total 600.000 1.000.000
As stated above, the Operations Centre cost contribution may partially be covered by in-kind contributions.

3.2.1.5 Financing of research facilities
Contrary to conventional research projects and research programmes functioning over a limited period of time, ECCSEL investments will essentially be unconstrained by time. This means that ECCSEL, over the foreseeable future, will keep focus on its principal task.

The expectations of ECCSEL are considerable, and the increasing operations are estimated to take the form of high capital and operational expenses for new and/or upgraded laboratories and equipment. In this context, ECCSEL will:
• Allow for resources and budgets to be pooled in order to meet higher costs while gaining from higher revenues and reduced risk. The sharing of risk, cost and revenues among operators of ECCSEL facilities may allow for reduced contributions from single sources.
• Provide a mechanism to create research facilities that would otherwise be unaffordable to any single institution, thus increasing the breadth and depth of research to be performed. This will probably require joint funding via ECCSEL.

As stated in the business plan, funding of investments in the range of €80-120 million have been assumed for the first ten years (2015-2025), in order for ECCSEL to achieve its goals. The total funding is to be provided mainly by the European Union, its Member States, associated countries and third countries, as well as regional and national agencies. Investments in ECCSEL research facilities will be integrated in the national strategies on CCS research.

The operational costs will be remunerated by the users of the facilities of ECCSEL, subject to funding via research projects, grants and industry.

An overview of financing of investments and operational costs is shown in Figure 2. (see attachment)

Figure 2: Schematic overview of CAPEX and OPEX financing for ECCSEL Operations Centre and research facilities (see attachment)

3.2.1.6 Horizon 2020
This instrument will bring together all existing EU R&D funding. Horizon 2020 is seen as the primary mechanism of the European Union to achieve objectives outlined in the SET-Plan in a timeframe from 2013-2020. In most H2020 calls, only operational costs (not investments) will be funded.

3.2.1.7 Berlin Model
This model aims at a stronger action from the Member States of the European Union and other countries, over a three steps approach:
1) Potential project partners from different countries identify a joint research project defining a draft proposal.
2) Subject to positive evaluation of the draft proposal by all national funding agencies, project partners submit a full proposal to their national funding agencies, taking into account the alignment of different evaluation procedures in different countries.
3) Provided a positive decision by the national funding agencies, the project partners ask the EU-commission for additional support that can serve to incentivise collaboration and coordination between partners.

3.2.1.8 Public-private partnerships
This initiative is funded and operated via a partnership of one or more private companies in collaboration with the public sector.

3.2.2 Implementation stages
3.2.2.1 Initial phase
The initial phase will have a lean operational management structure, as required to operate the ECCSEL partnership during this critical start-up phase. During this phase, activities will mainly be based on existing research facilities within the partners' organisations. The initial phase will be used to gradually develop the advanced phase. Partners will inter alia a) undertake joint planning for improvements, b) submit joint applications for funding, and c) provide open access to visiting researchers.

It is assumed that some existing research facilities will be in need of major upgrading to serve the growing demands for advanced research. Moreover, upgrades will be planned according to specific needs and positioning subject to scientific and technological considerations.

3.2.2.2 Advanced phase
In the advanced phase, the Operations Centre will grow in terms of staff and operational expenses. ECCSEL will direct efforts to the planning, designing and building of new large research laboratories and test sites devoted essentially to capture techniques and storage-related issues (i.e. complex and advanced facilities). These operations will form the core of ECCSEL. Nevertheless, a part of the initial portfolio of existing and upgraded facilities will be kept within the research infrastructure of ECCSEL provided, however, that these facilities are required to ensure the appropriate quality, relevance and complementarity of ECCSEL.

New schemes for the preparation, funding and shared ownership of facilities may be applied as the principal option, aiming (mainly) at cutting lead time and improving the pace and quality of the scientific and technological results of experimental research. In this pursuit, ECCSEL will form a venue for appropriate assessment, specification and validation, using structured forecasting techniques (collective intelligence). No distinction will be made between power generation and industrial processes to be addressed.

ECCSEL will operate as a not-for-profit organisation, mainly on a "non-economic basis". If required, it will carry out limited economic activities closely related to its task. To the extent necessary, ECCSEL shall record the costs and revenues of its economic activities separately, and shall charge market prices for them.

3.2.3 Cost scenarios
Three different cost scenarios have been investigated in ECCSEL PP 1: A base case, a more conservative "moderate" scenario and an ambitious "progressive" scenario. It was assumed that ECCSEL will expand gradually by "organic growth" and the time-frame for the analysis is the period 2015-2030.

3.3 Implementation strategy to establish ECCSEL as an infrastructure for CCS Research and Innovation
3.3.1 Europe’s CCS infrastructure requirements in a medium to long term perspective
To remain at the forefront of research and technological development of CCS implies complex and costly laboratories, test sites and pilots. In this respect, ECCSEL is considering investments and possible funding schemes to provide research facilities either by i) cost sharing or ii) coordination of investments by ECCSEL member to avoid unnecessary duplications. By strengthening the development of viable CCS concepts and closer integration and leveraging of the national efforts, ECCSEL will bring expertise and advanced research facilities efficiently together in the interests of the European and national CCS communities.

In the planning of ECCSEL (PP1 and PP2), gap analyses were made and CCS technologies have been reviewed to underpin and envisage the future experimental setup. Over the first 10 years (2015-2025), investments in the range €80-120 million may be required for upgrading pre-existing laboratories and for setting up entirely new research facilities to meet specific needs and to close identified knowledge gaps. These investments will be further substantiated and prioritised before seeking approval by the members of ECCSEL.

The list of proposed ECCSEL facilities will be modified dependent on which partners will join the operational phase and as a result of respective discussions and negotiations.
ECCSEL will place its distributed resources into a common pool as follows:
1) Making use of existing facilities without modification (CAT-1)
2) Modifying existing facilities (CAT-2)
3) Planning and building entirely new advanced facilities (CAT-3)
The first item (CAT-1) refers to pre-existing facilities that will be available from the outset. The second item (CAT-2) relates to major upgrades of pre-existing research facilities. The third item (CAT-3) concerns investments in entirely new research facilities needed to achieve the objectives of ECCSEL. For CAT-2 and CAT-3, the facilities have been prioritised.

It should be emphasised that priorities may change as a results of future development and strategic decisions by the ECCSEL members. These facilities need to be planned in more detail before investments approved by the Board of Directors are referred to the ECCSEL members for financial decision. In order to submit a request to invest, the following should be justified: The need for the research facility, its objectives, conceptual design studies (detailed level), timeline, uniqueness (state-of-the-art), relevance, reference to possible competing facilities (within or outside Europe, if any), detailed cost estimate, location and other relevant characteristics typical of each case.

3.3.2 Existing and already planned European CCS infrastructure
The project has surveyed and prioritised the existing and already planned research infrastructure in Europe. It should be noted, however, that the survey covered mainly the ECCSEL members' own infrastructure and plans. Questionnaires were sent out to external organisations, but the responses were limited. Other important research infrastructures in Europe will be contacted during ECCSEL implementation phase.

CAT-1 facilities will be made available for ECCSEL, and be operated by institutions mandated by the ECCSEL Board of Directors. In principle, these research facilities will not need significant investment at the point of entry. There are listed 33 highest ranked existing facilities distributed between the countries involved in the preparatory phases. In addition 30 other facilities have been identified as very relevant for ECCSEL.
Historical investments/value of existing facilities expected to be part of ECCSEL RI, are difficult to assess. Upgrades of NTNU/SINTEF labs only, the last 5 years, are in the range of €35-40 million, whilst the investments in TCM Mongstad and CIUDEN Ponferrada facilities alone adds up to almost €1 billion. As we expect to start up with around 30 facilities, the total historical investment in ECCSEL Research Infrastructure will be at least €1 billion.

3.3.3 Analysis of the gap between existing infrastructure and the infrastructure that is required to meet future needs
Experts from relevant ECCSEL partners have identified and analysed the key gaps between current research infrastructure and the capabilities that will be required to undertake research to address all essential issues in CO2 capture, transport and storage. Particular importance has been attached to identifying missing infrastructures that can address the main bottlenecks of the technology. A total of 91 gaps were identified: 69 gaps in capture infrastructures, 10 gaps in transport infrastructures, and 12 gaps in storage infrastructures.

For the initial phase (2015-2017 and onwards), some key facilities must be upgraded in order to comply with the needs of ECCSEL. For this purpose, investments in the range of €32-43 million have been envisaged for upgrading the highest prioritized facilities related to capture techniques, CO2 transport and storage. The situation summarized has been mapped at the end of 2013 and hence it will be constantly updated in order to consider emerging valuable new components of ECCSEL.

The number of high priority research facilities that have been identified for upgrading, based on scientific and technological assessment for:
• CO2 capture: 8 facilities
• CO2 transport: 1 facility
• CO2 storage: 2 facilities

New advanced CCS facilities (unique laboratories, pilots or test sites) will be planned for inclusion in ECCSEL. Involvement of research facilities in nations outside Europe will be considered, if it is justified that such involvement will add value by synergy. Hence, the planning, construction and operations of new facilities will be made on the basis of commercial as well as technological and scientific criteria, and in accordance with the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) thinking.

For the first ten years, 2015-2025, ECCSEL will need further investments in the range of €52-81 million to set up entirely new research facilities, as envisaged in the following sub-sections for capture, transport and storage. Beyond the initial phase, ECCSEL will solicit joint funding for these investments, and take ownership of these new research facilities to the extent possible. The CAT-3 tables below show only the proposed new facilities with high priority, representing an estimated cost in the range of €22-40 million.

The number of high priority research facilities that have been identified and prioritised to be planned and built, based on scientific and technological assessment:
• CO2 capture: 4 facilities
• CO2 transport: 1 facility
• CO2 storage: 2 facilities

3.3.4 Implementation plan for establishment of the ECCSEL infrastructure
Based on the analyses performed in ECCSEL PP 1 & 2, it is recommended to organize the ECCSEL RIs with two layers, one consisting of a network of distributed complementary laboratories, and another consisting of ECCSEL pilot and test sites:

• A network of complementary distributed laboratories. These laboratories are typically of smaller size and managed in the longer term under the whole responsibility of a single member. The selection of these laboratories is based on specific quality criteria that have to be fulfilled.
• A prioritized, limited set of pilots and test sites, being characterized typically by a larger scale and, most importantly, by the necessity of joint efforts (scientific, technical and financial) between different organizations and countries to ensure their set-up and long term viability. They would consist of "R&D pilots" (both capture and storage), including natural laboratories and storage test sites, or of a geographical cluster of such RIs.

Efforts are undertaken to evaluate potential benefits and possibilities of closer cooperation with current industrial pilot and demonstration project owners worldwide.

3.4 ECCSEL communication, outreach and dissemination strategy
3.4.1 ECCSEL dissemination policy
Dissemination of information about ECCSEL at different levels such as the scientific community, industry, national governments, etc. is very important for the anchoring of ECCSEL. Dissemination in the many forums and meetings where the ECCSEL members are represented is therefore encouraged.

ECCSEL should facilitate knowledge sharing among stakeholders, funding bodies, project proponents, and industry. ECCSEL should also make use of analytical approaches to add value to raw data, knowledge and experience arising from projects, in order to yield best practices from lessons learnt. These activities will spin off new knowledge products.

In order for ECCSEL to reside within the knowledge triangle (Figure 3) emphasis should be placed also on education and innovation. This implies that research facilities and services should be made available for higher education and training. In turn, this will have a significant impact on the skills and capabilities of the next generation of engineers and researchers specialising in topics related to CCS. As these persons will subsequently make use of their experience and new knowledge, they will contribute to enhance the European knowledge base – scientifically and technologically.

The dissemination activities are reported in Deliverables 5.2 & 5.5.

Figure 3 The knowledge triangle (see attachment)

3.4.2 Actions to implement communication channels to citizens, users and funding bodies
An ECCSEL web site has been established, www.eccsel.org where updated information about ECCSEL is provided. An ECCSEL contact database and Electronic Newsletter have been established and will be extended with time. The web site and the data base should be up-dated frequently and new newsletters should be issued on a regular basis.

3.4.3 Actions to attract new ECCSEL partners and establish co-operation on a global scale
An important task will be to attract new members. To prepare for this activity, the preparatory phase has identified universities, institutes and demonstration projects that are potential new partners.

3.5 ECCSEL strategic position as a pan-European infrastructure
3.5.1 ECCSEL's strategic position
Immediate challenges of CCS are the high energy penalty and the higher cost of electricity (in the power sector) or additional cost in industry. Another concern is liability, as CO2 must be kept trapped for at least three thousand years in order to obviate climate change. Addressing these challenges by developing new knowledge and technology is indeed a main driver for ECCSEL.
It is expected that pressure placed on research, innovation, technology development, testing and verification will grow to a level that cannot be met by today’s research laboratories alone. For this reason ECCSEL will be established as a European Research Infrastructure, offering open access to the most advanced research laboratories devoted to CCS.

ECCSEL will be developed as a network of both complementary pre-existing laboratories and new pilot and test facilities. Pre-existing laboratories will be coordinated as distributed facilities, some of which will be prioritised for upgrade to meet future research requirements for specific research and testing of CCS technologies.

The need for upgraded and new facilities is widely recognised among stakeholders across Europe, as emphasised by the Zero Emissions Platform (ZEP) and the European Energy Research Alliance on CCS (EERA-CCS) .

Taking into consideration current structures for the implementation of the SET-Plan, a sustainable strategy for ECCSEL is to operate as the RI platform that provides the best services to stakeholders operating within CCS-EERA, CCS-EII and ZEP.
ECCSEL has the ambition to support the Commission's strategy for increasing education and training in Europe within the CCS thematic area to achieve technology development and innovation, capacity building and industrial commercialisation of the CCS technology.

3.5.2 Justification of ECCSEL as a European Research Infrastructure
ECCSEL is justified by a pronounced need for a dedicated research environment, striving to close specific knowledge gaps, pushing the forefront of technological development beyond the state-of-the-art, and thereby accelerating the commercialisation and deployment of CCS. ECCSEL will coordinate necessary infrastructure investments thereby reducing overcapacity and cost at a European scale.

In order to establish ECCSEL as a European research infrastructure, ECCSEL must – according to the guidelines2 – meet the following five requirements:
1) It is necessary for carrying out European research programmes and projects
2) It represents added value in the strengthening and structuring of the European Research Area (ERA) and a significant improvement in the relevant scientific and technological fields at international level
3) Effective access is granted to the European research community, composed of researchers from Member States and from associated countries
4) It contributes to the mobility of knowledge and/or researchers within the ERA and increases the use of intellectual potential throughout Europe
5) It contributes to the dissemination and optimisation of the results of activities in Community research, technological development and demonstration

3.5.3 Anchoring of ECCSEL as a pan-European infrastructure
The ECCSEL Policy Contact Group (PCG) with representatives from ministries and funding bodies has been established to ensure political and strategic anchoring in the Partner's states. This group had two meeting hosted by the Research Council of Norway (one in Oslo, Norway and one in Nottingham, UK). Representatives from a number of European states presented the CCS activities in their countries and stated their support of ECCSEL.

3.5.4 Outreach to other stakeholders
Several meetings, workshops and presentations have been given with the aim of anchoring ECCSEL with different stakeholders in Europe, North America, Australia and others. Members of the ECCSEL partnership have also participated in meetings with the ESFRI Working Group, the ESFRI Implementation Group and the Communication and Policy development for Research Infrastructures in Europe (CoPoRI) group. ECCSEL attended also as an Observer the EERA CCS JP meetings. EERA is a pan-European research effort created to support the implementation of the Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan. The close contact between EERA and ECCSEL ensures that the necessary interaction is continuously maintained.

3.6 Main recommendation for ECCSEL
Actions until ECCSEL comes into existence as a legal entity
From January 1st 2015 ECCSEL enters the transition phase based on a signed MoU between partner organisations representing 9 countries that have signed Letter of Intent (LoI) to join ECCSEL ERIC from the start. The following actions are foreseen in the transition phase:
• Establish a transition phase Steering Board/General Assembly
• Submit a proposal for Horizon 2020 Infradev-3 funding before January 14th, 2015 to support the implementation of ECCSEL as an operative pan-European distributed research infrastructure
• Support the efforts of the Norwegian Government, member states and the Commission to establish ECCSEL ERIC as legal framework

3.6.1 Recommendation from Preparatory phases
• It is recommended that ECCSEL should be organized as a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Organising ECCSEL as an ERIC will ensure an optimal legal basis for its operation as a distributed pan-European research infrastructure. It enjoys privileges as an international organisation (e.g. VAT exemption) and is not subject to the directive on public procurement as implemented in national law. Membership will be at country and intergovernmental organisation level.

• The ECCSEL legal entity should have two governing bodies with decision making powers; the General Assembly (ultimate decision making body) and the Board of Directors (executive body and legal representative of ECCSEL). Furthermore, it is recommended to have two advisory bodies, the Research Infrastructures Coordination Committee (with representatives of the Research Facilities of the ECCSEL RI) and the Innovation Advisory Board (with high-level representatives from stakeholders including those who are independent of ECCSEL).

• The ECCSEL IPR Policy should create a common understanding and foundation for efficient utilisation of any IP used or controlled within the ECCSEL Research Infrastructure (RI) and should ensure that the rights of ECCSEL and of its members are properly taken into account. It should also set up secure IPR rules between the ECCSEL members and towards visiting researchers – which will include professors, students, and other persons engaged in research activity within ECCSEL.

• The access policy should be based on the principle of ‘open access’, meaning that the access should not just be reserved for the members but also be open to users from all European countries. The application procedure should be based on fair and transparent rules and the applications should be dealt with as efficiently as possible, while maintaining respect for the required confidentiality. ECSSEL provides model Application Forms for access.

• Applicants to ECCSEL RIs should bear all access costs. Dependent on the nature of the application, for example collaborative research, some access costs may be covered by other sources (e.g. EU grants). The access should be based on daily rates that apply to each infrastructure.

• A variety of potential funding mechanisms have been identified for ECCSEL. It is recommended to continue exploring these possibilities to ensure that funding for capital investments, operation and access are defined and in place when needed.

• It is recommended to organize the ECCSEL Research Infrastructures with two layers, one consisting of a network of distributed complementary laboratories, and another consisting of ECCSEL pilot and test sites.

• It is recommended that expansion of ECCSEL is by organic growth starting small and becoming bigger over time, with strong governance overseeing the growth process. ECCSEL should contact several important CCS research facilities in Europe and expand existing partnership to fill identified RI gaps. Furthermore inclusion of industrial pilots and demo plants in ECCSEL should be initiated. Moreover, there is a general need in the CO2 capture domain for up-scaled research facilities and to go to more severe/realistic experimental conditions (temperature, pressure, gas composition, etc). In the storage domain, there is an urgent need for a variety of test sites to validate numerical and laboratory studies under realistic and sufficiently large scale. Several small to medium size storage sites should be set up where the complete life cycle of a storage operation can be studied in a short time frame.

• ECCSEL should strategically align to EERA, EII and ZEP commitments for supporting the implementation of the European SET-Plan. It is recommended to work with these instruments and the European Commission to safeguard the strategic position of ECCSEL in the SET-Plan.

• ECCSEL should strengthen the cooperation with CCS programmes in countries outside EU, such as Australia, Canada, China, India, Korea and Japan.

• The Policy Contact Group plays a decisive role in the establishment of the ECCSEL RI. The work of the PCG is vital to ensure sufficient commitment and strategic anchoring of ECCSEL in the partners' political systems.

• It is recommended to continue securing that the Commission recognises ECCSEL as a strategic network of infrastructures for CCS aligned to EERA, EII and ZEP commitments for supporting the implementation of the European SET-Plan.

• ECCSEL should support the Commission's strategy for increasing education and training in Europe within the CCS thematic area.

• ECCSEL targeted goals as defined in the ECCSEL Business Plan as well as in the Horizon 2020 Infradev 3 application should be followed and work to develop and implement the actual RI should start in 2015.
Potential Impact:
4 Potential impact and main dissemination activities

4.1 Potential impact
The scope of the project was to complete the preparatory phase leading to the construction of a new CCS research infrastructure of European laboratory facilities and test sites devoted to CCS. The aim is to bring the project of this new research infrastructure (ECCSEL) up to the level of legal and financial maturity, as required for its implementation.

Although the immediate impact of the project (i.e. the preparatory phase) will be rather limited, the end result will have a huge impact, as ECCSEL PP2 has paved the ground for a new type of research infrastructure to be formed in 2015 which will provide a clear added value.

4.1.1 Expected impacts listed in the Work Programme
The Work Programme states as follows:
Research infrastructures play an increasing role in the advancement of knowledge and technology and their exploitation. [---] By offering high quality research services to users from different countries, including from the peripheral and outermost regions, by attracting young people to science and by networking facilities, research infrastructures help structuring the scientific community and play a key role in the construction of an efficient research and innovation environment.

ECCSEL responds directly to the overall objective of the Work Programme: ECCSEL intends to optimise the use and development of the best CCS research facilities in Europe, and to create in the field of science and technology a new research environment of pan-European interest needed by the European scientific community.

The Work Programme furthermore lists the following expected impacts (under its section 1.2.2 "Construction of new infrastructures (or major upgrades) – preparatory phase"). The bullet points in italics (below) are extracted from this part of the Work Programme.
"• How the project may help the new research infrastructure – identified in the periodic updates of the ESFRI roadmap – to reach the level of technical, legal and financial maturity required to enable the construction work to start."

ECCSEL was first posted on the roadmap by the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI ) in December 2008 (cf. Figure 5), and it was then the only new entrant within the energy domain.

The process behind this important event includes a close scrutiny of the European position, and a broad consultation with regard to the obvious gaps that need to be closed within existing European research laboratories and their recent availability.

Figure 5 The ESFRI Roadmap 2008 (see attachment)
The project is made up by proficient European research institutions and laboratories. The partners are desirous of creating a new research infrastructure of pan-European interest. From this base, joint efforts will be made mainly to complete the prerequisites for establishing ECCSEL, which requires a legal framework, governance structure, financing strategies, infrastructure development and technical work.

Emphasis will be placed on the structuring of future capacities, capabilities and operations needed to remain at the forefront of the advancement of research, thus enabling industry to strengthen its knowledge base and its technological know-how.

Throughout its operational life, the ECCSEL research laboratory infrastructure will offer:
• Access to world-class laboratory facilities by prominent researchers and reputable industrial players
• Profound CCS expertise, enhancing the thematic discussions and activities of ECCSEL
• Extensive analytical skills, allowing and delivering new knowledge that will have the maximum beneficial impact on the field.

In this way the project will have a significant role to play in fostering cooperation among partners and stakeholders within the European (and global) CCS society.

"• Contribution to the technological development capacity and to the scientific performance and attractiveness of the European Research Area."
The scope of the project is limited to accomplishing the preparatory phase, as required to form a new European research infrastructure. This preparatory work builds on a vision of ECCSEL as a future distributed research laboratory infrastructure devoted to CCS.

Main elements of this vision are based on the state-of-the-art in science and technology combined with future needs and opportunities. Success means that all steps and actions must be addressed, understood and made operational.
Three challenges that need to be addressed in order to scale up CCS research in Europe are cost, coordination and cross-fertilisation of ideas.

Subordinate to the objective of the project (Section 1.1.3) a subset of specific targets set out in Section 1.1.5 will be used to define criteria for choosing direction of the scientific and technological development – including capacities and capabilities required to form ECCSEL.

Adherence to these targets will affect the quality and quantity of the planning, which will have later impacts on the scientific performance and attractiveness of the European Research Area, as it relates to promotion and cross-fertilisation of new research ideas.

Research along the CCS chain will be promoted in order to integrate work that is currently organised in capture/ transport/ storage silos. Research efforts within specific discipline areas may be pooled in order to overcome institutional barriers that separate researchers within the same disciplines. A main purpose of ECCSEL is to facilitate interaction between researchers from different organisations in order to create new synergies and motivation.

Once ECCSEL becomes operational it will draw upon expertise from its consortium to set up and integrate its operations. ECCSEL will make use of analytical approaches to add value to raw data, knowledge and experience arising from projects, in order to yield best practices from lessons learnt and to accelerate the deployment of CCS in Europe and worldwide.

It is through the providing of tangible information and the sharing of advanced laboratory equipment at the present critical stage in technology development that issues of techno-economic viability can be quickly addressed and solutions for commercial deployment be devised. This kind of derisking of the commercial CCS development – still at laboratory scale – will increase the public confidence in CCS.

The increased research within Europe will be met via cross-institutional and transnational access to laboratories and facilities that must be coordinated within and between countries. ECCSEL will foster commitment to common research objectives and priorities between researchers, industry and EU demonstration projects.

Duplication of efforts and/or poor utilisation of resources shall be avoided by adjusting research priorities according to industrial needs and EC strategy.

"• Contribution to the Innovation Union commitment (n.5) to complete or launch by 2015 the construction of 60% of the priority European research infrastructures currently identified by ESFRI"

ECCSEL contributes to the innovation objectives in two different ways:
1. By establishing and operating a world-class CCS research infrastructure aimed at offering transnational access and conducting joint research, thus enabling researchers to generate substantial knowledge which can lead to new innovative solutions, such as more efficient products, processes and services relating to CCS, and thereby help to address societal challenges – especially the issues of climate change and security of energy supply. Innovation is reflected in the stated objective and the scope of the specific work packages, as well as in the expected impact statements.
2. By increasing the potential for innovation within ECCSEL and its affiliated research facilities, in particular by reinforcing links with companies that drive innovation. This includes activities and partnership with industry such as transfer of knowledge and other dissemination activities. ECCSEL will also carry out activities involving industrial researchers, and it will include industrial players in reference groups and for peer review.

Hence, the project contributes directly to commitment (n.5) by preparing all necessary aspects needed to form the new research infrastructure, ECCSEL, by 2015. This will require a new approach to funding CCS research laboratories to achieve future goals in a cost-effective manner.
The expected operations of ECCSEL will be considerable. ECCSEL will coordinate the funding of new and upgraded research laboratories to an estimated value of €80-120 million in the first 10 years of operation, provided by European, regional and national agencies. Industrial funding will be additional.

"• Increasing the potential for innovation of RIs"

Innovation is the creation of better or more effective products, processes, technologies, or ideas that are accepted by markets, governments, and society. Innovation differs from invention or renovation in being a substantial positive change rather than a modest incremental change.

In this project, a specific work package designated "Innovation" has been defined as part of the project. This work package addresses innovation and innovative ways of doing research within the research laboratories.

A key task of ECCSEL will be the facilitation of knowledge sharing between members, and from members to stakeholders, and funding bodies such as (inter alia) European governments, the European Commission, project proponents, and industry.

In prioritising research activities to be carried out in ECCSEL, two main directions are emphasised, i) the academic research (generic/fundamental) and ii) innovation (i.e. applied, operational, pre-normative research).

Projects belonging to the latter direction will be ranked according to their potentiality and capability for reducing the overall energy penalty and lowering the levelised cost of the CCS chain, and also for ramping up the speed and capacity needed for CCS to become material. These aspects are all research topics that call for cost-effectiveness, increased research and innovation.

Increased costs may be expected to take the form of high CAPEX and OPEX for new and/or upgraded laboratories and equipment. In this context, ECCSEL is prepared to
• Allow for resources and budgets to be pooled in order to meet these higher costs. Cost sharing between ECCSEL partners may allow for reduced contributions from single sources.
• Provide a mechanism to create research facilities that would otherwise be unaffordable to any single institution, thus increasing the breadth and depth of research that will be performed.

4.1.1.1 Education and innovation
ECCSEL also responds to Commitment n. 4, as referred to in the Work Programme: "Opening of Member State operated RIs to the full European user community". This will enable researchers to make decisive contributions to the grand societal challenges in energy supply and climate change via actions.

For ECCSEL to reside within the knowledge triangle (Figure 3), it is necessary to place emphasis on education and innovation. Hence, ECCSEL will make research facilities and services systematically available for higher education and training. This will in turn have a significant impact on the skills and capabilities of the next generation of engineers and researchers specialising in topics related to CCS. As these persons will subsequently make use of their experience and new knowledge, they will contribute to enhance the European knowledge base – scientifically and technologically. In any case, they will contribute to the ability of developing industry and bringing forward CCS for successful utilisation by society. In this manner, the value created via ECCSEL may become quite substantial.

4.1.1.2 Stakeholder engagement
ECCSEL also responds to the Work Programme with regard to stakeholder involvement and engagement. Reference is given in the ECCSEL Business Plan (developed in WP1), and activities specially addressed in WP5 Communication and Networking – seeking Stakeholder engagement.

4.1.1.3 Socio-economic impact of ECCSEL
The project addresses socio-economic issues in various ways, such as knowledge, scientific and technological development, education and training, knowledge transfer and collaboration within the consortium, transnationally within Europe and internationally, especially in consideration of Australia, China, Canada and USA. In addition, the successor of the project (ECCSEL) will have a significant impact on the employment in Europe. First, ECCSEL will contribute to employ graduates (at MSc and PhD level) trained in facilities belonging to ECCSEL, and students using ECCSEL. Secondly, it will provide knowledge and innovation for industries to commercialise, which will create job opportunities among technology providers, energy providers and industry.

The impact of knowledge can be measured by the number of publications of scientific papers in impact factor journals and other periodicals, as well as the value granted to external researchers through the open access policy. Likewise, the impact of development can be recognised via the number of national and international patents, and also by the number of technologies developed and transferred (including prototypes, methodologies and designs). Finally, the impact of knowledge transfer and collaboration is identifiable via the number of collaborative projects, the volume of research contracts and competitive funding and/or international grants.

Furthermore, a successful socio-economic analysis (i.e. an analysis proving a solid base for investment in ECCSEL) can only be derived from an excellent business case. The business case has been duly developed and included in the ECCSEL Business Plan (WP1).

4.1.2 Strategic impact
4.1.2.1 Impact of EU policy on CCS
In meeting the upcoming urgency and need for technological development and improvement within CO2 capture, transport, and storage (CCS), it becomes obvious that moving the frontier in technology from the state-of-the-art is far beyond the capacity of a single nation. Therefore, the principal aim of the Work Programme – through establishing the European Carbon Dioxide and Storage Laboratory, ECCSEL, – is to ensure that the policy goals of the European Union can be achieved as concerns the safe and swift commercial deployment of CCS within Europe by 2020 and beyond.

Through its mission, ECCSEL will support industrial initiatives of implementing CCS, pursuant to the European roadmap and the SET-Plan. From a SET-Plan perspective, ECCSEL will promote efficiency within the European Research Area (ERA) and it will link to the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA). Furthermore, as indicated in Figure 6, the new CCS Research Infrastructure (ECCSEL) and the CCS Demo Secretariat (CCS PNS) may have and reciprocal impact on knowledge and capacity building in the interaction between research and the commercial deployment of CCS.

ECCSEL responds to the expressed needs for further technological development to ensure that CCS can be deployed on a large scale in Europe and elsewhere, to cut the global emissions of greenhouse gases by 50-80% by 2050. According to climate modelling this tremendous reduction is necessary to limit global warming by 2°C – as pronounced by the UN and the IEA (cf. the Blue Map scenario of Figure 7. Although the reduction must be regarded as an unprecedented challenge in terms of funding resources, ECCSEL responds directly to the core of this issue.

The European and international impact of accelerating the development of CCS for commercial use complies to the dedication of significant and specific CCS legislation (i.e. the CCS Directive and amendments to other Directives), the granting of significant funds to CCS commercial demonstration (EERP and NER300) and numerous CCS research projects, as well as the inclusion of CCS within the European emissions trading system (EU ETS).

ECCSEL is considered to have a key role to play in achieving this acceleration. The most obvious reason is that granting access to a pool of test facilities on a time-sharing basis will enhance the intensity and value of experimental research.

Figure 6: Positioning the ECCSEL initiative in the technology roadmap of the ZEP jointly with the new CCS-PNS project. (Source: The CCS EII implementation plan 2010-2012, Zero Emission Platform – manipulated to fit the intended purpose of this report) (see attachment)

Seen as a toolbox for joint programming within the EERA CCS Joint Programme, ECCSEL may boost innovation through joint and extended use of new research laboratory infrastructure, and also respond to the industrial needs via ZEP and other European CCS initiatives.

In this respect ECCSEL undertakes a critical role to ensure that the targets of the EII Implementation plan and those of the Roadmap can be achieved in due course.

4.1.2.2 Impact on the European approach
The idea of ECCSEL is to enable excellent researchers from all regions of Europe (and, where appropriate, from third countries) to undertake research that requires the most advanced equipment and facilities. The partners are open to discussing further inclusion of research facilities from other nations if it can be justified that this will add value to the results (synergy).

The project will imply a European approach, rather than a local or national approach, as ECCSEL is based on a pan-European collection of CCS research laboratories and test sites, and it will direct significant investments into new advanced research laboratories devoted to CCS (cf. Figure 6). ECCSEL will therefore benefit from having a pre-existing collection of internal CCS expertise.

On a medium-to-long term basis the project (ECCSEL) will have additional impacts on:
• European competition, contributing – as a world-class CCS research laboratory infrastructure – to accelerate CCS towards industrial exploration and deployment
• Innovation, by forming a breeding ground for invention, exploration and pre-commercial testing of CCS techniques and technologies
• The regulatory framework, pertaining to safety and environmental aspects of CCS and also the working environment (i.e. HSE issues)
• Mobility and joint programming of European CCS resources
Moreover, via its consortium, ECCSEL will be capable of collecting relevant information on institutional research projects world-wide – and on the majority of all CCS-focused networks and groups.

ECCSEL will also be well positioned to assess all strategic impacts on or of CCS in a societal context.

4.1.2.3 Impact on the issue of climate change
The United Nations ranks climate change as the most severe issue of our time. Nonetheless, in some nations the issue of security of energy supply appears to represent an even more severe concern. Since energy demand is believed to grow in the foreseeable future, these issues can hardly be combined unless a larger part of the global energy is provided with less greenhouse gas emissions.

CCS is seen as a key technology in tackling climate change. The IEA anticipates that CCS will contribute 19% of the emissions reductions required world-wide by 2050 (Figure 7). The IEA further anticipates that the level should be as high as 24% within OECD Europe. (It should be noted, however, that in OECD Europe this does not solely apply to the power sector, as 50% of the reductions must be achieved within industry.)

IEA analyses also tell us that without CCS, the overall cost of reducing emissions to 2005 levels by 2050 will increase significantly. (see attachment)

Against this back-drop the impact of ECCSEL is deemed to be significant.

Furthermore, in order for ECCSEL to have the expected impact in Europe, concepts for mitigating the CO2 emission in industrial processes must become an essential part of ECCSEL.

4.1.2.4 Impact on national and international networks
Structural Funds – including the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) – have made the financing of infrastructures for knowledge-based development a top priority. It is hoped that more partners from the convergence regions where ERDF is available may wish to build new facilities to extend the scope of research.

One expected impact of this project is that discussions with research groups in Convergence Regions will lead to a broadening of the partnership and facilities to be managed by ECCSEL.

In terms of other national and international activities, the ECCSEL Operations Centre will be well placed to interpret, understand and engage with the CCS groups involved in experimental research actions.

4.1.2.5 Impact - external factors
The outcome of ECCSEL, and the success of the project, will rely heavily on the participation, openness, and trust of the partners and stakeholders. Potential obstacles will be analysed as part of the risk assessment and the impacts these obstacles may have.

4.1.3 Dissemination and/or exploitation of project results, and management of intellectual property
The outcome of the project will mainly result from structural planning, legal and financial strategies, operational issues, recommendations and pre-engineering studies intended mainly to support the technical planning and budgeting. The intangible results will be summarised and presented in the ECCSEL Business Plan. The results also comprise assessment of assets viable for the subsequent CCS research infrastructure – ready to be established in 2015 – subject to appropriate funding and partner agreement.

Intellectual property will be handled as background information vested in the partner that is entitled to such intellectual property rights. As the nature of the project is mainly preparatory, it is not expected that ECCSEL PP2 will raise any new IPR issues. However, should this happen, it will be handled according to the rules set out in the consortium agreement.

Furthermore, the intangible results will per se have only minor interest for the public domain. They will, however, be highly appreciated by the stakeholders as presented in the prospectus (ECCSEL Business Plan) and the implications of the planned services. Dissemination will therefore be made part of a communication plan targeting the specific stakeholders to ensure proper understanding of the message, thus seeking further engagement.

The results will be exploited in two directions: i) for the planning of operations and further investments in laboratory, research facilities and installations, ii) for funding – by attracting sponsors, investors and users of ECCSEL and its services.

Risk assessment also includes a contingency plan suggesting (if required) adequate corrective actions. This approach was pursued to assess risks pertaining to the planning phase (ECCSEL PP2).

4.2 Dissemination activities

ECCSEL has a role as Observer in the CCS grouping of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and Sverre Quale, ECCSEL Project Leader and Volker Röhling, ECCSEL Project Manager have attended a number of EERA meetings and provided updates on the status of ECCSEL. EERA is a pan-European research effort created to support the implementation of the Strategic Energy Technology (SET-) Plan. The close contact between EERA and ECCSEL ensures that the necessary interaction is continuously maintained.

The ECCSEL partners are also involved in different strategic efforts that support formation of ECCSEL as a pan-European research infrastructure. In particular, members of the ECCSEL partnership have participated in meetings with the ESFRI Working Group, the ESFRI Implementation Group and the Communication and Policy development for Research Infrastructures in Europe (CoPoRI) group. In Table 6, a list of important events is given where ECCSEL has been promoted to external organizations and stakeholders.

Table 6 ECCSEL – Communications with external organizations and strategic efforts to positioning ECCSEL as a European Research Infrastructure for CCS (see attachment)
Date Event/Place Person/Partner Purpose
2013-05-24 Norwegian national CCS RI meeting Sverre Quale & Volker Röhling/ NTNU To inform Norwegian industry and research groups about ECCSEL. Oral presentation
2013-06-04/05 TCCS-07 - 7th Trondheim conference on CCS Sverre Quale & Volker Röhling/ NTNU Networking and a poster stand presenting ECCSEL
2013-09-09/10/11/12/13 Third Oxyfuel Combustion Conference (OCC3) in Ponferrada, Spain Marta Escoto de Tejada / USTUTT Poster Presentation
2013-12-04/05 Communication and Policy development for Research Infrastructures in Europe (CoPoRI) meeting in Brussels, Belgium Sverre Quale & Volker Röhling/ NTNU ECCSEL participated in the latest workshop where valuable experiences were shared.
2013-12-13 EERA meeting in Rome, Italy Volker Röhling/ NTNU Observer and provided update on ECCSEL at EERA General Assembly meeting
2014-01-09 TEKNA CCS Conference Norway Sverre Quale & Volker Röhling/ NTNU Contact to Research and Industry, Networking,
2014-04-02 CoPoRI EoE Working Group meeting Sverre Quale NTNU Workshop participation on RI’s & experience sharing.
2014-March / April Workshop and meetings with at TCM Mongstad Sverre Quale/NTNU Presenting and discussing future collaboration opportunities /arrangements with TCM
2014-05-20/21/22 9th CO2GeoNet Open Forum on CO2 geological storage /Venice Sverre Quale NTNU ECCSEL oral presentation
2014-10-17 RDA & ESFRI Projects Workshop on data sharing Volker Röhling/ NTNU Discussed data storage and provision requirements of ECCSEL
2014-10-05/06/07/08/09 GHGT-12 (12th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas control Technologies)/ Austin, Texas Sverre Quale & Volker Röhling/ NTNU Poster presentation
2014-12-15 EERA –CCS meeting/London Volker Röhling/ NTNU Observer at the EERA General Assembly meeting
2014-12-10/11 SET- Plan Conference 2014 Volker Röhling/ NTNU Poster presentation
2012-01-30 Policy Contact Group (PCG)meeting/Nottingham ECCSEL Consortium & Government representatives Meeting of the PCG. Anchoring of ECCSEL on ministry level in ECCSEL Partner states. Oral presentations
2013-09-22 Policy Contact Group (PCG)meeting/Oslo ECCSEL Consortium & Government representatives Meeting of the PCG. Anchoring of ECCSEL on ministry level in ECCSEL Partner states. Oral presentations

List of Websites:
www.eccsel.org