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Implementation of Ubiquitous Connectivity for Public Transport

Final Report Summary - UCONNECT (Implementation of Ubiquitous Connectivity for Public Transport)

Executive Summary:
UCONNECT is aligned with the current steady growth in the interest of concretization of Smart Cities, centred at solving the connectivity needs for Smart Public Transportation Systems to provide Smart Services, both for the transport itself, the asset that most importantly influences the overall efficiency of a city, and for citizens, the main asset in a city.
Enhancing the transport sector will result in the overall enhancement of the city efficiency. Several initiatives are taking place in this scope, towards Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), in terms both of self-providing services and of services for the passengers that it carries. As the first need in order to implement any Smart Service is the connectivity provision, every Smart Service to be implemented in the transport sector will need to be continuously connected to the Internet in order to behave appropriately. Furthermore the connectivity envisaged for the transport sector must be provided ubiquitously and in mobility.
UCONNECT proposes to reach this Ubiquitous Connectivity for Public Transport through the implementation of three networking systems: (1) a seamless vertical handover system, allowing terminals to get connected to any access technology while maintaining connectivity to avoid services cut-offs; (2) a seamless roaming system, with close relation to the handover system, allowing terminals to get connected regardless of the operator exploiting the access network; (3) an interoperability system, allowing terminals to use several access networks at the same time, improving the overall available bandwidth and allowing the use of specific technologies for specific data transmissions, achieving efficiency both in transmission capabilities needs and in operational costs terms.
The related market segments will be explored by the consortium SMEs and feasible business models, with adequate pricing and billing methods for access provision and roaming exchanges will be established accordingly.
Project Context and Objectives:
Recently, the concept of Smart Cities is becoming more and more important at all levels, from the most basic research areas to the high level Public Administration sector. Along with a wide range of interest areas in this scope, when bearing in mind what is expected for a Smart City to become to, two main assets arise that must be specially taken into account: citizens and transport. The first ingredient (citizens) being the main active in a city, as they are the ones that make it exist and the ones that allow any Smart Service provision to make sense. The second ingredient (transport) is the active that lets people and things move. Enhancing the transport sector will result in the overall improvement of the city efficiency. Several initiatives are taking place in this scope, towards Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), in terms both of self-providing services for the transport itself and for the passengers that it carries. As the first need in order to implement any Smart Service is the connectivity provision, any. Smart Service that may be implemented in the transport sector will need to be continuously connected to the Internet in order to behave appropriately. Furthermore the connectivity envisaged for the transport sector must be provided ubiquitously and in mobility.
Consequently, enhancing the transport sector will have a strong influence on the overall improvement of the city efficiency and quality of life, through improvements in terms of mobility efficiency, environmental concerns and public transport sector offered services. This will definitely lead to the concretisation of the Smart Cities paradigm and its needed components, specifically the public transport, which is used by a massive numbers of people every day. Therefore, any implemented service in this area will directly reach this large number of potential users, and will make people more likely to adhere to the public transport, maximizing the benefits of any development in this area.
With the advances that were reached in the Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) field, several initiatives are taking place in the scope of transport sector enhancement through the use of ICT towards Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), both in terms of self-providing services for the transport itself and for the passengers that it carries. Bearing in mind any of these foreseen services, the primary need in order to implement any Smart Service is the connectivity provision. Any Smart Service that may be implemented in the transport sector will need to be continuously connected to the Internet in order to behave appropriately, but when talking about connectivity the transport introduces an important constraint by holding two main restrictions: it must be provided ubiquitously and in mobility.
This aspect has been achieved in the last years by mobile, so-called 3G, technologies, but nowadays their transmission capabilities have demonstrated being simply not enough for the immense amount of information that needs to be transmitted. Such needs are mainly coming from new smartphones and other personal devices, deployed sensors, new needs to transmit high data-consuming contents such as video, VoIP, etc., and the whole new world brought by the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. In this scope, 4G technologies deployment is envisaged to help affording these data transmission needs. But while 4G technologies like LTE are going to fold 2 to 3 times current 3G capacity, the amount of traffic to handle, mostly coming from the mobility environment, is foreseen to have a growth of about 27 times from 2010 to 2015.
The existing 3G infrastructure is gradually being complemented by other wireless technologies such as WiFi, WiMAX or LTE, which can provide the bandwidth, latency, QoS and other communication parameters needed to tackle with the aforementioned transmission requirements, and which are helping to offload traffic from already saturated 3G networks. But except for LTE which is designed to reuse parts of the existing 3G infrastructure, current trends in the deployment of these technologies are based in creating isolated, non-interoperable infrastructures, in a per-person, per-business or per-company base. In this environment one vision becomes clear: while isolated infrastructures are not efficient, nor able to cover a whole city, they may do if we put them all together. Then, the main challenge to provide ubiquitous connectivity is making networks converge, both in technological and business terms, implementing an interoperability environment for different technologies, networks and operators, where any user or device can get access, regardless of underlying technology and operator.
This is why the UCONNECT project was built by its consortium to fit in the context of the Smart Cities concept and aims to provide the needed reliable and ubiquitous connectivity for the public transport services.
Project Results:
Description of the main S&T results/foregrounds work:
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The UCONNECT performed work and obtained results reporting can be described as follows:
a. Implementation of a seamless handover and a roaming system when needed:
This performed work aimed at providing the public transportation with a mechanism to allow ubiquitous connectivity in mobility omitting any cut-offs in the service provision and making use of every existing wireless network while making transitions in a transparent manner for the users and devices getting access.
b. Implementation of an interoperability mechanism for heterogeneous networks:
This performed work took into account the existing network state in terms of multipath routing and load balancing and provides an efficient way for optimizing the efficiency of wireless networks usage, making use of several networks at the same time if needed or using different available networks for different services, based on their transmission needs.
c. Development of a UCONNECT hardware platform supporting the investigated ubiquitous connectivity mechanisms:
This performed work focused on the development of the UCONNECT proof-of-concept (hardware demonstrator) that is intended to be installed at the public transport vehicle. This UCONNECT developed platform acted as a gateway between available wireless networks and the final users and devices getting connected, implementing the developed connectivity mechanisms needed at the last-mile side and providing transparency about wireless access networks usage.
d. The UCONNECT prototype validation through laboratory and real field trials:
This performed work allowed that the UCONNECT system functionality has been successfully proved by means of two tests conducted on the integrated system: the first one in laboratory, in order to validate the integrated target platform for real field testing and a second one that was installed in a moving vehicle, representing a situation which is very close to the intended real transport environment.
e. Elaboration of a business plan for the UCONNECT solution exploration:
A significant effort was dedicated for identifying the market framework, competence, present barriers and opportunities; and planning the necessary tools to make the UCONNECT solution fruitful and profitable, according to the business case defined. In addition, exploitation plans for the SMEs partners were introduced to demonstrate the viability and validity of the results obtained. In this regard, a set of steps were followed for a full understanding of the project environment, a market study has been prepared, covering key aspects as Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), barriers and existing competence. Once completed the current framework analysis, different business models were elaborated, completely aligned with the desired UCONNECT business case. The last step, in order to close the loop of making the project profitable, has been the confection of an optimal exploitation plan for the variety of UCONNECT products and services.


The WPs specific main S&T results/foregrounds can be described as follows.



WP1: Management
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- WP1 Activity Type: MGT
- WP1 Leader: GWX than handed-over to EXYS
- WP1 Total Effort: 11 PM
- WP1 Starting Date: M01
- WP1 Ending Date: M24
- WP1 main S&T results/foregrounds: The UCONNECT management objectives can be enumerated as follows:
- Organise the consortium meeting (phone conferences, physical meeting...) according to what was agreed in the project DoW;
- Define and follow-up procedures for internal acceptance of deliverables, publications, etc;
- Set-up the UCONNECT handbook for day-to-day follow-up of the project;
- Elaborate, update and maintain the project website;
- Maintain the measurements of success factors and risk factors;
- Deliver the reports as contractual obligated.
- Lead the dissemination activities for the UCONNECT project.

The management achievements in the first reporting project period can be summarized as follows:
- In terms of administrative management, the activities during the fifth three months of implementation have mainly involved the work needed to finish the reporting to the Research Executive Agency (REA) and also the performing of the following activities:
* Overall Management of the UCONNECT project
* Provision of strategic guidance mechanism to UCONNECT
* Provision of the structure for efficient and effective technical decision-making and progression of UCONNECT
* Monitor and maintain the awareness of project progress of partners
* Perform the administrative coordination of UCONNECT (secretariat and financial coordination)
* Assure the communication inside and outside the consortium
* Documentation management
* Progress monitoring and promotion
* Completion of EC requirements.
* The project website (https://UCONNECT.eclexys.com/) was continuously updated and maintained during this second period of the UCONNECT project.
* All the WP1 management deliverables were submitted in time to the EC REA.
* All the consortium partners received their advance payment as originally scheduled.
* Quarterly Management Meetings, Project Steering Committee (PSC) meetings and workpackage meetings took place. The PSC approved the minutes from all meetings.
* Maintain the relation with the REA.

On the technical part, EXYS has mainly performed the activities needed to maintain coherence over the developments being carried out in WP4 and WP5 and the rescheduling of its activities due to the fact that further time was necessary in order to perform its work. In terms of elaborated deliverables, the following ones were realized:
- D1.1 “Project Handbook”,
- D1.2 “Delivered CA”,
- D1.3 “Quarterly Management Reports”.


- WP1 Use of Resources: from a spent effort point of view, the use of resources by the consortium partners for WP1 respected what was planned originally by the UCONNECT Description of Work (DoW): EXYS dedicated to the WP1 work at least what he planned in the DoW.




WP2: User Requirement Definition and Ubiquitous Connectivity Specification
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- WP2 Activity Type: RTD
- WP2 Leader: EXYS
- WP2 Total Effort: 12PM
- WP2 Starting Date: M01
- WP2 Ending Date: M04
- WP2 main S&T results/foregrounds: WP2 started in a first step, by investigating the definition of the overall the UCONNECT system requirements and application scenarios. To begin with, it first collects and studies the overall market-derived requirements in order to identify a more implementation-oriented set of system requirements that are categorized as functional and non-functional ones. Then, it focused on issues that are specific to the UCONNECT system, such as: its scalability, its networking and network management, its security, its interconnection with the outer world and its portability. Finally, it performed a critical analysis of the derived requirements in order to establish guidelines that assist towards a consistent UCONNECT functional and technical system specification.
In a second step, WP2 investigated the definition of the overall UCONNECT system requirements and application scenarios. To begin with, it first collected and studied the overall market-derived requirements in order to identify a more implementation-oriented set of system requirements that are categorized as functional and non-functional ones. Then, it focused on issues that are specific to the UCONNECT system, such as: its scalability, its networking and network management, its security, its interconnection with the outer world and its portability. Finally, it performed a critical analysis of the derived requirements in order to establish guidelines that assist towards a consistent UCONNECT functional and technical system specification.

- WP2 Use of Resources: from a spent effort point of view, the use of resources by the consortium partners for WP2 respected what was planned originally by the UCONNECT Description of Work (DoW): each partners dedicated to the WP2 work at least what he planned in the DoW. The same keeps valid for the equipment, consumables and travel.

In terms of elaborated deliverables, the following ones were realized:
- D2.1 “Requirements definition and application scenarios”
- D2.2 “Ubiquitous connectivity specification and UCONNECT system architecture”.

In terms of fulfilled milestones, the following ones were reached:
- MS21 “Requirement definition, application scenarios and system specification and architecture”.




WP3: Ubiquitous Connectivity System Development
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- WP3 Activity Type: RTD
- WP3 Leader: GWX
- WP3 Total Effort: 65PM
- WP3 Starting Date: M03
- WP3 Ending Date: M21
- WP3 main S&T results/foregrounds: The UCONNECT WP3 started the first steps in the final development and implementation of the UCONNECT system. Based on the conclusions from WP2, the WP3 performed a complete breackdown over each identified architectural module to be included in the solution, for defining the final implementation methods that will drive to seamless integration of the different components. Every element present in the UCONNECT architecture was deeply analysed and a complete set of tests over the different elements and their results were provided, based where needed on the software prototypes that have been developed for initiating the solution implementation and being able to correctly set the framework in which the integration of the different subsystems will be performed. Decisions on the final implementation and integration ways were presented, along with the elements that drive to such decisions. Further, a methodology for algorithm and functional blocks integration was provided, as well as a definition about the testbed and the methods that need be used for testing the final implementation results.
WP3 used a top-down approach to investigate the preliminary algorithms, mechanisms and subsystem architectures for seamless handover and interoperability in heterogeneous multi-operator networks that are suited to the UCONNECT framework. To do so, it first identified the state of the art that is relevant to the UCONNECT solution in terms of network mobility mechanisms for open coupled heterogeneous wireless networks. Then it investigated the network load and transmission capacity evaluation mechanisms that can be used for the UCONNECT system. Furthermore, it highlighted all the processing that is necessary for the Vertical Handover (VHO) and Load Balancing (LB) operations that are performed in a heterogeneous networking environment and specified triggers and flags that control the interactions between processing units in different subsystem. The testing and evaluation of preliminary VHO and LB algorithms that are meaningful to the UCONNECT framework were presented and then an overview on the test prototype architecture and evaluation and the UCONNECT platform hardware prototype testing campaigns, were described.
WP3 studied and defined also the hardware that is related to the efficient implementation of the UCONNECT Mobile Smart Router. To begin with, it investigated the actual state of the hardware platforms present on the market. This was done through first analyzing the chosen candidate solutions for the UCONNECT platform and then, evaluating their performance. Furthermore, it focused on the communication technologies that will be supported by the UCONNECT platform, their connectivity and their necessary interfaces. Using the previous inputs, it selected the adequate hardware that fulfilled the requests of the UCONNECT project objectives.
WP3 elaborated a detailed description of how the algorithms that were developed in D3.3 were integrated in the Smart Mobile Router (SMR) hardware and system software, intended to be used as the mobile platform for the Ubiquitous Connectivity that is developed in the framework of the UCONNECT project. A test-driven validation approach has been followed: each hardware component is assessed separately and then integrated in a test platform, and the whole SMR system validated together with the specifically developed system software. Final tests are then performed in the Laboratory (static test) and in Real Field (mobile test). Finally the validated SMR platform supporting the algorithms that were developed in D3.3 that should be ready to host the SMR is presented as a demonstrator.

In terms of elaborated deliverables, the following ones were realized:
- D3.1 “Ubiquitous connectivity provisioning platform architecture and methodologies for algorithm integration and testing”,
- D3.2 “Preliminary algorithms, mechanisms and subsystem architectures for seamless handover and interoperability in heterogeneous multi-operator networks”,
- D3.3 “Final algorithms, mechanisms and subsystem architectures for seamless handover and interoperability in heterogeneous multi-operator networks”,
- D3.4 “Hardware analysis and evaluation of available technology”,
- D3.5 “Hardware platform for the Smart Mobile Router”.

In terms of fulfilled milestones, the following ones were reached:
- MS31 “Test platform architecture and algorithms integration mechanisms defined”,
- MS32 “Preliminary algorithms and mechanisms developed and ready for integration. Subsystem architectures defined”,
- MS33 “Final algorithms and mechanisms developed and ready for system level evaluation”,
- MS34 “Hardware selection and hardware development planning”,
- MS35 “Hardware platform for the Smart Mobile Router developed”.

- WP3 Use of Resources: from a spent effort point of view, the use of resources by the consortium partners for WP3 respected what was planned originally by the UCONNECT DoW: each partners dedicated to the WP3 work at least what he planned in the DoW. The same keeps valid for the equipment, consumables and travel.




WP4: Integration and Experimental Validation
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- WP4 Activity Type: RTD
- WP4 Leader: AJD
- WP4 Total Effort: 33PM
- WP4 Starting Date: M17
- WP4 Ending Date: M23
- WP4 main S&T results/foregrounds: The WP4 represented the last step in the design and development of the final prototype of the Ubiquitous Connectivity for the Public Transport application envisaged in the UCONNECT project. In order to assess the system functionality, a final system integration was performed and a prototype was produced and validated against two tests on the target SMR platform (one in lab, and a second on a moving vehicle), and three tests performed on individual components (the VHO decision mechanism, the Load Balancing mechanism and the Database Management Module). The results of the test were also presented.
The UCONNECT connectivity system was designed to integrate a centralized information system with the role of helping to improve the HO & LB decision process. By using this system each Smart Mobile Router (SMR) could have information about the networking condition on the path of the vehicle and can react rapidly to possible coverage and network load issues by selecting for each data flow the best wireless network for transmission.
Based on field tests and theoretical analysis and simulations, the performance of the VHO and LB decision algorithms implemented in the UCONNECT system were evaluated in the conditions when the centralized CI is not used respectively when is used in the decision process. The target was to identify the situations when the decision based on the centralized CI worth to be used. Based on the performed tests the preprocessing that should be applied to the acquired CI in order to be possible the centralized decision process, was identified. A complete series of tests were then performed to fully validate the system in laboratory and in field, in various targeted situations. The obtained results are reported and presented in the WP4 Deliverable D4.2.
The elaborated sets of tests were progressive in terms of the complexity of testing scenarios in order to be sure that the tested functionalities of the UCONNECT SMR lead to the results that are expected in their testing scenarios. Such obtained results did demonstrate the good operability of the UCONNECT SMR in all kind of considered situations (standalone SMR) in static and mobile situations and multi-SMR framework, also in both situations.
Further, the performance of advanced Game Theory based LB decision algorithms were evaluated by computer simulations and are compared with the performance of the LB decision mechanisms implemented in the UCONNECT system. As expected the advanced algorithms had superior performance, at least in some circumstances, but the implemented LB decision mechanism has relatively low performance penalty in the condition of lower complexity. Furthermore, the obtained results of the UCONNECT field testing in the considered testing scenarios were documented.

In terms of elaborated deliverables, the following ones were realized:
- D4.1 “UCONNECT integrated system and testing report”,
- D4.2 “Application scenario definition and field validation results report”.

In terms of fulfilled milestones, the following ones were reached:
- MS41 “UCONNECT ubiquitous connectivity system integrated”,
- MS42 “Field test validation performed”

- WP4 Use of Resources: from a spent effort point of view, the use of resources by the consortium partners for WP4 respected what was planned originally by the UCONNECT Description of Work (DoW): each partners dedicated to the WP4 work at least what he planned in the DoW. The same keeps valid for the equipment, consumables and travel.





WP5: Business Models, Dissemination and Exploitation
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- WP5 Activity Type: OTH
- WP5 Leader: BRI
- WP5 Total Effort: 18PM
- WP5 Starting Date: M03
- WP5 Ending Date: M24
- WP5 Progress Description: The WP5 elaborated work included the first Press Release that has been developed by the UCONNECT project and that has been disseminated over the media channels available from the project partners. It also enumerated the main sites in which the press release has been published at the time of deliverance of the present document. The different versions of the press release, in different languages, were also provided.
WP5 also investigated the Use and Dissemination of the Knowledge that dealt with all the activities and initiatives carried out in order to generate the presuppositions for creating a critical mass around the UCONNECT solution and exactly to disseminate the project results. WP5 settled out the plan for using and disseminating the knowledge in the context of the UCONNECT project, through various means including the UCONNECT website, the distribution of dissemination material, the publications in journals and the participation in conferences and other relevant events. Specifically, this use of the project knowledge and its dissemination strategy targeted the following aspects: first to raise public awareness about the project, its expected results and progress in defined target groups using effective communication means and approaches and second to disseminate the fundamental knowledge, the methodologies and technologies that were developed during the project, which will pave the way for successful commercial and non-commercial exploitations of the project outcomes.
Further, WP5 has presented a market approach for the exploitation of the UCONNECT results. As such, it has studied the market framework in which the UCONNECT solution will behave and has outlined the exploitation strategy that the consortium will follow from making business and profit from the exploitation of results. As a general conclusion of the performed study, it can be summarized that the UCONNNECT solution targets an adequate market, the market is addressed in a timely fashion and the envisaged product covers a defined market need which will also be evolving through time, thus allowing for business maintenance at least in the mid to long term. The business can be self-sustainable and the exploitation, in a not too optimistic view, derives a return of the investment put in the development of the project during the third to fourth year of exploitation.
A UCONNECT website was also developed and maintained over all the project period and was mainly formed by 6 sections, namely:
- a “Home” page including the project abstract and some administrative information of the project,
- a “Concept” page including the elements that characterize the concept and intended implementation scenario for the project results,
- an “Objectives” page, summarizing the main technological objectives of the project,
- a “Technological progress” page which presents information on the main results of the project that will lead to an advancement on the state of the art,
- a “Partners” page which briefly describes the UCONNECT consortium partners and their experience,
- an “Access” page that redirects to the tool that has been deployed for the storing and sharing of the UCONNECT documentation.

In terms of elaborated deliverables, the following ones were realized:
- D5.1 “Press Release”,
- D5.2 “Interim plan for the Use and Dissemination of the Knowledge”,
- D5.3 “Final Plan for the Use and Dissemination of the Knowledge”,
- D5.4 “Project Dissemination package”,
- D5.5 “Periodic Dissemination Report Year 1”,
- D5.6 “Performance evaluation of the system behaviour”,
- D5.7 “Market Analysis, Business Models, Exploitation plans and Dissemination of the Final Results”,
- D5.8 “UCONNECT Website”.

In terms of fulfilled milestones, the following one was reached:
- MS51 “Business Model definition, exploitation and market analysis completed”,

- WP5 Use of Resources: from a spent effort point of view, the use of resources by the consortium partners for WP5 respected what was planned originally by the UCONNECT DoW: each partners dedicated to the WP5 work at least what he planned in the DoW. The same keeps valid for the equipment, consumables and travel.
Potential Impact:
The impact of the technical areas and options related with the UCONNECT project can be seen at several levels. The one which is the relevant for the SMEs involved will be of course the opportunities it may open to their business strategy and therefore the impact on the growth of these companies and the employment value creation this may represents for the society.
From a holistic point of view, the development of the UCONNECT solution will bring an important improvement of the EU technology position in the world. The UCONNECT outcomes are directly related with the technological developments being carried out towards the creation of Smart Cities, providing the needed connectivity support for the development and implementation of Smart Services making intensive use of ICT. This will result in a world leadership of the European Union (EU) in terms of connection technologies as well as in the adoption and implementation of the Smart City concept, making the EU a to-be-followed example for the strong competition in this field coming from the USA and the East Asian countries.
In summary, the UCONNECT project will strategically impact the future LBS market by:
a. generating new industrial/service for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) opportunities in Europe,
b. reinforcing European industrial leadership in the future ITS domain,
c. fostering the consortium SMEs roadmaps to ITS ubiquitous connectivity provision mass market commercialisation,
d. opening the door for the consortium SMEs to new and future applications.

As a conclusion the UCONNECT solution targets an adequate market that is addressed in a timely fashion and the envisaged product covers a defined market need which will also be evolving through time, thus allowing for business maintenance at least in the mid to long term. The business figures that are drown are promising and open a door for the consortium SMEs to have a significant share, important profit and advanced and good position in the LBS market.
List of Websites:
- Website
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The Internet is probably the best dissemination channel as the media is instantaneous, reaches potentially everyone everywhere, and its target audience is increasing quickly.
During the first quarter of the UCONNECT project, the UCONNECT’s web site was successfully built. It includes all relevant information about the project, such as achievements, events, and so on, hence stimulating contacts with potential users and industrial sectors. Furthermore, it is also used as a communication and information exchange environment between the different partners, helping them out in their daily work to make UCONNECT’s objectives a reality.
In addition, the aim of the UCONNECT’s website is to inform the customers about the scientific aspects, the techniques, the main achievements of the project success and to refer to the future pertinent events.
The main objective of the UCONNECT Web site (http://idi.gowex.com/uconnect) is to diffuse the UCONNECT results as wider as possible throughout the community and over. The UCONNECT server provides the updated view on UCONNECT, including objectives and achievements, public deliverables, key persons and contacts, announcement of public events and activities of the UCONNECT consortium. Links to the UCONNECT contractor’s web sites are established as well. Constant updates and maintenance will be performed.
It should also be noticed that the text included in the UCONNECT Web site is chosen adequately in order to point a research done on the Internet (e.g. using words such ITS, interconnectivity, ubiquitous...) using any research engine (such as Google...) to the project website. This will contribute to generate a significant flow of connected persons on the UCONNECT Web site, which contributes to disseminate widely its results.

- Relevant contact details
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- Name, title and organisation of the scientific representative of the project's coordinator: Angelo Consoli, Founder and Director, ECLEXYS SAGL, Switzerland.
- Tel: +41 91 600 00 00
- Fax: +41 91 600 00 01
- E-mail: office@eclexys.com