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Adaptive and smart materials and structures for more efficient vessels

Final Report Summary - ADAM4EVE (Adaptive and smart materials and structures for more efficient vessels)

Executive Summary:
ADAM4EVE – Adaptive and smart materials and structures for more efficient vessels – was a joint research project funded under the Sustainable Surface Transport priority within the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Development of the European Commission. The project focused on the development and assessment of applications of adaptive and smart materials and structures in the shipbuilding industry. The project was initiated and coordinated by Center of Maritime Technologies e. V. (CMT,
The mission of ADAM4EVE was to tackle that several European shipbuilders are facing. In recent decades, the strategy for European shipbuilders was to offer highest quality products that best fulfil the individual customer requirements. There is a variety of approaches that allow for optimising a vessel, for instance improving the hull form or introducing lightweight materials. Usually, these measures were applied in a way to optimise ship designs towards their performance and efficiency at a certain defined operational scenario.
However, the environment in which a ship is used is never the same. Weather, payload, operation sched-ule and other parameters usually differ significantly. Therefore, a ship usually spends a significant part of its service life operating in situations other than design conditions. Hence, a penalty in terms of efficiency of-ten has to be accepted. Having this in mind, a ship design that provides the best efficiency under a reason-ably wide range of operational conditions should be considered an optimum design.
The key to meet this challenge is to make use of adaptive and smart materials and structures. Windows with controllable transparency in buildings and morphing aircraft wings are examples that already exist. The strategic goal of the ADAM4EVE project was to explore the potential of available adaptive materials and structures in maritime vessels. The project investigated three categories of technologies: (a) Adapta-ble ship hull structures for optimised hydrodynamic properties at varying cruise speed, (b) Adaptive mate-rials for noise and vibration damping of engines to avoid induction of vibrations into the ship hull, (c) Adap-tive outfitting materials that improve ships’ serviceability and safety.
Material experts and technology end users went through a creative process: Some initial ideas had to be modified to achieve a more robust and realistic application perspective. Others, considered very ambitious at first, turned out to be achievable thanks to previous developments or other industries’ solutions.
A set of fifteen smart design solutions was developed that help to provide optimised properties of ship hulls and outfitting systems at varying conditions. Finally, five prototypes were built in model or large scale, and assessed in terms of technical properties, safety issues, and economic and ecologic impact as well. Each of the prototypes was designed for a specific vessel type and a particular operation scenario. Howev-er, the assessments revealed a potential for a broad range of application. The prototypes are
• an adaptive active damping system for bow thrusters to increase cruise passengers’ comfort,
• an adaptive (i. e. retractable) stern flap to safe fuel on RoPax ships,
• lightweight panels with integrated material for storage of latent heat (i. e. Phase changing material) to reduce energy consumption on reefer vessels,
• an adaptive bulbous bow that saves energy on inland waterway ships, and
• adaptive windows with variable shading capabilities for sailing yachts to improve comfort and re-duce energy demand.
Project Context and Objectives:
ADAM4EVE – Adaptive and smart materials and structures for more efficient vessels – was a research pro-ject funded under the Sustainable Surface Transport priority within the 7th Framework Programme for Re-search and Development of the European Commission. The project focused on the development and as-sessment of applications of adaptive and smart materials and structures in the shipbuilding industry. The project was initiated and coordinated by Center of Maritime Technologies e. V. (CMT, in Hamburg, an association and research center.
The problem
The project’s mission was to address a typical problem that many European ship builders are facing nowa-days which are specialised in offering highly complex and customised vessels. To fulfil the customer’s very specific requirements, the vessel’s design is optimised towards best performance in a defined operational condition (e. g. cruise speed, draught, waves, weather). However, in reality these conditions change, and the owner’s requirements can also alter over time. Having this in mind, an optimised ship should be con-sidered a vessel that can react on changing operational and environmental conditions in a flexible way.
The solution
From the ADAM4EVE consortium’s point of view, adaptive and smart materials and structures are the key design features to meet this challenge. Materials and structures are called adaptive if they can change cer-tain properties in a predictable manner due to the forces acting on them (passive) or by means of built-in actuators (active). Those materials and structures are referred to as smart if they provide best perfor-mance when operation circumstances change.
The types of materials and structures are:
• Adaptable ship hull structures for optimised hydrodynamic properties depending on varying cruise speed
• Adaptive materials for noise and vibration damping of ship engines to avoid induction of vibrations into the ship hull
• Adaptive outfitting materials that improve ships’ serviceability and safety
The approach
In order to really be able to make use of available technologies, to develop solutions that meet various end users’ expectations and have a chance to be accepted by approving bodies, a consortium of 21 partners teamed up for the project. The group included five shipyards, two ship owners, five research institutes and Universities, two commercial technology providers, five design offices and two classification societies.
The technical developments in the project were structured in three groups:
1. Materials and structures development:
Based on available research results and known applications from other industries, adaptive and smart materials and structures were adopted, altered or further developed in order to make them applicable in the maritime industry.
2. Solution development:
Driven by different shipyards, several application case studies were performed, in order to achieve customised solutions for particular vessel types and their individual requirements; classification so-cieties assured that the solutions comply with existing rules and regulations. Out of the fifteen de-sign studies, the five most promising ones were selected. Physical prototypes were built, and fur-ther assessment, like towing tank tests and performance tests on board a ship were undertaken.
3. Enabling and assessment of technologies:
This group of activities provided support to the other ones on the field of testing, assessment of safety as well as economical and ecological impact, and advice for production, operation and dis-mantling. Due to the novelty of the solutions to be pursued, further development of the required validation methods and tools was done, and suggestions for standardisation and further research and development was done.
Project Results:
A significant result of EU research projects which is available for use is usually referred to as an exploitable foreground (eFG). In the following section, the terms result and foreground are used synonymously.
Descriptions of the main findings of the research and a catalogue of results are included in an ADAM4EVE brochure that was issued on the occasion of the finalisation of project. Some parts of the brochure’s con-tent are given in this section. Printed brochures can be obtained from the source mentioned in section 4.1.5 Relevant contact details. A digital copy of the brochure is available for download on the project web-site. Prototypes
As ADAM4EVE was a very much end user driven and application oriented project, special emphasis is given to the development of prototypes. Therefore, the foregrounds related to the prototypes is discussed at a prominent place in this section (
In addition to the work that was directly dedicated to producing the prototypes, supporting work was done to enable, assess and approve the prototypes and the involved technologies and materials. Several fore-grounds which also bear potential for practical applications and further development emerged from this work. For further information please refer to section Adaptive aft hull structure (stern flap) for RoPax vessels
Problem addressed: RoPax ships designs are usually optimised for a specific operational condition / load case which typically yields less than optimal performance for other, off-design operational conditions. Prac-tically, the operational conditions however vary over time: (a) seasonally (summer operation with many passengers and little cargo vs. winter operation with contrary distribution), (b) directional (on RoPax ser-vices, there are usually significant differences between the amounts of cargo transported in the outward and backward journey), (c) Actual (depending on weather conditions, ship speed might be adapted to meet a schedule).
Changing operational conditions affect ship speed and draught. As a result, a hull form is needed which is capable to adapt to different conditions to guarantee an optimal (hydrodynamic) performance over a range of conditions. This will not be possible using a rigid (=fixed) shape but require controlled actuation of form or flow influencing devices. Rather than using different (form) designs it would be desirable to devel-op a baseline design which allows to adapt the form using adaptive structures and materials. For RoPax vessels this concerns mainly the stern flow which has a large influence on the trim of the vessel which in turn determines resistance characteristics. Typical design remedies found in experiments or numerical studies of the flow about the transom are fixed trim wedges which can however be optimised only for a single condition too.
Solution: Reduce the hull resistance for several operational points and increases the ship’s efficiency and environmental sustainability by lengthening the vessels waterline and changing the vessels hydrodynamic body with an adaptable stern. The vessels stern can be lengthened by an adaptable ship structure which is adjusted to the optimum position in longitudinal and vertical direction for each operation point.

Figure 1: Prototype “Adaptive stern flap” (brochure p. 4 f.) Adaptive active damping of bow thrusters in Cruise vessels
Problem addressed: It is a constant trend in passenger ships projects towards higher comfort performance of noise & vibrations. Reduction of noise usually means increase of weight and it is now a pre-requisite to identify, to study and to develop new innovative solutions without increasing the ship’s weight. The reduc-tion of space is also expected and constitutes an important competitive factor.
Solution: Reduce vibration in the bow thrusters’ areas to improve the comfort for the passengers. By using active vibration control, vibration can be reduced in the areas near the bow thrusters once the transmis-sion paths have been identified.

Figure 2: Prototype “Adaptive active damping” (brochure p. 6 f.) Adaptive thermal insulation panels for reefer ships
Problem addressed: Refrigerated cargo carriers have four to five internal insulated cargo decks. Three or four of those decks need to be insulated. The conventional deck structure has a large area on which the insulation is applied. When three or four decks are being insulated, the total insulation area might range from 4000 to 6000 m2. Applying the insulation on conventional decks is taking an enormous amount of man-hours.
Solution: Develop a modular of lightweight cargo deck panels based on composite sandwich technology and climate control using adaptive phase changing materials. Phase changing materials will increase ther-mal inertia of the cargo decks, helping to maintain temperature steadier, cutting down the use of insula-tion.

Figure 3: Prototype “Adaptive thermal insulation panels” (brochure p. 8 f.) Adaptive bulbous bow for Inland waterway ships
Problem addressed: A big interest in improving design, fabrication and mechanical performance of ship hull structures has led to increase the use of new concepts in the shipbuilding industry for structures of inland waterborne transportation vessels in order to meet the new expectations in the sector regarding im-provement of shape hull characteristics in the case of decreasing the total ship resistance. The fuel con-sumption reduction is another target of the shipbuilding industry, and the powering performance improv-ing by total ship hull resistance, finding new solutions for ship hull forms / appendices is also mandatory.
Solution: Increase fuel efficiency with an adaptive bulbous bow. Bow shapes are often designed for the vessel which should operate at a specific draft, trim and speed. The ability to move or change the shape of the bow can increase fuel efficiency under different operation draft, trim and speed.

Figure 4: Prototype “Adaptive bulbous bow” (brochure p. 10 f.) Adaptive windows with variable shading capabilities for sailing yachts
Problem addressed: Leisure yachts are often exposed to sunlight for several hours during daytime. This results in significant heating of the yacht’s interior due to the presence of large window openings and glass covered areas. In turn, the yachts have to be equipped with sufficient HVAC system to provide the suffi-cient cooling and air ventilation resulting in considerable energy consumption. Reduced intake of sunlight would increase the passengers’ comfort and reduce the energy consumption of HVAC systems. One pos-sible solution reduce the intake of sunlight is by using smart materials with adaptive optical properties such as transparency and reflectance. This is realised by means of electro- or thermochromic glasses in windows and other class covered areas. Such materials have a capability of changing their transparency or reflec-tance and thereby limit the transmittance of solar irradiation
Solution: Reduce the intake of sunlight by using adaptive electrochromic windows with variable shading capabilities. It helps to increase the passenger comfort by reducing glare without influencing the outdoor view and reduce the usage of air-conditioning by less sunlight exposure.

Figure 5: Prototype “Adaptive windows with variable shading capabilities” (brochure p. 12 f.) Adaptive rudder-propeller for ferries
Note: This solution was originally not considered to become a prototype, but a design study. However, be-cause of the encouraging results of the study model tests were facilitated in addition, so this can be con-sidered a prototype study as well.
Problem addressed: Train ferry vessels manoeuvring criteria are based on the requirements to approach astern in gates at terminals. Tunnel stern thrusters are ineffective so the only present solution is to install two CPPs. However, the present solution reduces the ship efficiency in seagoing conditions. Therefore, an effective adaptive manoeuvring propulsion is required.
Solution: Increase the manoeuvrability by installing an adaptive rudder propeller. This application involves the modification of the shape of the rudder to influence its effectiveness during changes in operation of the vessel.

Figure 6: Prototype “Adaptive rudder-propeller” (brochure p. 14 f.) Further research results Adaptive materials and structures for ship hull application
Problem addressed: Ships/boats are generally designed with a particular activity as the main hull-form ge-ometry driver, e.g. cruising/manoeuvring for ships or sailing/motoring for yachts etc. The optimal hull-forms for these various activities are not necessarily the same. Therefore, in traditional naval architecture it is the role of the designer to find compromise between optimal hull-forms to allow for the variety of activi-ties of a ship/boat during its operational cycle. Inclusion of adaptable hull-form features allows for the modification of the geometry increasing the efficiency of the hull for each of its activities. Examples of hull-form geometries that could be considered include bulbous bows, bow/stern waterline fineness, geometry of stern leading to propeller, stern flaps, etc.
Solution: Material researchers in ADAM4EVE scanned available materials, design solutions and actuator mechanisms already applied in other industries or available from latest research, analysed requirements of the maritime end users and compiled design approaches, performed lab tests and gave advice on life cycle issues.
The work led to two foregrounds:
• Catalogue of solutions for actuated surfaces (Suitable design principles of actuated surfaces for creating geometric hull-form modification)
• Design methodology for composite adaptive structures (Structural and production design method-ology for the creation of adaptive hull structures for use in flow field modification, and associated hydrodynamic performance indication) Adaptive and smart outfitting materials
Problem addressed: Several types of advanced adaptive materials have the capability to improve the effi-ciency and safety of ships. Most of these innovative materials have currently not been applied to ship-application and not evaluated with respect to enhancing the efficiency of ships, but on the other hand us-age of these materials could possibly give a significant efficiency increase. Different types of materials are considered for that application:
• Active materials with controlled elastic properties for vibration damping
• Materials with adaptive reflection properties for an adjustment of heat take up (high heat take up in cold regions and vice versa)
• Phase-changing materials (preferably applied in coatings or panels) for storage of thermal energy
• Fire retardant materials for ship application
Solution: Material researchers in ADAM4EVE scanned available materials and design solutions already ap-plied in other industries or available from latest research, analysed requirements of the maritime end us-ers and compiled design approaches, performed lab tests and gave advice on life cycle issues.
The foreground gained from this work is a catalogue of active and passive smart materials, featuring
• New smart materials for outfitting, dedicated to the various applications pursued in the project,
• Final assessment report and guidelines on adaptive materials. Provides information about the dif-ferent adaptive solutions developed within WP2 and their usefulness for applications. Assessment of technical and safety properties
Problem addressed:
• For many areas of application there are standardised test procedures that can be followed when qualifying new materials or design solutions. Due to the novelty of the solutions pursued in AD-AM4EVE, further development of the required validation methods and tools is intended, as well as suggestions for standardisation.
• Model tests in towing tanks are usually done to assess resistance and other hydrodynamic proper-ties of ship hull forms. There is currently now established means to foresee adaptive ship models which allow for performing a series of tests to assess the behaviour of the ADAM4EVE ship hull de-signs.
Solution: The key objective was to develop and implement a framework for the assessment of the tech-nical properties and associated application of adaptive material technologies to ship building. The objec-tives were enabled by
• specifying suitable applications in the area of adaptive materials with improved mechanical, hydro-dynamic, optic reflection, fire resistance and thermal capacity properties,
• test, develop and update suitable methods for model validation,
• apply and develop tools and methods for the safety assessment, and
• proposing provisional rules for assessment and validation of suitable technologies and contribute to the ongoing rule making process within the context of Goal Based Safety Standards
• A separate Work Package took care of towing tank tests and developed adaptable ship models and efficient methods to produce them.
The foregrounds that was obtained from following this approach are
• a test data base (consisting of a report on assessment methodologies and first results, and comple-tion of testing results (data) on mechanical, hydrodynamic, optical, fire and thermal properties
• Technical guidelines, consisting of a report on applicable rules and risks, a report on safety assess-ment, assessment and testing of fire properties, and provisional Guidelines on technical, safety, and operation issues (reports, drawings etc.)
• a design study on adaptable ship models: A new modular adaptive ship model was manufactured to test the innovative adaptive stern part designed for RoPax vessels
• Prototype Application for Ship model: Modular models were built and used for model tests. The application case included two adaptive rudder designs compared to a conventional rudder used as a reference. Three rudder propeller models altogether were manufactured. 3D printing of propel-ler blades was successfully demonstrated. Sustainability assessment
Problem addressed: Realising any of the solutions developed in ADAM4EVE on a certain vessel would in-crease the material costs and the weight of the ship, thus adding to initial and operational costs and emis-sions. The idea is that the “smartness” of materials and structures overcompensate these effects. It has however to be proven for several ship types and operational scenarios that the adaptive solutions are sus-tainable. Sustainability is understood by the project to include the following aspects:
• Life Cycle Cost Efficiency
• Environmental Impact
• Technical Feasibility and Safety
Available tools do not offer exactly the methodologies needed to perform the required assessments.
Solution: The used methodology was based on the methodology developed in the Integrated Project BESST ( for a holistic Life Cycle Performance Assessment (LCPA). The following key perfor-mance indicators were used in ADAM4EVE:
• NPV Net Present Value – summary KPI (Key Performance Indicators) for economic value;
• GWP Global Warming Potential, AP Acidification Potential, EP Eutrophication Potential, Noise – KPIs to measure environmental impact;
• Delta risk – change in risk associated with the implementation of new materials;
• Delta E – KPI linking safety to cost.
BESST also developed a tool which supports the holistic Life cycle Performance Assessment (“BESST.LCPA”). The KPIs and the methodology proposed in previous projects were reviewed. A method-ology for sustainability assessment in ADAM4EVE was proposed, specific assessment algorithms for the ADAM4EVE applications were developed and the Life Cycle Sustainability analysis was performed for the applications and materials included in the project.
This led to two foregrounds:
• Methodology of Sustainability Assessment, which includes lesson learnt from the methodology's establishment (selection of suitable key performance indicators, LCA/LCC input data collection, analysis scope of the LCPA tool, definition of operational scenarios), and the approach for initial set up of LCPA models and interaction between WPs for the rough assessment and initial input data collection
• LCPA Model Establishment, which contains the demonstration of the LCP assessment of the se-lected application (i. e. prototype) cases along with the benchmark vessels in the BESST.LCPA tool, an LCPA data collection derived from comparisons between the adaptive and state-of-the-art technologies, and Approaches how to present assessment results.

Figure 7: Selected accompanying information on the enabling and assessment activities (brochure p. 16 ff.) Complete list of foregrounds
In the project brochure, a list of 18 project results is presented (). Actually, some of the foregrounds were combined to one result for better readability. The total number of foregrounds is 25 (Tab. 1).
Tab. 1: Complete list of foregrounds
No WP eFG Title
1 01 Catalogue of solutions for actuated surfaces
2 01 Design methodology for composite adaptive structures
3 02 Catalogue of active and passive smart materials
4 03 Test data base
5 03 Technical guidelines
6 04 Methodology of Sustainability Assessment
7 04 LCPA Model Establishment
8 05 Design study on Adaptive damping of engine bed foundations
9 05 Design study on Fire protection window
10 05 Design study on Adaptive damping of bow thrusters
11 05 Prototype Application for Cruise Ship
12 06 Prototype of Adaptive Aft of RoPax
13 06 Design study on Adaptive bulbous bow
14 07 Design study on Adaptive thermal insulation panels
15 07 Design study on Adaptive rudder propeller
16 07 Design study on Adaptive rudder
17 07 Design study on Climate control of the uppermost deck and side walls cargo deck panel
18 07 Prototype Application for Reefer/Train ferry ship
19 08 Design study on Adaptive vibration damping
20 08 Design study on Adaptive bulbous bow
21 08 Prototype Application for IWW vessel
22 09 Design study on Adaptive windows with variable shading capabilities
24 09 Prototype Application for Yacht
25 10 Design study on Adaptable ship models
26 10 Prototype Application for Ship model

Figure 8: Catalogue of project results (brochure p. 20 f.)
Potential Impact:
All the Adaptive technologies in the ADAM4EVE project (see chapter have been on analysed on its Life Cycle Performance, upon its implementation in a specific ship type and operation. Though the technologies have been validated with more Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), the two main KPIs used for sustainability study of the technologies were Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Net Present Value (NPV). GWP is the fac-tor representing the environmental impact of the technology and NPV indicates the economic impact of the technology. All the technologies were analysed for its life cycle period of around 25 years.
Global Warming Potential, was selected to represent environmental impacts of application cases. It indicates the change in environmental impact between baseline and the new technical solution in question. GWP de-scribes the greenhouse gases that are released during the life cycle of a product or a system. The most im-portant greenhouse gases are fossil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and dinitrogen-monoxide (N2O). The amount of greenhouse gases in kilograms is converted into carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2 eq.) by multiplying them with factors given by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The CO2 equivalents are then summed together and reported as carbon footprint.
The concept of Net Present Value is used in order to assess the additional investment of different innovative solutions compared to a reference design. NPV is the difference between the current value of the future cash flow generated from a technology or system and the initial investment cost required for implementation of the technology. For the sake of simplicity in the Life Cycle Cost analysis of the technologies in the project, only the change in the cash flow factors of additional revenues or fuel cost savings are compared against the invest-ment cost for a technology or system. The decision whether an innovative solution is profitable from a pure economical point of view can generally be made with higher NPV of the Ship after its life cycle in comparison to the reference ship.
Adaptive Damping System:
The Adaptive Damping System (ADS) enables to reduce the noise and vibration levels in a Ship with the help of smart and reactive actuators. In the ADAM4EVE project, the ADS has been validated for the noise and vibra-tions created by the bow thrusters in a Cruise vessel. The technical validation of the ADS showed results that indicated that a vibration level of around 20 dB can be reduced due to the introduction of ADS in a Cruise ves-sel. The most significant impact in reduction of vibration will be the increase in comfort of the passengers in a Cruise vessel, with this being the most important factor for a successful cruise operation.
The environmental and cost impact of the ADS introduction in a Cruise vessel has been analysed under two sce-narios. Scenario – 1: Introducing ADS with limited number of actuators (6 numbers), thereby reducing the noise and vibrations around an impact area of 10 cabins. Scenario – 2: Introducing ADS with more number of actua-tors (20 numbers) and have an impact area of around 30 cabins.
The environmental footprint impact of the ADS with its material composition or its operation does not intro-duce any significant impact on comparison to the total footprint registered by a cruise vessel as a whole. The yearly Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the materials used in an ADS with 6 actuators is at the range of 1/1000th of a percent in comparison to the GWP from the cruise vessel during its yearly operation. Therefore, it can be confidently concluded that the introduction of ADS does not increase the environmental footprint from the cruise vessel operation in its life period (say 25 years).
The economic impact of implementing an ADS with either of the scenarios is beneficial for the ship operator. A meagre 1% increase in price of the affected cabins as a result of ADS has been assumed. The Net Present Value (NPV) of the cruise vessel after a life cycle of 25 years increases by around € 450.000 and € 1.37 million under scenario 1 and 2 respectively (see Figure 9).

Figure 9: Net Present Value Difference of two Scenarios with reference to Baseline Ship
The Return on Investment (ROI) for the ADS in both the scenarios is very early in the life cycle of the cruise ves-sel. As shown in the figure below, an ROI of around 23 months and 26 months has been estimated for the in-vestment involved in introduction ADS as specified in scenario 1 and 2 respectively (see Figure 10). These peri-ods are very early when compared to the normal life cycle of a cruise vessel to be around 300 months.

Figure 10: Return on Investment of two scenarios with reference to Baseline Ship investment
The cruise ship model is based on LNG, although there are currently no LNG cruise vessels, nor are there regula-tions in place to allow operating an LNG cruise vessel. Since this study concerns ships that are to be in opera-tion between 2020 and 2045, the approval for cruise ships LNG fuel usage is expected to be in force by then. The results of the project are also been planned to be used to study and implement towards reduce noise emis-sions from ships and thereby improving the Sea life.
Adaptive Stern Flap:
The Adaptive Stern Flap (ASF) is an adaptive ship geometry prototype which enables to reduce the ship re-sistance at operational speeds and thereby reducing the power required and fuel consumption of the ship. The technical feasibility and validation of the ASF have been performed with the combination of producing a small scale physical prototype and executing model tests for different designs of the ASF for a RoPax Vessel. The model tests showed that with the ASF, at large drafts and high speeds, the power delivered could be reduced to about 7% in comparison with models without ASF.
The technical validation with the model tests in the project allowed for selection of an optimal design and op-erational parameter for the RoPax vessel under consideration. The environmental and cost impact of the ASF was performed for this selected optimum design for the specific ship type.
The studies showed that the introduction of the ASF technology in a RoPax has a positive environmental impact on the time span of its lifecycle. The contributing factors to the environmental footprint for a RoPax studied with ASF are the introduction of more steel in the production of ASF assembly and the fuel (Marine Gas Oil – MGO) saved as a result of reducing the power required due to ASF. The additional steel required to integrate ASF in a RoPax vessel is only 0.5% of the ships’ total steel weight. This additional steel also contributes only to 1/10th percentage of the additional GWP in comparison to the total GWP from the ships’ operation. The ASF enables a yearly fuel saving of around 5,6%, which directly results also in have a reduced total GWP of around 5,5% (see Figure 11).

Figure 11: GWP of the Ship with Adaptive Stern Flap and Baseline Line Ship over 25 years
The ASF provides a positive economic impact due to its capability of able to reduce the fuel consumption in a Ship. The yearly fuel cost savings directly correlated to having a positive NPV and faster ROI for the introduc-tion of ASF in a ship. The small scale physical demonstrator developed in project provided a guideline for ex-trapolation and estimation of probable cost of the full scale system. The fuel savings directly corresponds to a total fuel cost savings and the corresponding emission allowances savings of around 5.5%. This yearly fuel cost savings enabled to increase the NPV of the vessel with ASF to around € 4.4 million around a time span of 25 years in comparison to the Baseline RoPax Ship (see Figure 12). Such financial benefits from the ASF resulted to an estimation of ROI in an operating RoPax to be around 10 months, as shown in the Figure 12.

Figure 12: Return on Investment (ROI) and Net Present Value (NPV) of RoPax with Adaptive Stern Flap in comparison to Baseline Ship
The HAZID/Safety analysis of the flap has showed that the possible damages to the environment are minor, as the system does not have any harmful materials nor environmental critical fluids inside. Moreover, an official classification society approval would be required. The size and weight of the flap can be handled by normal ma-rine repair facilitates and the materials and components of the system are commonly use in the maritime indus-try and well known by any normal shipyard. The major part of the small scale physical demonstrator manufac-turing, assembly and final adjustment has been carried out by trainees, guided by the design and construction staff. This enable to validate the feasibility of building the real scale system, if implemented in a ship design.
From a ship operators point of view, the NPV links fuel consumption savings, expressed as initial investment and cash flows in the future. If the calculations are extended to a fleet of ten or twenty ships, the benefit would be more remarkable for a ship operator. From the environmental point of view, these modifications could be included in a business plan for a commitment on reduction of emissions.
Phase Changing Material to Store Latent Heat:
The Adaptive properties of the Phase Changing Materials (PCM) will enable to maintain the latent heat in re-frigerated cargo vessels. The technical feasibility study of the PCM mixture designed, studied and validated in the ADAM4EVE project for a Reefer Ship case. It showed that the application PCM as a modular lightweight insulation cargo deck panels decreases the Light ship weight by around 5% and also aid in energy efficient maintaining of an optimum heat balance for its cargo.
The benefits of the application of PCM panels in the reefer vessels were analysed in two perspectives. At one end, the impact of PCM panels in reducing the total weight of the ship and thereby influencing the power re-quired for ship operations was validated. Additionally, the direct impact of PCM panels in the power consump-tion because of its latent heat storage capability were also validated.
The environmental impact of integrating PCM panels in the insulation of the reefer vessels has been found to be significant. This is due to the fact, that the GWP of the new lightweight PCM panels by itself is only 50% of the GWP of the old conventional steel insulation panels. The environmental emissions are also reduced due to the fuel savings of about 6,9% as a direct result of utilising the PCM panels. In total the introduction of PCM panels reduce the GWP of the reefer vessel by around 7,1% (See Figure 13).
Of the 6,9% fuel savings from the use of PCM panels, studies show that 46% of the fuel savings is due to the reduction in power required as a result of the latent heat storage property of PCM and the rest 54% of the fuel savings is due to the reduction in power required as a result of lightweight property of the PCM panels.

Figure 13: GWP of the Ship with PCM Panels and Baseline Line Ship over 25 years
The economic benefit factors for the PCM panels are its reduced production cost and the fuel cost saving po-tential. The modular design of the PCM Panels enables the transport, production and assembly cost for the car-go deck to be reduced around 29%. Due to the fuel savings mentioned above, there is an annual fuel (Heavy Fuel Oil – HFO) cost savings of around 6,9%. Combination of these financial benefits from the PCM panel inte-gration resulted in the increase in NPV of the reefer vessel under consideration in the project by around € 29 million by end of its life cycle of around 25 years (see Figure 14). The economic benefit of having PCM panels in the reefer vessels is more pronounced by the fact, there the ROI of the ship in comparison to the benchmark conventional steel insulation panels is 0 months (see Figure 14). This is due to the fact already mentioned about of having reduced production costs involved in the modular PCM panels. This enables to have a positive invest-ment factor even before the start of operation of the ship.

Figure 14: Return on Investment (ROI) and Net Present Value (NPV) of Reefer with PCM Panels in compari-son to Baseline Ship

Adaptive Bulbous Bow:
The Adaptive Bulbous Bow (ABB) will enable to reduce the power required in the Ships’ operation, by changing the length of the Bulbous Bow and thereby reducing the ship resistance. The technical validation of the design of ABB have been performed with the aid of model tests in a towing tank. The model test results provided an overview of the impact on ship resistance and power required while the ship is operated at different Bulbous Bow designs. One design showed to be an optimum design with around 16% power reduction at Service speeds of the ship.
The selection of optimum design specifications of the ABB for the specific ship type of Inland Waterway (IWW) Vessels in the project, was performed in comparing the model test results of three designs. The tests results showed, that even though all the designs, with their different lengths of the bulbous bow provide positive re-sults with regards to power saved, one particular design was selected to be the optimum design for the ship during its service speed operation.,
The environmental impact, as a result of implementing the ABB design in the IWW is of twofold. There is a fixed GWP increase due to just the inclusion of the new materials required to accommodate the ABB design and as-sembly. The second environmental impact factor is the influence of the ABB in the GWP of the fuel emissions from the ship during its operation. The GWP of the new additional materials (steel, hydraulics and its control systems) in the ABB constitute to only 1/200th of the total emission from the ship. As none of the new materials introduced are toxic in nature, materials does not pose a hindrance to the environmental impact of ABB in the Ships. Moreover, because of the reduced power requirement during service speed operations of the ship, the yearly fuel (Marine Diesel Oil – MDO) consumption is reduced. This enables a possible GWP reduction of around 17%. This is a very significant reduction in the GWP of a ship in the perspective of its yearly as well as life time operation (shown in Figure 15).

Figure 15: GWP of the IWW with Adaptive Bulbous Bow and Baseline Line Ship over 25 years
The economic impact of the ABB is influenced by the operational revenues and the operational cost of the IWW. The Operational revenues is assumed not to change in comparison to the conventional ship. With the ABB, as mentioned above, there is a significant reduction in power and thereby the fuel cost savings have influ-enced in having a significant impact in the NPV and ROI of the system in an IWW vessel with specific operation-al profile. With the yearly fuel cost & the subsequent emission allowance savings potential of around 16%, the ABB provides the NPV for the ship after 25 years of its operation increases in comparison to the conventional design by around €300.000. The fuel cost savings also aided in having a ROI for the ABB assembly in the IWW vessel to be around 13 months (see Figure 16).

Figure 16: Return on Investment (ROI) and Net Present Value (NPV) of IWW with Adaptive Bulbous Bow in comparison to Baseline Ship
A HAZID/Safety analysis was performed to understand the constraints in the practical implementation of the ABB in a ship in operation. The hydraulic control systems in the ABB are not toxic in nature. Installation of the ABB does not differ significantly from the conventional ship structure repairing or normal construction. There-fore, there are no constraint in ABB production and assembly. The ABB design is in compliance with the conven-tional structural and system regulations of class. Class rules are only to be studies further with respect to un-derwater appendages.
The effort of a Shipyard / Ship operator to deliver low consumption ships and to infuse energy-efficient fea-tures into ships to make them as efficient sailing ships is in trend with the general policy for the development of energy efficiency and low emission vessels. The environmental, economic benefits of the ABB are leading the end users to promote the upgrading of the IWW vessel types with the ABB in order to increase the ship effi-ciency and transforming them from this point of view into a low energy consumption ships.
Adaptive Windows:
The Adaptive Windows enables to utilise the electrochromic property of the adaptive layers used in the glass, to maintain an optimum room temperature in leisure ship types like Yachts. The technical validation of the adaptive layers used in the Adaptive Windows shows that a temperature reduction of around 5°C is possible to be achieved in the passenger area of a Yacht, in comparison to normal conventional transparent glass. The main objective of the study in Adaptive Windows for leisure ships is to increase the comfort level of the pas-sengers on board the ship.
The environmental impact of the Adaptive Windows is influenced by the new materials added in the adaptive layers of the windows, fuel consumption on board and the reduction in the usage of the Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems (HVAC). The GWP due to the change in materials are balanced between the materials removed (conventional glass, HVAC systems, etc) and materials added (adaptive layers, resin, assembly and lighter HVAC). The Adaptive Windows does enable for a greener leisure time for the passengers on board with an estimated fuel savings potential in a Yacht and thereby GWP to be around reduced 6,25%.(see Figure 17) It is to be noted, that the direct fuel saving potential is not the main objective of the Adaptive Windows and moreo-ver is also influenced by the operational profile of the leisure ships under consideration. The reduction in the GWP of the Yacht in its specific operational voyage is shown in the picture below.
The economic impact in installing the Adaptive Windows in a leisure ship such as Yacht is dependent on the ap-plication of the Adaptive Windows and also on the level of utilisation of the ship in a year. The Adaptive Win-dows in a Yacht as in does not enable to increase the revenue of a Yacht, therefore with only the small amount of fuel savings, the NPV of the system as a whole in a Yacht in comparison to conventional glass is negative. In a similar way, the ROI of a Yacht under consideration with Adaptive Windows is actually 5 months later in com-parison to a Yacht with conventional glass.
The HAZID/Safety study of the Adaptive layers in the window shows that the Adaptive Windows does not intro-duce any new safety issues to a ship. From a Ship Owner / Ship Operator perspective, more research is required in the areas of actual material composition of the adaptive layers, cost involved in the production and assembly of the adaptive windows and longer full scale demonstrator study before a direct implementation of Adaptive Windows. Tests showed that the adaptive glass is more efficient that the tinted conventional glass and thus, probably higher difference than assumed 5°C will be achieved when compared to the transparent glass. At the moment, the adaptive layer can only be produced as a flat surface even though technologically also curved sur-faces are feasible. Curved surfaces are desired if the windows are used in larges sailing or motor yachts. Also the adaptive window is considerably thicker and heavier compared to the conventional window. More detailed information on the material data and critical states of the adaptive layer would allow to optimize the structure of the adaptive glass and thereby to reduce the thickness of the whole assembly.

Figure 17: GWP of the Yacht with Adaptive Windows and Baseline Line Ship over 25 years

List of Websites: Coordinator contact
Matthias Krause
Bramfelder Str. 164
22305 Hamburg
Tel.: +49 (40) 69 20 876-33
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