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STable high-capacity lithium-Air Batteries with Long cycle life for Electric cars

Final Report Summary - STABLE (STable high-capacity lithium-Air Batteries with Long cycle life for Electric cars)

Executive Summary:
The objective of this project was to develop innovative materials and technologies for Li-air battery with improved performance in terms of life cycle and specific capacity. In order to achieve this objective, different activities have been designed for innovation study of the anode materials in WP1, cathode materials in WP2, electrolyte in WP3, simulation and modeling in WP4, assembly of battery cells in WP5, life cycle assessment in WP6.
Low cost synthesis of the cathode materials starting from easily available compounds which should also satisfy easy conductivity of Li ions have been employed and studied. Different techniques such as hydrothermal, flame spray pyrolisis etc. Several different cathodic materials were produced and have been used in prototype cells and compared. In particular materials with different porosity, electronic conductivity, different catalyst and catalysts loading have been produced and tested both as selfstanding electrodes and as inks on conductive supports.
Electrolyte mixture was optimized in term of performance and of environmental impact.
The optimized solution and results generated from WP1-WP3 were simulated through WP4, and employed for the assembly and optimization of complete cell (WP5), as well as for the implementation of life cycle assessment (WP6).
Different prototypes of cells were assembled by selecting the best performing components from every work package, namely the cathode, the electrolyte and the air dehydration membrane.
The assembled prototypes delivered a capacity as high as 1268 mAh/g. Afterwards, different prototypes were assembled in coin and pouch cell configurations. The pouch cell, comprising the Pd/CNF based cathode, a blended electrolyte and the oxygen selective membrane was tested in ambient air at 17% RH.
Such cell performed over 150 cycles at 100% columbic efficiency, reaching even overcoming the objectives proposed in the STABLE project.
Project Context and Objectives:

• A summary description of project context and objectives (not exceeding 4 pages).
STABLE focuses on innovations of battery anode, cathode, electrolyte materials and technologies, as well as assembly of batteries cells, which are crucial on battery performance, cost and environmental impact.
Improvement of lifetime and cyclability of Li-air batteries have been studied through finding highly active bifunctional catalysts to effectively regenerate batteries, protecting the Li anode from dendrites formation using suitable membranes and obtaining stable electrolyte with additives to render solubility of Li2O2 that cause cathode clogging.
Activities were focused especially on optimization of cathode structures; 2) the selection of active catalysts and de-hydration membranes; 3) modification of anode structure with necessary protecting layers, additives or surfactants; 4) modification of electrolyte properties. The final aim is to obtain Li-air battery cells with specific capacity of >2000mAh/g and an improvement of cycle life to 100-150 cycles.
The project is organized in 9 workpackages.

Work Package 1 — Synthesis and optimisation of anode material for Li-air battery.
The overall objective of this WP is to synthesise and optimise lithium anode materials through different approaches. In this regard, significant results have been obtained.
The high efficiency of the standard NASICON membrane in protecting lithium anode was confirmed. However, this membrane is highly expensive and extremely fragile. One strategy could be to try to prepare some similar protective membranes with other material (maybe polymers, but not PVDF) to enhance the mechanical properties.
TiO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles, as well as nanoclays such as montmorillonites and LDHs, have been used as additives for the PVdF protective polymeric layers for the anode, produced by melt intercalation with a weight load of 3% and a thickness up to 50 microns.
After electrochemical tests the protecting action of the membranes seems limited as the Li foil is quite corroded. Moreover, the conductivity of these membranes is very low, even if higher when additives are used. Different composition of Li-Ag and Li-Mg alloys were produced by using a high-energy planetary ball mill at room temperature. EDS dot-map analyses show that Ag/Mg powders were distributed uniformly in the Li-Metal alloy matrix.
The addition of Mg powders into the lithium matrix could not show significant improvement on electrochemical performance of Li-air. Therefore, it is not recommended to use Li-Mg alloys as negative electrode. LISICON based LAGP protective pellets and membranes have been synthesized by means of a sol-gel process or electrospinning.
Commercial LAGP membrane, synthesized LAGP membrane and PVDF nanofibers with 1% LAGP have been tested in Li-O2 battery cell and enable to protect the metallic Li from passivation. No better capacity nor cyclability has been observed.
Production of LTO nanoparticles by different synthetic routes such as FSP and sol-gel methods. However, they did not match requirements specified. Electrochemical deposition of copper nanorods onto copper and through an alumina membrane has been developed. Li has been then electrodeposited onto the nano-rods. The electrochemical tests of this nano-structured anode show very low capacity and the electrodeposition setup needs to be optimized. Similar results have been obtained with the Li deposited onto CNFs. As the performance of the protective layer did not show any significant improvement in the cell electrochemical performances, Li metal foil were used as anodes to build the prototypes.

Work Package 2 — Synthesis and optimization of cathode materials for Li-air battery.
The objective of this WP is the development of the cathode materials, with good physical properties i.e. small thickness, big porosity and volume fraction of carbon.
The optimized air cathode with highly active catalysts, nano-structured carbon and moisture filtering membrane have been prepared. Mesoporous metal oxides (Co, Mn) as well as metal and metal oxide nanoparticles supported MWCT and graphene proved to increase the cell capacity and cycle ability. Among the various cathode materials tested Pd nanoparticles supported carbon nanofibers, showed excellent cycling performance.
The nanostructured mesoporous CNFs used as supporting the metal nanoparticles resulted to be porous enough to allow O2 diffusion and at the same time to decrease the clogging of the formed by-products (Li2O2, LiO2). On the other hand, the presence of carbon graphite retained the good electronic conductivity of the cathode. Such cathodes enabled the cell to perform more than 90 re-versible and stable discharge/recharge cycles with voltage gap of less than 0.5V in TEGDME-based electrolyte and pure oxygen feeding.
The results of WP2 further indicated that, for cell operating in ambient air, the cycling ability and the overall electrochemical performances can be largely improved with a suitable dehydration membrane located beyond the air cathode. Highly hydrophobic PVDF-HFP membranes loaded with silicon oil as an oxygen vector, acted as a moisture barrier and enabled the cell to cycle up to 650h. This behaviour was almost comparable to that of cells powered with pure oxygen.

Work Package 3 — Synthesis and optimization of electrolyte of Li-air battery.
The objectives of this WP were to synthesize and characterize stable electrolytes with high conductivity and high oxygen solubility to increase the discharge current density and then determine the most suitable lithium-air battery materials and technology for the use in EVs. The addition of ionic liquids in organic solvents significantly improved the ionic conductivity of electrolyte up to 9.5 ms cm-1 and more than 65 cycles were obtained at a discharge capacity of 835 mAh g-1electrode. Moreover, the overall price of the electrolyte is then lower than conventional electrolyte due to the ratio of €/mol.
Besides, addition of metal oxide nanoparticles also showed slightly beneficial effects on the cell cycling. These additives are used to reduce the dendrites formation and to improve the oxygen solubility, the viscosity and the polarity of the electrolyte.
The up-scaling of the metal oxide nanoparticles production was carried out with brilliant results and samples were sent to POLITO for their incorporation in electrolytes to be tested at prototype scale.
Work Package 4 — Simulation and modelling of Li-air battery.
The Work Package 4 aims to examine the nature of the important Li-O2 battery discharge product formation during operation, using Density Functional Theory modelling methods.
Density functional theory is a powerful method for examining atomic and molecular scale interactions, reactions and interfacial chemistry that happens on battery electrodes during use.
In this project, we developed models to understand the nature of the Li2O2, Li2O and LiO2 material formed during discharging and charging (the method by which the battery stores and delivers charge), and how the discharge product material nucleates and grows on the surface of metal oxide electrocatalysts, and compared to experimental battery tests using nanowires of this catalyst that we also synthesized in the laboratory.
Oxide electrocatalyst, especially those with ‘active’ surfaces are supposed to help improve reversibility and lower the charging over potential, to increase energy density in principle. The detail modelling conducted in STABLE showed that defective oxide surface favour the formation of Li2O2 and Li2O, and that the nature of the oxide surface plays a role in the rate formation of these species, even if they are formed via reactions involving solution-based LiO2 species.
Essentially, while the process that occurs in the battery electrolyte and with the O2 or H2O (or other high DN species) are important for reversible performance of these batteries, the nature of the permeable air electrode is found to be vital in determining the growth of the final Li2O2 phase. The STABLE project can now apply these modelling methods to predict or screen-out useful bi-functional catalyst materials for improved reversibility and efficiency in the future.

Work Package 5 — Complete cell.
The Work Package 5 aims to the realization of the final prototype. Several generation of prototypes have been developed to show high capacity and long cycle life.
While working with the cell, we noticed a few expected and a few unexpected challenges.
Firstly, the difficulty of accurately measuring oxygen partial pressure, which would seem to affect voltage of the battery and is therefore important. It is also interesting to know in which way the oxygen concentration and oxygen partial pressure affects the cell. The last produced prototypes were working with air at ambient pressure. Another important detail about the cell is the need to apply pressure across the entire surface of the cell to ensure proper functionality of the cell. Furthermore, it was not completely obvious what else affects battery voltage. For example, most of the time we would measure self-discharge as expected, yet it also happened we measured a higher voltage on the battery after it was disconnected for two days.
Different prototypes of cells were assembled by selecting the best performing components from every work package, namely the cathode, the electrolyte and the air dehydration membrane.
The first prototypes were assembled at Cegasa and delivered a capacity as high as 1268 mAh/g. Afterwards, different prototypes were assembled in coin and pouch cell configurations. The pouch cell, comprising the Pd/CNF based cathode, a blended electrolyte and the oxygen selective membrane was tested in ambient air at 17% RH.
Such cell performed over 150 cycles at 100% columbic efficiency, reaching even overcoming the objectives proposed in the STABLE project.

Work Package 6 — Life cycle assessment. Electric vehicles are seen as the main answer to the transport sector’s problems of climate impact and diminishing oil supplies and lithium-air batteries, which theoretically can offer at least 10 times better energy density than the best battery technology (Lithium-Ion) of today, are therefore very interesting. To detect and avoid other potential environmental problems with lithium-air cells, life cycle assessment (LCA) of environmental impact during manufacture, use and recycling of the Li-air battery has been done in work package 6. The best prototype lithium-air cell developed in the project have been analysed from cradle to grave, i.e. from raw material production, cathode manufacturing, electrolyte preparation, cell assembly, use in a typical vehicle to end-of-life treatment and recycling. Life cycle impacts have been quantified in terms of climate impact, abiotic resource depletion and toxicity. The LCA show that at the present level of lithium-air cell performance, production-related impacts dominate all environmental impact categories. However, as the performance of the lithium-air cell develops (and less cells are needed), battery-related losses during operation become the major source of environmental impacts. The battery internal electricity losses become heat that may need considerable amounts of additional energy for its transportation out of the battery.
The LCA also show that by recycling, 10-30% of production-related environmental impact could potentially be avoided. Today no industrial recycling of lithium-based traction batteries is ongoing and the economic incentive to invest in it is weak.
In view of above, it is recommended that future battery cell development projects already at the design stage ought to consider the methods and processes for efficient and environmentally benign cell-level recycling
Work Package 7 — Scientific coordination.
The scientific coordination of the project is done by Politecnico di Torino. The former coordinator, Prof Qiuping Chen, resigned and gave the task to Prof. Silvia Bodoardo.
Work Package 8 — Dissemination and exploitation strategy.
The dissemination and exploitation strategy developed by Politecnico di Torino includes three main tasks: the project website, the workshops, and the periodic newsletters. The website was regularly updated with the most recent news and activities related to the project.
Furthermore, the project partners have participated in several conferences and published various articles and posters.
Some interesting and well attended workshops were also organized:
INDUSTRIAL WORKSHOP
29th September 2014
STABLE CLUSTERING WORKSHOP
The event took place in Brussels on May 28th 2015 and was organised by the Politecnico of Torino. Topics such as automotive battery materials and cell production in Europe were discussed. Then, the twelve Projects Members of the clusters presented their recent activities.
STABLE IN CHINA
From the 6-13th June, the coordinator of the project went to China to explore possible collaboration and learn more about recent research developments. The trip included a visit at the University of Technology in Zhengzhou, a visit in Li-battery company in Luoyang, and a visit in JAC EV car manufacturing company.
On the other hand, all the knowhow may be transferred to batteries’ companies that might be interested in investigating new materials for their final products.

Further information on www.fp7-stable.com

Project Results:
STABLE project is focused on the study of materials for Li-air cells.

ANODE
The main objectives are:
1. Development of anode protecting layers or surfactants with high safety operation range
2. Synthesis and characterisation of good quality fillers or additives for protecting anode from dendrites formation
3. Discover the most suitable lithium air battery materials and technology for the use in EV

TiO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles, as well as nanoclays such as montmorillonites (MM) and LDHs, have been used as additives for the PVdF protective polymeric layers for the anode, produced by melt intercalation with a weight load of 3% and a thickness up to 50 microns. The cycling time of these cells is impressing however most of the systems showed a low columbic efficiency linked to a high resistivity of the membranes. Lower columbic efficiency on the 1st cycles à Swelling with electrolyte allows crossing of Li ions through the membrane.
The best results are obtained with the membranes PVDF+Si and PVDF+LDH.
In general, nanoclays showed better performance than NPs
Pure NASICON membrane was also prepared: The cycling is fairly regular and so is the cell capacity, for around 25 cycles, then it began dropping. After 1000h inside the cell the lithium anode was not entirely corroded, proving the cell failing wasn’t caused by anode corrosion.
The downside of this membrane is its cost and its extreme fragility.
The coulombic efficiency of the standard cell is steady around 100% for 16 cycles before drastically dropping, while the coloumbic efficiency of the NASICON cell is less regular, oscillating around 90% for 25 cycles, thus demonstrating a longer lifetime while maintaining a fairly good efficiency, probably thanks to the lithium protection.


NASICON membrane was also covered with PVDF layer: It was observed :
Very high resistivity inside the cell.
On the first cycle, the cell does not discharge.
Subsequent re-charge probably occurs due to parasitic reactions (nothing to do with the decomposition of lithium peroxide).
As cycling proceeds, the liquid electrolyte inside the separator probably diffuses in both the NASICON and PVDF membranes and a decrease of the internal resistance of the cell is observed for a while. These problems can probably be explained by a poor intrinsic Li-ion conductivity of the 2 membranes and of the poor adhesion between each other, and by a probable reaction between PVDF and lithium

Alloys with Ag and Mg have been produced.
According to electrochemical cycling tests, Li-Ag anode containing 8 %wt. Ag was shown the best cycling performance compared with other Li-Ag alloys.
The addition of magnesium powders into the lithium matrix couldn’t show significant improvement on electrochemical performance of lithium air batteries. Therefore, it is not recommended to use lithium-magnesium alloys as negative electrode in lithium air batteries.

CATHODE
The objectives are :
1. Low cost synthesis and characterization of nano-structured and morphology of carbon / graphene with high pore volume, morphology and surface area as electrode supports.
2. Synthesis and optimization of nano-structured /multilayered active catalysts to increase the capacity and avoid the over-potential of cathode.
3. Fabrication and characterization of dehydration (or nano-structured hydrophobic) membrane for air cathode
4. Selection of the most suitable cathode and dehydration membrane for the cell prototype development.

Several materials have been developed:
Different nanostructured carbon based materials:
• Ordered mesoporous carbons (C16-C15) as replicas of silica templates
• Hollow core mesoporous shell carbons (HCMSC)
• Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) based buckypapers
• Different mesoporous carbon nanofibers (CNFs)

Graphene and Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO):
• Graphene oxide (GO) was produced via Hummer’s method
• Multilayered graphene production

Cathodes:
• Composite cathodes (Ni mesh support)
• Ink type cathodes-coatings (commercial GDLs supports with and without microporous layer)
• Self-standing cathodes

As reported in D2.3 several materials have been synthesized and optimized with and without catalysts
Here a list of produced materials follows.
• Crystalline mesoporous α-MnO2, α-MnO2 supported on carbon black, mesoporous Co3O4,
• TiO2 /RGO, Ru NPS supported on ITO
• α-MnO2 nanowires, Graphene Oxide (GO)/α-MnO2 , (GO)/α-MnO2 /Pt , α-MnO2/CNT
• Pt nanoparticles and Pt nanoparticles decorated MWCNT, (CNT)/α-MnO2 /Pt bifunctional catalysts
• α-MnO2 doped mesoporous CNF, nanostructured M-doped MnOx/C (M=Co or Pd) and PtAu/C
• High surface area metal doped nanofibers Pd and Co
• Co, Co3O4 and MnO2 NPs produced by flame pyrolysis, preparation of Co3O4 and Co3O4/ MnO2 supported on MWCNTs electrocatalysts
• Highly hydrophobic PVDF-HFP membranes prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation and loaded with silicon oil.
• Preparation of sandwich structured membrane: the core membrane is eletrospun PVDF membrane with high porous structure and sheath membrane is porous cellulose acetate membrane which casted from acetone and water mixed solvent

All produced materials were characterized by a chemico-physical point of view. Here are reported the electrochemical results.
In the case of Nanostructured M-doped MnOx/C (M=Co or Pd) and PtAu/ self standing cathodes were prepared. The use of CNF lowers the overpotential
The same materials were also used as coating for GDL. Again a reduction of the overpotential was observed.
As selfstanding cathode, outstand results were achieved by using Co.CNF: More than 40 days of cell operation and more than 45 reversible cycles for CNF + Co2.5mmol were measured. The capacity is 100mAh/g based on the total mass of the electrode
In order to reduce the difference in voltage between charge and discharge, noble metals were used as coatings on GDL24AB with Pd2,5mmol AEPTS/CNFs. The cell span more than 70 days without losing capacity.
Also in the also of Pd overpotential in the order of 1.1,5 V were obtained. Those values are very interesting and promising.

Flame Spray pyrolysis (FSP) was used to synthesize several ceramic nanopowders used as high capacity material the cathode.. In particular the cathodes containing Cobalt oxides were coated on GDL and on multiwall carbon nanotubes – the cyclability is high and the capacity is outstanding in the order of 15000 mAh/g.

Many other materials were studied by changing the noble metal and changing the support, such as mesoporous carbons, CNT.

Graphene was also prepared by exfoliating graphite: Self-standing electrodes were produced from Pt nano powder (10 nm), α-MnO2 powder and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the form of thickness controllable air breathing paper electrode for Li-air cells
Finaly two types of membranes were prepared to prevent the moisture inlet in the cell
Highly hydrophobic PVDF-HFP membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation in 240 micron thin sheets. Optimum porosity was achieved by adding sacrificial silica nanoparticles. After silica removal the pores of the membrane were loaded with silicon oil acting as “an oxygen vector”
The membrane was characterized and tested in different conditions
All materials for cathode, produced by FSP, are available at large scale (Carbon sources such as Graphene, CNT and MnO2 structures).
As conclusions can be stated that:
- Nevertheless the main materials for cathode or components are not extremely expensive, the noble metals content has to be kept at reasonably low quantities. Carbon was used in any case as the main cathode material.
- However, in case there are some noble metals such as Pt and Pd etc, which can be used as catalyst on the cathode and these materials are expensive and not cost effective.
- The final answer will depend on the final design of the air cathode. If noble metals are used, this would be a significant contributor to price. This would be highly dependent upon the weight loading of the catalyst material (assuming the use of a much cheaper carbon support). In some literature reports, high catalyst loadings of up to 40% weight compared to carbon are used.
- From production process point of view, cathode preparation and cell assembly are lab-made, thus the mass production is not considered at this stage.

ELECTROLYTES
Electrolyte used can be organized in the following groups:
Organic solvents:
• Carbonate-based solvents (EC, DEC, PC)
• Tetraethylene glycol dimethy lether (TEGDME)
• N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)
• Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)
Ionic liquids (ILs):
• cation: imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, piperidinium
• anion: bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, hexafluorophosphate
Mixture ILs + organic solvent
Additives: Nanoparticles of CeO2, ZrO2, SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2

As organic solvents are concerned, Carbonate-based mixtures show very low cycle life (<10 cycles) due to gassing (EC) and Li2CO3 formation. TEGDME + LiClO4 showed good results.
Ionic liquid are safer than organic electrolytes and present comparable conductivity (10 mS/cm @RT for EMITFSI). The performance are also increasing with temperature, make sense for high temperature application
Additives based on ceramic compounds have been produced and used to stabilize the electrolytes:
Electrochemical results by using TEGDME are interesting in particular by using LiNO3 as salt which increases the durability of the cell. NO3- can react with Li metal to form soluble nitrite anions and a passivating layer of Li2O on the surface of Li electrode
The use of additives increases the coulombic efficiency.
Higher stability is also achieved with the use of PeO and Al2O3 and ILs.
The use of DMSO strongly increased the overall performance in particular with the addition of 5% of Al2O3. With the IL-DMSO electrolyte, 80 % of the recharge process was realized at a voltage inferior to 4.0 V.
More than 65 cycles were executed with a capacity retention of more than 80%.

COMPLETE CELL

One of the objectives of STABLE was to produce a Li-air battery cell with specific capacity of >2000mAh/g and an improvement of cycle life to 100-150 cycles. Two generation of cells have been prodiced: one fuel cell type proving both high capacity and long cycle life and a second generation in which the fuel cell type was used to reach the high capacity and coffe bag and coin cell types were used for long cycling.
Several cells were prepared with different composition. These are reported in the corresponding deliverable. Here only best results are reported for sake of brevity.
The fuel cell type was assembled with different materials. Good results were obtained using the cathode containing C2=3 /CNT on GDL and TEGDME with LiClO4 as electrolyte.
With the above reported composition, the capacity was higher than 1200 mAh/g. Unfortunately the cyclability is very low.
Coin cells were prepared: Reproducibility of the cells was significantly lower than the standard El-Cell.
The nature of pressing for the cells and requirement for a number of metal spacers in the casing meant that a high percentage of the cells shorted prior to testing or showed unstable OCV values during the two hour rest period. Nevertheless, a number of cells were successfully created and the results were compared with parallel tests run in the El-cells.
Asymmetric discharge/charge tests run with CNT tests in DMSO at a fixed capacity (1000 mAhg-1). Better capacity retention seen than for pure Super P cathodes. Reduced OER overpotential was obtained with reduced charging current. The capacity retention was improved at slower rates and best performance for slowest symmetric test (50 µA±).

Some prototypes were assembled as pouch cells, and tested with a maximum time of charge and discharge of 5h. The cells were assembled with selected electrodes and electrolytes and with the optimized membrane to prevent the moisture inlet in the cell. The composition of cells saw the use of PdCNF on GDL as cathode. The electrolyte was DMSO + IL and LiClO4 as salt. One of the studied cell was tested in dry air for comparison, while the other ones were tested in air with the 17% of humidity.
The best results were obtained with the cell with a very good and optimized membrane and achieved 151 cycles in air. This can be considered an outstanding result.

Modelling
Large scale density functional theory models were performed to investigate the influence of electrocatalysts on the formation of Li2O2, LiOH and Li2O during operation of Li-O2 batteries. The modelling effort elucidated a general basis for the influence of important electrocatalyst crystallinity and surface defects on the overpotential associated with discharging and recharging of the Li-O2 battery

LCA

Lithium-air batteries are investigated for propulsion aggregates in vehicles as they theoretically offer at least 10 times better energy density than the best battery technology (lithium-ion) of today. A possible input to guide development is expected from life cycle assessment (LCA) of the manufacture, use and recycling of the Li-air battery.
For this purpose, lithium-air cells are analyzed from cradle to grave, i.e. from raw material production, cathode manufacturing, electrolyte preparation, cell assembly, use in a typical vehicle to end-of-life treatment and recycling. The aim of this investigation is highlighting environmental hotspots of lithium-air batteries to facilitate their improvement, in addition to scrutinizing anticipated environmental benefits compared to other battery technologies. Life cycle impacts are quantified in terms of climate impact, abiotic resource depletion and toxicity. Data is partly based on assumptions and estimates guided from similar materials and processes common to Li-ion technologies. Laboratory scale results for Li-air systems are considered, which include expectations in their future development for efficiency gains.
At the present level of lithium-air cell performance, production-related impacts dominate all environmental impact categories. However, as the performance of the lithium-air cell develops (and less cells are needed), battery-related losses during operation become the major source of environmental impacts. The battery internal electricity losses become heat that may need considerable amounts of additional energy for its transportation out of the battery.
By recycling, 10-30% of production-related environmental impact could potentially be avoided. Today no industrial recycling of lithium-based traction batteries is on-going and the economic incentive to invest in it is weak. In view of above, it is recommended that future battery cell development projects already at the design stage ought to consider the methods and processes for efficient and environmentally benign cell-level recycling. LCA could provide additional arguments and a quantitative basis for lithium battery recycling. This emphasizes the need to develop LCA toxicity impact methods in order to properly assess lithium.

Potential Impact:
Based on the positive outcome of the assessment procedures in WP1-WP6 and taking into account the outcomes of the costs estimation, the industrial partners promote the developed batteries within their own companies and among companies cooperating with them in the EU, taking care of IPR protection in each case.

To carry out this synthetic work, the following table has been filled with the first proposal of identified exploitable results:

# Exploitable Result Description of Exploitable Foreground Sector(s) of application Time to Market Patents or other IPR exploitation Forms/Claims Owner & Other Partner(s) involved
1 Lithium Anode for Li-O2 or Li-air cells Nano-structured lithium anode and/or anode protecting layers or surfactants to prevent dendrites formation for high safety and wide temperature operation range Electrochemical Storage (Batteries) 5 years Internal know-how, Patent, Licensing Owner to be defined depending on the specific result
Partners involved: LUR, POLITO, LEITAT, IVF, SAU
2 Cathode materials for Li-O2 or Li-air cells - Low cost synthesis of nano-structured carbon or graphene sheets with high pore volume and surface area as electrode support.
- Development of filter layer or membrane to prevent the moisture ingress and degradation of anode.
- Development and synthesis of multilayer highly active catalytic materials to increase the specific capacity
and to avoid the over-potential. Electrochemical Storage (Batteries)

Electrochemical Conversion (Fuel Cells) 5 years Internal know-how, Patent, Licensing Owner to be defined depending on the specific result
Partners involved: POLITO, LEITAT, LUR, IVF, SAU
3 Electrolyte for Li-O2 or Li-air cells Stable low volatility electrolyte with low viscosity and high oxygen solubility to increase the
discharge current density
Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) or combinations of solvents/additives Electrochemical Storage (Batteries) 3-5 years Internal know-how, Industrial Secret, Patent, Licensing Owner to be defined depending on the specific result
Partners involved: LEITAT, POLITO, CEGASA, SAU
4 Simulation and modelling of Li-air battery Complete modelling of the performance of the assembled cells by detailed density functional theory calculations of catalytic function, voltage stability, and phase formation influence on overall performance. Electrochemical Storage (Batteries) 5 years Internal know-how (Consultancy) for further use in materials development and cell design UCC
Partners involved: LEITAT, CEGASA, ELAPHE
5 Li-air cell Assembly of complete cell using optimal anode and cathode materials and safe electrolytes. Test and evaluation of complete cell in laboratory scale Electrochemical Storage (Batteries) >5 years Internal know-how, Industrial Secret, Patent, Licensing CEGASA
(UCC, ELAPHE)
Partners involved: LUR, POLITO, LEITAT
6 LCA data Investigation of existing relevant Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on lithium air batteries. Full LCA of cell concept to assess overall environmental performance with fabricated
lab-test device. End-of-life management of Li-air batteries and assessment of their reuse and recycling Electrochemical Storage (Batteries)

Life Cycle Analysis 3-5 years Internal know-how, Consultancy Partners involved: IVF, ELAPHE
7 In-wheel electric motor with batteries Integration concept for an in-wheel electric motor including electrochemical storage Electrochemical Storage (Batteries)

Electric Vehicle >5 years Internal know-how, Industrial Secret, Patent, Licensing Elaphe
(CEGASA)

1. Dissemination Activity
The STABLE dissemination plan as part of the PUDF (D8.3 D8.5 D8.9 D8.12) includes activities such as project website, flyers, newsletters, scientific publications, workshops, presentations at conferences and fairs. In addition, STABLE project will participate in clustering activities with other EU funded lithium based batteries projects (LISSEN, EUROLIS) and workshops organised by PPP Green Cars and EGVI in Brussels. Participation in other workshops organized by other projects in the area relevant to the STABLE will be ensured, such as during the ECS conferences or others organized by ALISTORE-ERI.
All partners participated in dissemination activities. The partners will disseminate the project through their networks and newspaper, marketing departments, clusters, magazines and information days.
The research leading to these results has received funding from the Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n°314508.
3.1. Website
The aim of building a website homepage is to set up the project community, that is the worldwide group of organisations and professionals that share an interest in potential results, are possibly impacted by those results, or are in a position that may affect the actual use and exploitation of the innovative concepts of the project. Additionally, another objective is to facilitate the exchange of information and knowledge between the partners forming the consortium through a private area.
The project website has been developed, set-up and is maintained by POLITO. It is public and accessible from month 3 of the project (Deliverable 8.1) at http://www.fp7-stable.com/
It includes a public area navigation menu divided in the following sections: Home (general presentation of the project), About us, Partners (links to partner’s websites), Meeting (project meetings), Workpackages (WP description), News, Gallery, Contact us, Login (to restricted area).
The restricted area with secure FTP access has also been implemented for sharing sensitive information between the STABLE partners.
The site will be updated at least every two months in order to disseminate the findings of the project and stimulate further interest in its growth and activities. A web analytic tool (such as Google Analytics) may be used to monitor access and hits received in order to evaluate the outreach of this on-line dissemination tool.
The electronic newsletters will be published every 12 months (Deliverables 8.4 8.7 and 8.11) outlining the current/planned activities of the STABLE project and the newest results, both through the website and via the email subscription service. This will ensure continued stimulation of other parties' interest in the STABLE project over its lifecycle. The first year newsletter (D8.4) reported on conference attended by the partners presenting STABLE results an upcoming event such as project meetings.
Other media like project logo, flyer and poster have been designed and promoted through the web and on the international and national meetings (conferences, workshops, fairs, etc.).
Already included in the website, as part of the Visual Identity for the project, the logo has been adopted. The STABLE logo shown attached is simple and distinctive, integrating the project acronym with a scheme of an electrical plug and a battery with a shape that evokes the wheels of a car, thus summarising the project aim of developing a new battery technology suitable for electromobility. Newsletters are distributed by the partners’ contacts and are collected on the website.
3.2. Workshops
The STABLE consortium has also planned to organize 3 workshops which will invite technical agents in the automotive sector and urban mobility (companies, research institutes, public research organizations and universities). Participation in these workshops for government representatives (national, regional and local), would allow them to see first-hand the degree of maturity of technologies and the possible timetable for its implementation in the market.
1.- Elaphe foresees a dissemination event (D8.6 - month 19) in order to promote electric vehicle technologies, battery technologies and STABLE project results in Slovenia.
2.- An open Industrial workshop on electric mobility vehicles was organized in month 24 by POLITO as a forum for the exchange of STABLE research results and industrial experience on selected topics of mutual interest. It is expected that this workshop will lead to closer interaction between industrial partners from outside the consortium and the project partners.

3.- A Scientific workshop in coordination with other EU funded battery projects was organized in M32 in Brussels. Clustering activities with other EU funded lithium based batteries projects was organized. All experts from other EU lithium batteries were invited for the better communication and dissemination, exchange of information and for developing new cooperation projects etc. The results from the STABLE project will also be presented in this workshop through the posters or oral presentations.

In conclusion the above dissemination activity will be directed towards researchers in materials science, students who will be part of the future generation of scientists and professionals in industry (experts in material, process and production).
For future month some more activities are already planned e.g the participation at the Researcher Night in Torino (24th September 2015) and the participation in EEVC (December 2015).

3.3. Clustering Activities
Clustering activities with other EU lithium based battery projects will be promoted, especially those funded in the same Call (LISSEN, EUROLIS). These activities will also culminate in a workshop organised at the end of these projects that follow the same timeline, as mentioned in ssection 3.3.
In addition, STABLE is funded under the European Green Cars Initiative (EGCI). The EGCI is one of the three Public Private Partnerships (PPP) of the European Economic Recovery Plan announced by the President of the European Commission on the 26th of November 2008. The topics of the initiative include research on trucks, internal combustion engines, biomethane use, and logistics. However, a main focus is on the electrification of mobility and road transport.
In the framework of the initiative, there has been a continuous process of strategic stakeholder consultations, it consist on multiannual implementation plans which rest upon the longterm roadmaps and strategic research agendas of the European Technology Platforms, and it also includes workshops. Within the new framework program “Horizon 2020”, a new PPP following EGCI has been set up: EGVI (European Green Vehicle Initiative). The STABLE project will be active in these forms.

3.4. Journal Publications and Conferences
The STABLE scientific and technical foreground, approved for public dissemination by the project consortium, will be published in international peer review journals and presented on scientific conferences. It is reminded that in any communication (written or oral) a clear reference to the STABLE project as an FP7 project co-funded by the EC shall be made:
The research leading to these results has received funding from the Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n°314508.
Also at conferences, within the Task 8.1 networking activities with other networks/projects/peer groups dealing with EVs on European and national levels are envisaged. This is to mutually benefit from expertise/experience in the field and to broaden the dissemination of the STABLE project results.
The initial draft of a technical or scientific paper should be distributed to the rest of the partners in order to know if partners have any objection to publish the requested paper, article or communication. Every 6 months a list of published articles and conference dissemination performed will be shared with the consortium. Complete references shall be made available to the Commission and will be included in the updated PUDF every 12 months.
STABLE will actively present key findings and progress also at key conferences and events in each and all areas of importance to the industrial and scientific goals of the overall description of work the conferences attended are reposted in the corresponding deliverable.

List of Websites:
www.fp7-stable.com
coordinator: Silvia Bodoardo Politecnico di Torino- silvia.bodoardo@polito.it