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In-Line Service For Internal Inspection Of Unpiggable Buried Oil Pipelines Using Long Range Ultrasound Guided Waves In Fifty Metre Segments

Final Report Summary - PIGWAVES (In-Line Service For Internal Inspection Of Unpiggable Buried Oil Pipelines Using Long Range Ultrasound Guided Waves In Fifty Metre Segments)

Executive Summary:
PIGWaves project has addressed the need to develop an inspection tool for in-service NDT inspection of unpiggable pipelines while at the same time replacing existing methods of inspection for piggable pipes with (i) orders of magnitude less data storage time with consequent (ii) greater (robot) inspection speed and (iii) far quicker availability of the inspection results after robot recovery.

The goal of PIGWaves project was to provide a single internal in-service pipe inspection tool capable of inspecting both piggable and currently unpiggable oil pipelines of steel construction and internal diameter 150-350mm, which provides 100% volume inspection. The project objectives were to:
▪ Develop an innovative flexible collar and a Long Range Ultrasonic Guided Wave (LRUT) system capable of total volume inspection of the walls of oil and gas transmission pipes.
▪ Demonstrate the operation of the robotic inspection systems on currently unpiggable pipelines.

The PIGWaves system comprises of a fully equipped and independent NDT inspection robot that is capable of working in pipelines which carry liquids and particularly oil. The PIGWaves robot swims down the pipeline in a non-inspecting mode. At a given location it expands the flexible and size adaptable probe collar to perform the pipe inspection of up to 50 meters segments employing Long Range Ultrasound Guided Waves technology (LRUT). The PIGWaves system communicates with the base station wirelessly for robot control and localisation. The robotic system was designed to swim freely past dents, sharp bends, debris, valves and changing pipe diameters.

PIGWaves system performs total volume inspection far more rapidly and accurately than current methods of ultrasonic NDT inspection. In the field of pipeline inspection LRUT presents the benefit that the probes would only need to be adjusted every 50 meters, the typical attainable propagation range of LRUG in pipelines, thus making the adaptation more feasible. Key features of the system are:
▪ A neutrally buoyant robot floats along pipeline flow performing a total volume inspection far more rapidly and cheaply;
▪ Enable pipelines with diameter reductions caused by obstacles, sharp bends, and little or no flow to be inspected;
▪ Probes deployment every 40-60 meters approximately, depending on the pipe configuration, features, environment etc., thus reduces the measurement times by several orders of magnitude;
▪ The much reduced data collection requirements for LRUT, compared with conventional ultrasound means that data storage from long pipe lengths will be readily possible on a small robot. The data analysis is therefore faster;
▪ Indication of different types of damage due to changes in received signal amplitude of the A-Scans compared to the time-baseline;
▪ Corrosion defects with thinning greater than 10% of wall thickness to be detectable
▪ Wireless in-pipe communication: Robot communicates with base station at entry point to send NDT data and locate position of robot;

Project Context and Objectives:
Around 0.5 million kilometres of buried oil pipelines in Europe carry hazardous fluids often at high pressure and temperature. In Europe alone, up to 4 million gallons of oil are leaked into the environment per year due to corrosion and mechanical damage. To stem this pollution, pressure is being put on the pipeline operators to find new inspection technology which provides an early warning about pipes in danger of failure.
Internal in-line inspection vehicles (Smart pigs) are available to detect and determine corrosion, cracks and dents in a pipeline’s internal diameter, typically using conventional ultrasound or magnetic flux leakage probes. The pigs occupy the entire cross section of a pipe due to the size of the sensor collar assembly needed to provide 100% volume coverage. They can cope with moderate changes in diameter and moderate bends in the pipeline but there is a large variation in pipe sizes e.g. standard welded steel pipelines for gas/crude/oil-product have internal diameter between 150mm to 350 mm while larger pipes have internal diameter 500-1,380 mm. Therefore, a matching pig is required for each pipe size and for the larger diameters the pigs tend to be very large in bulk.

The goal is to provide a single internal in-service pipe inspection tool capable of inspecting both piggable and currently unpiggable oil pipelines of steel construction and internal diameter 150-350mm that provides 100% volume inspection with LRUT.

The aim is to perform total volume inspection far more rapidly and accurately than current methods of ultrasonic NDT inspection. In the field of pipeline inspection LRUT presents the benefit that the probes would only need to be adjusted every 50m, the typical attainable propagation range of LRUT in pipelines, thus making the adaptation more feasible.

Pipeline inspection needs to be completed with the minimum of disruption. Disruption during inspection can be avoided by performing an internal examination using inspection robots, though repairs routinely require the pipeline to be excavated. Most of them cannot deploy arrays of ultrasonic probes arranged in circular collars as they would be too rigid and become stuck in restrictions and others deploy some ultrasonic probes but do not use LRUT but generic UT technology. LRUT has been employed for both inspection and for structural health monitoring, particularly with wide commercial application to oil and gas pipelines.

The main objectives of the project are the following:
1) To develop an innovative flexible LRUT collar that adapts to typical steel pipes used in the Oil & Gas pipeline construction with diameters of 150-300mm with one size of LRUT collar. The collar will bring a sufficient number of NDT sensors that will be required to detect corrosion defects.
2) To develop an adaptive locking mechanism to allow the robot to become stationary at the data collection points and remains at that location till NDT operations are completed.
3) To develop an innovative umbilical free swimming robot, 50-60% smaller than the diameter of the pipe to be inspected. The robot will be able to passively float past restrictions, sharp bends, dents, valves and debris using pipeline flow pressure where available or actively swim using thrusters where a pipe has little or no flow. Every 50m the robot will expand and engage with the pipe wall to send and receive LRUT waves down the pipe in order to assess the condition of a 50m pipe segment.
4) To develop a robust sensor/communication system that wirelessly transmits NDT data over distances of 1000m with minimum on-board circuitry and power requirements.
5) To develop a navigation system, as part of the sensor/communication system, capable of measuring the distance travelled by the robot through the pipeline to activate its locking mechanisms, stop the robot every 50m and perform the NDT inspection.
6) To develop a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System that will manage the operator interface with the robot and the NDT data acquisition and from a portable computer present the control/display window. The target robot position determination accuracy is <0.50m in a pipeline and the target defect detection performance is to detect all corrosion defects greater than 10% of wall thickness.

The LRUT technology addresses the need to develop inspection tools for in-service NDT inspection of unpiggable pipelines while at the same time replacing existing methods of inspection for piggable pipes with (i) orders of magnitude less data storage time with consequent (ii) greater (robot) inspection speed and (iii) far quicker availability of the inspection results after robot recovery.

The innovation of using LRUT to Perform total volume inspection far more rapidly and cheaply will enable pipelines with diameter reductions caused by obstacles, sharp bends, and little or no flow to be inspected.

The reduced on-board data storage requirements by orders of magnitude compared with present inspection methods deployed by existing smart pigs.

The development of this innovative flexible LRUT collar loaded with LRUT probes that adapts to typical steel pipes used in the Oil & Gas pipeline construction incorporates robust sensor system. The Data Acquisition System is capable of displaying defect data with spatial mapping of defects.

Project Results:
[1] WP 1 PIGWaves system specification & defect. Work progress and results.

This document is framed into the WP1, ‘PIGWaves system specification & defect samples’.
This First Work-package (WP1) was developed during the first three months of the project and its objectives comprised of the following:
− To specify system requirements and target performance which the RTD performers will aim to achieve.
− To agree among the partners and in consultation with end-users, upon a specification for the PIGWaves system, which is both feasible in terms of project resources and desirable in terms of pipe sizes, vehicle entry and defect accept/reject criteria.
− To design for intrinsic safety in explosive environments.
− To obtain representative test samples of pipe for laboratory trials and a venue for field trials.

The following bullet points show the most important aspects for the requirements and specifications were covered between deliverables D1.1 and D1.2:
− The types of defects to be detected, their size and orientation.
− Defect display and visualisation requirement.
− The range of pipe diameters for optimal applicability with a single robot. This will also include cases where the same pipeline becomes progressively narrower or wider so that the robot can complete its inspection in one pass.
− The minimum and maximum pipe wall thicknesses for the range of pipe diameters identified in the point above.
− Expected composition materials of the pipelines.
− Types of restricting obstructions to robot motion (including valves, debris, etc).
− Minimum aperture size (smallest internal diameter minus largest restricting obstruction size) to which the robots will be designed to maximize applicability.
− Required operating times during inspection and associated power requirements.
− Adaptability to pipe diameters required for the LRUT sensor collar.
− Environmental parameters in which the oil or gas pipeline robots will be expected to operate.
− Data storage and control requirements.
− Tethered or autonomous.
− Swimming or crawling robot.
− LRUT transducer either piezoelectric or electromagnetic.
− Measurement at stop or during

[2] WP 2 Development of Mini Umbilical free swimming robot. Work progress and results.

Development of swimming robot work progress:
- Deliverable 1.2 was resubmitted after the first period review following comments made during and after the periodic review meeting and improvements to the report conclusions were made.

Robotic platform System
- A robotic platform composed by several articulated modules has been designed, manufactured, assembled and tested in both the lab and underwater.
- Each of the modules has been designed with one specific technical functionality (brake, NDT, wheels, etc) and all of them can be connected in serial mode by means of a digital serial communication interface. A maximum of 255 modules can be connected.
- An umbrella module has been placed at the end of the robot (downstream) to acquire energy from the pipe flow and move the robot inside the pipe reducing the power requirements.
- The wireless communication slave module is placed at the other end (upstream) to communicate the robot with the end user by means of low level ASCII commands.
- The wheel modules will keep the robot centred inside the pipe eliminating any possible internal collision against the inner walls of the pipe allowing it to travel along change of pipe sections and elbows.
- A set of rotary joints are placed between the robot modules to assembly them and allow the mechanical articulation of the robot. A brake module is used to stop the robot inside the pipe before carrying out the inspection process and hence, before opening the NDT collar. Before closing the brake system, the NDT collar has to always be in the closed position.
- All electronic has been placed and sealed in the electronic modules. These electronic modules have been specifically designed to work underwater without allowing any water leakage. An embedded PC has been also installed on board in order to control and monitor the status of the robot and to execute the low level control software.

As it has been described in the project deliverables, the robot has been tested both in air and underwater. A therapeutically swimming pool was booked and a set of components like pipes, water pumps, etc were purchased in order to validate the system and to verify its performance. The results of these trials can be seen in the official project video.

[3] WP 3 Wireless in-pipe telecommunications. Work progress and results.

Wireless in-pipe communication system
- The communication system was developed based on acoustic waves telemetry and the exact characteristics of the implemented technology were presented. The wireless in-pipe communication system is based on a unique combination of hardware and software components that allow wireless communication between the robot and a base station over long distances. The wireless communication system employed frequencies in the range 160kHz - 190kHz due to the best combination ‘transmission losses of the waves – suitable size of the electronics hardware’. A full duplex wireless communication architecture was employed with the two acoustic modems being completely identical. A ‘master-slave’ protocol was implemented with the master modem located on the entry point of the robot in the pipeline and the slave modem integrated with the robot. The master modem transmission mode state diagram and reception mode reception mode state diagram were presented and discussed. It was shown that the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) was employed for ensuring the integrity of the transmitted information.
- The complete characteristics of the electronics hardware of the communication system was provided. The information flow during transmission and reception were presented in the form of the full duplex ultrasound block diagram. This was accompanied with the calculation of the power consumption of the acoustic modems, on a component-level, on idle state as well as during transmission and reception. It was observed that the transmission mode was characterised by maximum power consumption, approximately 6.35W establishing a wireless network with a data rate of 21bits/sec. Information about the wireless-based localisation was provided. The basic principles of the ‘Time of Flight’ method were discussed and the localisation flowchart was provided.
- The preliminary experimental validation of the communication system was presented. The scaling factors between the employed experimental set-up and the actual field pipeline were provided. Specifically, it was shown that 1m in the laboratory corresponds to 7.14m in the field; a 5m experimental set-up was employed so wireless transmission could be experimentally demonstrated over approximately 36m in the actual set-up. Wireless communication over a 1km range was presented based on a theoretical acoustic signal power analysis. This analysis correlated the input voltage to an acoustic projector with the produced acoustic signal and the received voltage at the hydrophone side as a function of the propagating distance. For the water-filled pipe case it was shown that wireless communication is feasible within 1km for amplified input voltages in the range 160Vpp - 380Vpp. The input voltage supply provided by the battery was in the range 12V – 16V DC. It was presented that the experimental calculated values are higher than the theoretical due to multipath signal propagation, leading to a higher strength signal at the hydrophone side. This effect could act in favour of the wireless communication system facilitating the acoustic wave propagation over long distances.
- Subsequently, the preliminary experimental validation of the localisation system was presented. Towards this direction, the 5m experimental pipeline set-up was employed and it was shown that under most cases the localisation errors were close to 5%. The origin of these errors was mainly attributed to the processing time that hardware electronics need for transmitting/receiving signals.
- Additionally, a safety study related to the use of the wireless communication technology inside petroleum pipelines was performed. The main purpose of the safety study was to examine the applicability of the developed ultrasound based wireless method focusing at the same time on the safety aspects that could arise from the use of the wireless technology inside the environment of oil pipelines. The safety study was based on the International Standard IEC 60079-0 for Explosive Atmospheres. It was evident that under most cases the PIGWaves wireless communication system conforms to the average power density limit of 0.1W/cm2 applied by the International Standard. Specifically, it was shown that the maximum allowed acoustic intensity of 0.1W/cm2 is obtained for an applied voltage at the transducer level of 1.67kV (for light-oil), 1.75kV (for medium-oil) and 1.83kV (for heavy-oil). It was explained that the employed hardware electronics can operate under these voltage levels with minor technical modifications.
- The wireless propagation distance for different oil-types for these voltage levels was reported. Without any technical modifications the communication system can operate under a maximum applied voltage of 850Vpp, with this voltage corresponding to the amplified value. Under these conditions it was shown that wireless propagation can be achieved (a) over 1000m for the light-oil case, (b) over 800m for the medium-oil case and (c) over the 600m for the heavy-oil case. It was reported that these communication distances can be improved by increasing the applied amplified voltage levels. Specifically, it was shown that the propagation distances that could be achieved are: (a) 1000m for light-oil filled pipelines, (b) 900m for medium-oil filled pipelines and (c) 700m for heavy-oil filled pipelines.

Overall, it was concluded that the PIGWaves wireless communication system can be safely applied to the inspection of oil-filled pipelines achieving satisfactory communication distances according to the international safety regulations.

[4] WP 4 Development of diameter-adaptable LRUT collar. Work progress and results.

Development of diameter adaptable LRUT collar
- The design of the collar allows the whole system, in the retracted configuration, to assume the smallest size and shape to enable the robot to go past obstructions, small bend radii, etc to increase the range of unpiggable pipe sizes that can be inspected. In the extended configuration, the collar is able to reach the pipe surface.
- The whole system is locked and designed to withstand a relatively significant pressure applied by the pipe content applied to the robot. This is transferred to the collar and its design anticipates and supports a separate tool, coupled to the collar, to slow down and fix the collar in addition to the motion control active by the robot itself. This should give the whole system a high level of control and precision. Its design ensures that it is retracted safely to prevent damage via collisions with pipe walls and obstructions such as valves.
- The testing of the collar on the test rig validates all details of the conception and construction phase. Kinematics in the expansion/retraction positions for the different sensor locations were checked for different pipe configurations.
- The NDT collar is composed by two rings of 16 piezo-electric transducers each which are deployed symmetrically into the pipe wall surface.
- The cable routing has been validated in terms of space available and weight.
- The mechanical structure was designed to apply a radial force equal to 200N.
- Tests showed better mechanical deployment and pressure conditions on pipe diameters of 10” rather than on 8”.
- The stepper motor and the electronics are sealed inside a housing box to protect them against the water/oil.
- The NDT control software was coded using Python and it is running on the embedded PC installed on board and running in parallel with the rest of the control tasks.
- For safety and security purposes, the control system only allows the NDT collar to be only opened when the brake system is active and hence, the robot is stopped inside the pipe.
- The transducers are automatically placed on the inner walls of the pipe and an active control system will adjust the normal force applied on them.
- The control system has been adjusted in order to adapt the force applied on different pipe sizes.

The end user can, remotely, control and monitor the status of the NDT collar by means of the remote communication system, based on sonar, and high level commands. These high level commands are processed and analysed by the embedded PC and translated in low level commands.

[5] WP 5 Development of the LRUT NDT System. Work progress and results.

NDT hardware (array of probes and pulser-receiver)
- NDT procedure was developed during RP1. The procedure was continuously updated with the results of the research along the WP5.
- The specifications of the Guided Waves (excitation, frequency, bandwidth, gain, etc) system were defined throughout experimental testing taking into account the system specifications.
- The effectiveness of the technique was also verified through experiments. Analysis of the signals and sensor similarity was achieved through calibration activities.
- NDT system requirements for signal amplitude level and intensity were checked.
- Equipment set up and system components were described.
- System calibration and other equipment checking tasks were described and tested in the laboratory.
- Data collection and data analysis and defect classification was performed. Risk assessment was included and described as part of the NDT procedure.
- Using the calibration collar the transducer array was set in different configurations and transducers were assessed and adjusted individually. Long range wave propagation at least up to 160m was verified.
- The NDT acquisition hardware was tested through these calibration tests. The amplitude of the signals received corresponded with the average for GW. Each channel was tested individually in order to define both the transducers and the electronics performance. The test data was stored and later analysed.

NDT flaw detection software
- The main purpose of the flaw detector software is to process data from many sensors placed circumferentially with the LRUT collar and acquired with the NDT hardware.
- The signal processing software is located on the PC of the operator and is responsible for performing its’ signal processing analysis once the robot is retrieved from the pipe.
- It was shown that the flaw detector software is able to load the data that the NDT system has acquired during the inspection process and allows the user to proceed to data analysis.
- On the data analysis side, it was shown that the software is able to present the A-scan signals and includes the operations of signal averaging, signal summing and Fast Fourier Transform for recovering signals up to a suitable noise level.
- Additionally, the software presents the ‘Set Features’ function that allows the operator to annotate the indications they have identified as welds, flanges and other geometric features facilitating in this way defect detection. It is highlighted that the signal processing software was tested along with the NDT system on steel pipes in the laboratory.
- A new transducer was designed for this specific application. The coupling improvement with the pipe inner wall was needed for this application.
The new transducer design fits perfectly with the requirement of inner inspection of pipelines. In the configuration of this design, a higher level of energy is expected to occur for the same level of energy currently deployed on commercially available systems. This represents an advantage that could progress the use of LRU inspection in conjunction with robotic solutions for inner pipeline inspection.

[6] WP 6 SCADA System for PIGWaves integration. Work progress and results.

SCADA System
The supervisory control system is composed of two main components: (1) the high level control system responsible for providing the operator interface, Man Machine Interface (MMI), with the PIGWaves robot and (2) the low level control system responsible for integrating the control systems of the PIGWaves robot, and the LRUT collar ensuring the correct operation of the PIGWaves system.

− High level SCADA controller: This part of the controller provides the main machine interface to the operator for communicating with the PIGWaves robot and the systems on-board the robot that travels along the pipeline. The interface between the master modem and the operator of the system was implemented through serial RS-232 connection, and it was developed in Visual C++. Additionally, the high level controller incorporates the ‘NDT data Recovery & Analysis’ block, which is responsible for (1) recovering the data from the NDT system once the inspection is finished and the robot is retrieved from the pipe, and (2) for analysing the NDT data for defect detection.

Low Level SCADA controller: The low level SCADA controller is used to control and monitor the status of the robotic platform when it is working inside the pipe. The external communication process will be performed by means of the wireless slave mode also installed on board. As previously described, the low level software is being executed by the embedded PC installed on board and it has been codified in Python. The flow diagram of this software can be also seen in the project deliverables.

[7] WP 7 Validation trials on test pieces and field. Work progress and results.

As it was agreed by the project consortium (SMEs and RTDs), the official trials would be executed in two different localizations:
1. The robotic platform and the wireless communication system were tested underwater in a swimming pool using a set of Perspex pipes. A GoPro camera was used to record videos and take pictures from underwater. The Perspex pipes facilitate the visualization of the robotic platform working process inside the pipe and ensure that non dust, metal and/or rusted parts are deposited in the swimming pool. During these trials the successful performance of the integrated PIGWaves robotic system was recorded.
2. The NDT measurement system was tested using a set of steel pipes, with and without known defects. It was demonstrated that the transducer array linked with the data acquisition hardware was capable of indicating different types of simulated damage due to changes in received signal amplitude compared to the control case.

Conclusions were reported on D7.1 and are summarized below:
− Several internal lab tests have been performed to evaluate and validate the subsystems and component performances of the application before being installed on board as previously described.
− Taking into account the maximum and minimum diameter of the pipes specifications, restrictions, etc, the robot was initially designed and then validated on several stages along the project course.
− In order to validate the odometer module system, hardware and software, a stepper motor was temporally installed on the shaft of the wheel odometer. The stepper was used to move the wheel and to simulate the movement of the robot along the pipe. Different rotary speeds were commanded and tested and the train of pulses generated by the movement of the wheel were acquired and converted to real distance. At the same time, the number of motor shaft turns were monitored by the motor encoder and this number was directly compared with the number of pulses. The following pictures show the assembled basic and temporal set up.
− The SCADA software was used during field trials to open and close the brake and NDT modules, to monitor the gyro status, to read the output of the inductive sensor (used as odometer system) and to perform the communication between the embedded PC (control software) and the end user PC through the wireless communication modems.
− During the underwater trials, commands were sent from the master modem to the slave modem which was integrated with the PIGWaves robot. Upon receipt of the commands the robot performed actions described in the commands, eg when the command ‘Open Collar’ was received by the robot the collar opened. These tests were recorded on video and were made available to the consortium. It is highlighted that the purpose of the underwater trials in the swimming pool was (1) to demonstrate the movement of the robot inside the pipe and (2) to verify the communication between the master modem and the robot.
− The tests indicated that all elements of the PIGWaves system operate as originally intended and provide the ability to internally inspect metal pipes using ultrasonic guided waves. Before such a system could be used for industrial purposes, further tests to verify the robustness of the system and the calibration of the results would be required. However, the system has progressed to a condition where it could be demonstrated to potential end-users and developers.
− The optimum frequency response of the NDT collar, measured as the amplitude of the received end of pipe reflection was found. At this range of frequencies, the wave energy was maximised to provide the greatest signal-to-noise ratio.
− Additional presence of a thickness loss on the outer wall of the pipe results in a loss of energy in the received end-of-pipe reflection. There are significant changes in the amplitude of the A-scan at several points on the time-base.
− GW allows rapid screening of long lengths of pipe to detect external or internal corrosion as well as axial and circumferential cracking. The simulation of large cracks and corrosion are representative of detectability with Guided Waves technology. Depending on the position of the crack, when using only one GW mode, torsional in this case, the feature can be unnoticed.
− Corrosion could be detectable from 10% of cross section loss but this number would only be reached under certain conditions (best scenario). The accuracy of detection is decreased by many factors such as distance, attenuation, scattering, absorption or leakage.
− Limitations exist in the way which the experiment prevents a conclusive and reliable PoD value of this method being produced with regards to the accepted standards of NDT requirements. Although a successful investigation has been achieved, the POD of defects along the pipeline requires further research and big amounts of data to be analysed.

All the sub-systems procedures were described.

[8] WP 8 Consortium and Project Management. Work progress and results.

Project Management and Coordination was an on-going task throughout the project duration.
This work package 9 also includes tasks such as:

- Project Management of Technical and Administrative activities and all Project Reports (Progress Reports, Technical Reports, WP Reports, and Final Project Report).
- As part of this Work Package the Project Coordinator has been planning, organizing & monitoring projects for administrative, legal and contractual matters, quality and standards representation and implementation.
- Allocated budgets & cost statements have been collated and reviewed prior to submission to the EC. The Project Manager planned, organized and reviewed at 3 month intervals the technology, product and knowledge management work packages with the Work Package Leaders. The Project Manager has been dealing with the day to day inter-participant or consortium level issues.
- Deliverable Signed Consortium Agreement was delivered on time at the beginning of the project.

Minutes and attendance lists of project meetings for Reporting Period 2 were continuously delivered throughout the project duration.

[9] WP 9 Innovation Related Activities. Work progress and results.

The final plan for use and dissemination of the foreground (PUDF) was been submitted. It covers issues like:
- Present strategy/approach to market/commercialisation (beyond TRL 6, post project).
- SMEs plan to take the results forward and how will the SMEs benefit. Possible scenarios were included/preferred/most likely.
- Detailed description on exploitation of (sub) system(s).
- The dissemination activities were outlined. PIGWaves flyer was added as part of PUDF.
- Training/knowledge transfer plan/approach was detailed.
- Latest state of the art was includedManagement of knowledge and intellectual property. SMEs results and ownership. Protection of project results.
- Exploitable results description: Methods of exploitation, market considerations, barriers to commercialization and further research.
- Exploitation plan from the SMEs and dissemination plan both during the lifetime of the project and afterwards.
- Potential impact for the participating SMEs.
- Other potential impacts from exploitation were described.
- State of the art enhancement was included on the final PUDF.
- The project website has been developed and updated continuously with project progress information. PIGWaves consortium meetings were updated every three months. Dissemination activities were described in both events and publications tab. The non-confidential dissemination material was also published in the publications (poster, abstract, pictures). The website comprised of a public and private section, which is responsible for presenting to the partners any confidential information relating to the progress of the project (reports, presentation, minutes).
- Brochure was developed (English and Spanish) and was circulated by the consortium in relevant events and shared with relevant parties.
- The PIGWaves results were disseminated along many conferences and exhibitions.
- PIGWaves project results were presented in scientific and technical conferences and were published in the conferences proceedings. The most relevant International conferences and exhibitions were surmised and described on the PUDF.
- A Virtual world video was designed and produced in order to highlight, as part of the dissemination activities, the PIGWaves system capabilities.
- A PIGWaves video including the PIGWaves virtual world and the project objectives and partners was initially created for project dissemination at the SubSea Expo in February 2015.
- The PIGWaves video was uploaded in YouTube.
- As part of the project dissemination activities, a final video including PIGWaves validation trials and project results was produced and uploaded on YouTube. This will be the official project video and will be used to engage potential companies which could be interested on either the product and its subsystems or in further developments This action will be taken not only during the course of the project but also in further investments of continuous product development.
- Several events where PIGWaves has been presented have been advertised on the professional network LinkedIn.

[10] PIGWaves Exploitable Results

1. Umbilical-free swimming robot

The PIGWaves robotic platform will allow the end user to place the UT NDT collar inside the pipe every 50 meters according to the DoW specifications. In order to minimize the power requirements and likelihood of failure, the robot will move downstream using the flow energy that is acquired by means of the umbrella module. To avoid any mechanical collision between the robot structure and the inner walls of the pipe, the robot platform implements a set of wheel modules which will adjust their external diameter in function of the inner diameter of the pipe and will always keep the robot centred inside the pipe. A brake system is also installed to stop and brake the robot inside the pipe before carrying out a new measurement process.

Methods of exploitation (direct or indirect).
The robotic platform can be used as a whole or with individual elements. As a whole, the robotic platform can be used to make the NDT internal pipe inspection as it was described in the project deliverables. As individual elements, the NDT collar can be used as a specific NDT tool to carry out the NDT internal pipe/tube inspection close to the opened end.

Technical considerations
As described in the requirements and specifications document, the internal pipe inspection is a very complex task due to the operational and safety issues that have to be overcome. For this reason, from the very beginning of the project, the project partners agreed to carry out the Pigwaves tests in water, instead of explosive environments like gas/oil, work at temperatures ranging from 10 to 45 degrees and use the water flow to move the robot inside the pipe. This last situation drastically reduces the power requirements of the application and the likelihood of failure inside the pipe.

Barriers to commercialization
There might be serious concerns in the industry about placing novel devices into a real pipeline due to operational and safety issues. Further investments and technical developments will have to be carried out in the near future in order to achieve the TRL-8 or TRL-9 level.

Further R&D (Possible collaborations)
The future research process should focus on reducing the overall length/size of the robot and increasing the accuracy of the localization system using several odometers and adaptive filters.

Other potential impacts from exploitation
The high operational/rescue costs generated by any kind of failure inside an Oil/Gas pipe, will increase the testing and financial requirements in order to achieve the TRL-8 / TRL-9 levels. These financial situations will be evaluated by each SME according to their specific ownership and license.

2. SCADA system

The SCADA system controls and monitors the status of the robot whilst travelling along the pipeline (Low level software). Additionally, in an offline mode it presents the NDT data acquired by the robot during the inspection and enables their display and analysis (High level software. Man Machine Interface).

Methods of exploitation
The SCADA system (low level software) has been specifically designed for being installed on board and monitoring and controlling all the system actuators and sensors. This means that the low level software has to be used a whole.
The SCADA system (high level software -Man Machine Interface-) can be used offline to plot the NDT signals. Also, it hosts the communication module responsible for communicating with the robot. As a result, the SCADA system should be exploited with the overall PIGWaves system.

Technical considerations
It has been designed and codified in line with the mechanical, electrical and NDT development process.
Market considerations
The SCADA system was demonstrated during the field trials in the swimming pool (TRL 5). Further tests and development processes will be necessary in order to achieve the following technology readiness levels TRL-8

3. Wireless in-pipe communication system

The wireless communication system will employ frequencies at the ultrasonic and sonic bands (1kHz to 300kHz). The communication system will enable the connection between the control centre and the robot.

Methods of exploitation
Both methods of exploitation could be explored after project ends. The wireless system was designed and developed to operate with the overall PIGWaves system; hence this would be the primary exploitation route. Additionally, the system could be exploited on its own for data communication between sensors within water field pipes.

Technical considerations
It has been designed and developed to enable communication within water field pipes. According to a study performed during the project, it has been shown that the system can be easily adapted to operate within oil-filled pipelines
Market considerations
The prototype system was demonstrated along with the robot in a swimming during the field trials (TRL-6).

Barriers to commercialization
The wireless system has to be ATEX certified for its’ safe operation inside oil pipelines.

Further R&D
Further efforts should be placed towards bringing the technology to TRL-9. A part of these efforts will be placed towards certifying that the system can operate in the hazardous environment encountered within oil pipelines.
Other potential impacts from exploitation
The wireless communication system could be used to enable data transmission within water field pipes. This application would allow data communication between remotely distributed sensors.

4. Signal processing software

The signal processing software will process the data acquired by the LRUT transducer collar. It should be noted that the signal processing will be performed offline
Methods of exploitation (direct or indirect) An indirect method of exploitation will be explored after the end of the project

Barriers to commercialization
Present the processed information in an easy–to-understand form. The user-friendliness of the signal processing software will significantly influence its commercialisation

Further R&D
Stirling has recent experience of developing a user-friendly interface for a condition monitoring system. This work made use of an Innovation Voucher from the UK Technology Strategy Board to fund collaboration with a graphic design company. Further work could be performed to adapt this architecture to apply to the outputs from the PIGWaves signal processing software. Research collaborations could be formed with other organizations specialising in user interfaces, ergonomics and ‘big data’ exploitation.

Demonstrations to potential licensees
A demonstration should be set up that presents the outputs of pipe survey in a manner that can be understood by the likely end-users. Such a demonstration could be performed at any location with stored data from a previous survey.

Other potential impacts from exploitation
If the outputs from the signal processing tool and the user interface are sufficiently straightforward to interpret, then this will allow this type of NDT system to be used more widely in industry without all users requiring a very high level of skill and training, therefore creating more opportunities for exploitation of such NDT systems.

5. Diameter adaptable LRUT collar

The innovation is on the use of internal LRUT for the pigging industry. Current pigs use different technologies like eddy current or MFL testing. Also GW is used for pipelines inspection but never both technologies had been used together before.
The diameter adaptable collar is also able to adapt to different pipe sizes so a specific tool is not required for each pipeline.

Methods of exploitation
An indirect route to exploitation following the end of the project would be the use of the collar, NDT sensors and software in other applications where the survey of inaccessible pipes is required. For short (<50m), inaccessible pipes, it would not be necessary for the sensors to travel within the pipe and inserting the system within the accessible end of the pipe would allow sufficient data to be received. Also, for inspections of vertical downpipes of any lengths, then the collar and sensor package could be deployed without any need for the robot or the wireless communication system.

Technical considerations
Considerations are likely to include the range of diameters that such an expandable collar could achieve, either as part of this project, or manufactured to different sizes outside the project. The pipe sizes were defined on the initial specifications after defining the most used pipes sizes and standards.

Market considerations
Stirling will identify the other potential markets to understand the range of pipes (diameters and accessible lengths) that could be surveyed and the existing alternative methods that are available. Stirling will demonstrate the technology to its existing customers in the nuclear and water industries (eg EDF Energy and Wessex Water). Stirling will approach existing manufacturers and inspection companies to assess the interest in applying this inspection technique to existing pigs and also the opportunities for pipe inspections that would not require the use of the robot or the wireless communication system.

Barriers to commercialization
In general, the oil and gas industry is reluctant to allow new technology into an operational environment. For the LRUT collar to be commercially viable, the system needs to demonstrate that that it is fail-safe in all conditions and there is no possibility of it obstructing the pipe.

Further R&D
To be completed during the course of the project. A future development could be the construction of a stand-alone collar arrangement (without the robot) that could be used for static pipe inspections. The level of development required to produce a standalone system consisting of the collar, sensors and signal processing hardware/software would be relatively low. A demonstration of the system in a realistic operational environment could raise the TRL to 7.

Demonstrations to potential licensees
The demonstration of the collar would show that the collar could expand and contract to work for the entire range of pipe diameters claimed in the system specification. Stirling plans to demonstrate the collar & NDT sensors used in isolation to inspect vertical pipes. The prototype system that will be available at the end of the project is expected to be in a state that could be demonstrated with little modification. Stirling has successfully conducted a similar demonstration event for another EU R&D project (REMO).

Other potential impacts from exploitation
An attractive use of the LRUF collar and sensors is in the use of shale gas downpipe inspections. A large number of these pipes are in place around the world. The extraction of shale gas raises concerns amongst the public regarding the leaking of gas from faulty downpipes, even after the gas extraction has been completed and the oil field closed. A fast accurate method of inspecting downpipes could address this issue.

6. Complete PIGWaves System

The complete PIGWaves system comprises all the sub-systems mentioned above.

Methods of exploitation
The direct exploitation route will be the stated use of the system to survey oil pipes such as those used by Repsol. Indirectly, following the project, Stirling’s aim is to demonstrate the benefits of the PIGWaves system to their contacts in other industries where the inspection of inaccessible pipes is a critical issue (such as water and nuclear).

Market considerations
The exploitation of various elements of the IP at different TRLs to different customers would be a safe route to consider by the SMEs.

Barriers to commercialization
There might be serious concerns in the industry about placing novel devices into a real pipeline due to operational and safety issues. Further investments and technical developments will have to be carried out in the near future in order to achieve the TRL-8 or TRL-9 level.

Further R&D
Once the project is completed and the prototype is successfully demonstrated, further work will be required to produce a robust, commercial product. The most likely route to funding for such development would be through the ITF or through the new EU Horizon 2020 SME Instrument.

Demonstrations to potential licensees
The final demonstration during the course of the project was on a representative section of pipe with known defects. The defect size progression was detected for different types of features. The results of this demonstration were recorded through technical reports and videos, photographs, etc. The demonstration hardware and the evidence collected during the demonstration trials will be made available to all future potential users.

Other potential impacts from exploitation
Access to the exploitable results of the PIGWaves project will give different opportunities of exploitation to the SMEs partners on several routes which have been identified.

The results will give a significant boost to Stirling’s business development in the energy sector. Previously, Stirling supplied consultancy and analysis services, but the ability to offer a product should generate much larger market opportunities.

On a general socio-economic perspective, the primary use for the PIGWaves system would be for oil companies to maintain and protect their assets and commercial interests. However, there is a major social benefit in that the system will allow for the inspection and protection of buried pipeline where failures could potentially cause serious environmental damage. This is also the case if the technology is applied in different contexts, such as the inspection of borehole casings in shale gas exploration. In many circumstances, the PIGWaves system may be the best way of detecting defects and preventing leaks.

[11] Protection of project results

The Umbilical-free Swimming Robot is designed to carry out the LRUT NDT inspections inside the current unpiggable pipelines using the below mentioned operational specifications:
− To have the appropriate size, morphology and construction, taking into account the technical requirements and the pipeline and underwater restrictions.
− To use the liquid flow to move the robot downstream reducing the energy demands.
− To codify in Python an embedded software to control and monitor the status of the robotic platform inside the pipe. All movements of the modules have to be properly synchronized to prevent mechanical collisions and protect the integrity of the robot structure.
− To calculate the real position of the robot inside the pipe, taking into account a reference point previously defined.
− To carry the NDT collar inside the pipe and place the LRUT transducers touching the inner walls of the pipe.
InnotecUK has constructed the PIGWaves robot in order to deliver the IPR rights to DRAXIS by connecting the individual mechanical and electrical components that have been manufactured, integrated and assembled, such as: wheels modules, rotary joints, electronic modules, brake system, NDT collar module, umbrella module and control system.
Furthermore, DRAXIS will have the ownership of the design of the swimming/floating robot description in D2.1 the manufacturing process and the final prototype in D2.2 the SCADA system specifications in D6.1 and the detailed validation of the results of tests performed on test bed and field trials in D7.1.

DRAXIS owns the IP rights on the SCADA system; particularly DRAXIS will receive (1) the working executable program of the high level software of the SCADA system and (2) the documentation manual describing the features and correct operation of the SCADA system. The high level software provides the interface between the operator and the robot and allows data recovery once the robot is retrieved from the pipe and data analysis. The SCADA system has been developed by IKH.
Particularly, the PIGWaves SCADA system includes (1) the low-level part that incorporates the embedded controller installed on board and (2) the high-level part that incorporates the Man Machine Interface.
− The low-level part is responsible for interfacing with the control systems of the PIGWaves robot and the LRUT collar ensuring the correct operation of the PIGWaves system. The embedded controller interfaces with the robot sensors responsible for navigation, controls the movements of the collar/brake and detects alarm conditions on the condition of the robot. The external communications are performed by means of the slave modem installed on board.
− The high-level part is responsible for providing the interface to the operator for communicating with the PIGWaves robot that travels along the pipeline. The interface between the master modem and the operator of the system is implemented through serial RS-232 connection and was developed in Visual C++. Additionally, the high level controller houses the ‘NDT Flaw Detector Software’ block, which has the capability to load the inspection files and perform the analysis for defect detection.

The wireless in-pipe communications system was developed according to PIGWaves specifications to operate in water filled pipes. The wireless communication system employs frequencies in the range 150kHz-190kHz. The wireless communication system consists of two modems that house the hardware electronics;
− The master modem located at the pipe entry and connected to the operator’s PC through serial RS232 connection,
− The slave modem located at the electronics module of the PIGWaves robotic device that travels along the pipeline.
The wireless communication system is responsible for communicating commands from the system’s operator to the PIGWaves robotic device in order to control the NDT inspection procedure and monitor the status of the robotic device. Each transmitted command is represented by 135 bits (ie 15 characters × 9 bits per character). The wireless communication system is accompanied by specifically developed software that performs the functionalities mentioned earlier.

The signal processing software was developed according to PIGWaves specifications. The software is responsible for presenting and analysing the data acquired by the LRUT NDT system. The signal processing software allows the system operator to select and load the NDT data acquired from each sensor of the LRUT collar, and perform data processing operations such as signal sum, and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The signal processing software will process the data acquired by the LRUT transducer collar. It should be noted that the signal processing will be performed offline.
The IPR for signalling processing software entails ownership of the software responsible with the processing and analysing the data from LRUT collar sensors from PIGWaves robot. The NDT acquisition system is provided with the data acquisition software which is able to run the hardware for transmission, reception and inspection data storage.
This activity was performed by IKH and TWI.

The systems consists on a circular collar that is adaptable to different diameter pipes and can be extended to the inner circumference of a pipe from a retracted state that is a minimum to allow passage through the specified aperture and bend radius. The IPR of the adaptable LRUT collar entails ownership of the complete NDT collar module from the PIGWaves final system..

The collar prototype is based on the design specifications with dimensions and forms. Mechanical calculation of material resistance with regard to the hydraulic force and pressure was performed. An interface with the robot was developed jointly with the robot designers.

Long range ultrasound guided wave system capable of detecting specified defects in pipe segments of specified length and diameters (150-350mm). The IPR of the LRUT NDT system entails ownership of the NDT system module from the PIGWaves final system. The design of each individual component will be owned by its original provider/supplier. The prototype includes the state of the Art Pulser-Receiver which includes the high power narrow band electrical pulses with high pulse repetition frequency in the range specified in WP1.

The NDT acquisition system will be provided with the data acquisition software which is able to run the hardware for transmission, reception and inspection data storage. The IPR for software is however not owned by Stirling Dynamics as the software was purchased on commercial basis.

Potential Impact:

Expected final results and potential impacts
The goal of PIGWaves project was to provide a single internal in-service pipe inspection tool capable of inspecting both piggable and currently unpiggable oil pipelines of steel construction and internal diameters of 150-300mm that provides 100% volume inspection for features such as hard spots, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion and erosion.

The goal was to achieve the following innovations:
- Perform total volume inspection far more rapidly and cheaply using LRUT sensors that are able to detect significant corrosion in oil and gas pipelines typically within 50 metres of the sensors. Long lengths of pipe can be scanned very rapidly with sample wave echo patterns obtained every 50 metres thereby providing additional advantages over existing pig inspection technology.
- The LRUT collar and the robot deploying it will be adaptive to the diameter of the pipe to enable the robot to inspect progressively narrowing or increasing diameters.
- Enable pipelines with diameter reductions caused by obstacles, sharp bends, and little or no flow to be inspected.

Expected final results
1. LRUT NDT equipment.
2. Umbilical-free swimming robot.
3. SCADA system.
4. Wireless in-pipe communication system.
5. Signal processing software.
6. Diameter adaptable LRUT collar.
7. Complete PIGWaves system.

Potential impacts
Oil and gas transmission lines are generally owned by specialist distribution companies, which have a small technical and engineering base. Most of their maintenance activities are therefore outsourced. This presents many new opportunities for SME contractors. This is particularly true in the areas of inspection, non-destructive testing (NDT), machining and welding, where SMEs dominate the market and form a total of 15,000 SMEs employing some 375,000 persons. Estimates put these markets as growing annually by 10%. It is expected that the consortium SMEs can benefit from exploiting the pipeline inspection market potential that addresses the needs of major European industries such as Oil & Gas, power generation and petrochemicals. The world has a pipeline infrastructure of 2 million kilometres of which 26.5% are in Europe. Many of these pipelines carry hazardous fluids, oil products, chemicals, caustic acids, corrosives and combustible gases. Corrosion and defects in inaccessible areas of pipelines can remain undetected until a leak occurs due to pipeline failure which can wreak havoc for the environment as well as the economy.

Apart from the benefits to the Consortium SMEs, the total economic impact of the project will result from inclusion of the PIGWaves project benefits since pipelines represent a considerable financial investment and are significant business assets.

PIGWaves will have many societal impacts on the European community too, and are listed below:
- Health & Safety: After several drastic pipeline failures, there is increasing public awareness of the hazards that are associated with pipelines, particularly when these pipes are buried near built-up areas, roads and railways. There is also concern about possible leakage of oil and gas into the environment, particularly in waterways, where pipeline leaks can lead to increasingly heavy penalties.

- Employment: Maintenance of Europe's infrastructure, its pipeline network in particular, is of vital importance to its economy. There is a growing demand for new technological solutions to its problems and the robot vehicle developed in this project will not only solve the particular problem of maintaining oil pipelines buried under rivers, railways and road ways, but will also open up new possibilities for maintaining pipelines under buildings, water mains and sewers carrying a variety of tools.

- Environment: By automating the inspection of unpiggable lengths of pipelines, the PIGWaves project will indirectly promote the use of pipelines for transporting oil and other hazardous substances. This will reduce the environmental pollution caused by surface modes of transport such as oil tankers on motorways. Furthermore, by reducing the risk of pipeline failure through fast & in-service detection of pipeline defects, the project will prevent catastrophic pollution.

- Quality of Life: The PIGWaves project will help EU maintain its leadership position in innovative technological development and enhance the quality of life as a result of its environmental benefits mentioned above.

The project will also contribute to several EU policies and directives by promoting innovation and the participation of four SMEs and three RTDs from across Europe. European social and economic cohesion will benefit through transfer of technology to less technically advanced regions, assisted by the inclusion of Poland and Greece in the consortium. PIGWaves will contribute to the following International standards: ISO 13623 (Pipeline transportation systems), ISO 16708 (Pipeline reliability-based limit state design) and ISO 21239 (Test procedures for pipeline mechanical connectors).


Stirling Dynamics is committed to growing its business in the energy sector, particularly focusing on condition monitoring. For this reason, the company felt it was highly appropriate to engage with the PIGWaves project following the withdrawal of Tangent Technologies. Stirling view that the technology developed during the project will enable the company to grow its business in this new area. Stirling has already held initial discussions with companies regarding the exploitation of the complete PIGWaves system and also concerning the exploitation of the specific elements to be retained by Stirling, ie the NDT sensors and collar. There are opportunities to work with other companies to integrate the new technology with existing inspection devices, but there is also significant potential to use the new device as a standalone system to inspect pipework such as shale gas boreholes.

Exploitation Plans
To support these exploitation routes, following the completion of the project, Stirling will arrange a demonstration of the inspection system to interested parties. Stirling recently conducted a similar demonstration jointly with TWI on another EU funded project REMO) which resulted in significant industry interest. To support any further development of the technology, Stirling has contacts within the ITF (Industry Technology Facilitator) – a UK-based organization that funds R&D within the oil and gas industry.

ASSIST Software has strong expertise in providing innovative solutions as well as supplying technology implementation at a professional level in this domain. The work of the PIGWaves project will help to establish expertise in the co-operative applications that rely heavily on wireless in-pipe communication technology and signal processing software. The methodology, technology and architecture well-proven in this project will help to extent and sustain expertise and capabilities of ASSIST in this domain. This knowledge will be the foundation for further technological activities on national and European-wide level.
This project will be beneficial for ASSIST in opening new markets to related industries that will profit from new technological opportunities.
ASSIST has three aspects of interest that are covered by the PIGWaves project:
• ASSIST is convinced that developing the wireless in-pipe communication system will be essential for the next stage of future-proof technology and implementation in the industry. PIGWaves will extend the existing expertise in the field to innovative technologies.
• Future assistant systems will rely on signal processing software to expand the technology on all types of pipes. ASSIST will integrate this information in future national and European projects and prove its relevance.
The contribution to the complete PIGWaves System will not only apply this expertise to the project but also extent the knowledge and experience of ASSIST.

As a result of the project, ASSIST Software and its project partners intend to commercialize PIGWaves Robot to local Oil & Gas industries companies. In this respect ASSIST will make efforts in opening a new market by getting in contact with the main national industry players like Petrom.

Exploitation Plans
Further on, ASSIST will make use of the expertise and knowledge gained during PIGWaves project development in future national and European projects.

ASSIST will also use the technology obtained in this project as a basis for industry related markets such as robotics manufacturers, water companies, research institutes, energy sector and other industry related organizations.

Research and innovation play a key role in DRAXIS development. The continuous devotion to new technologies and innovative solutions, through our active involvement in National and European Projects, allows us to grow with high quality of services and technological standards. DRAXIS provides services to the public sector or private organizations in terms of operational efficiency improvement through the environmental and energy point of view.

During PIGWaves project, DRAXIS has contributed in many aspects, but the most important was the overall validation and exploitation of the outputs obtained by the laboratory and the field trials. Closing this project, DRAXIS will benefit from the use of project results. Specifically, DRAXIS will use the SCADA system and the robot functionalities, as well as the complete PIGWaves System at fair and reasonable conditions.

In terms of PIGWaves impact, the project provides expertise in the fields of automation, robotics and SCADA system development to DRAXIS. Companies and organizations that will endorse the PIGWaves solution will have competitive advantage against other global actors in the field of pipeline technology. Meanwhile, the establishment of a sustainable supply chain for the PIGWaves solution, through the cooperation with companies in energy and industry sector will create an added value impact on DRAXIS activities.

Exploitation Plans
PIGWaves exploitation is understood to refer to measures related to the utilisation and impact of outcomes during the project, and - more importantly - after its end. The exploitation of the results of PIGWaves amounts to the setting up of a commercial operational service. As such, DRAXIS produces an exploitation strategy outlining the main issues to be taken into consideration for bringing the PIGWaves services to the market. This strategy will help DRAXIS to deploy a target market approach using specific business cases, thus to enhance commercialisation and sustainability.

In this context, DRAXIS has already recorded the potential clients in the field of NDT, pipelines and Oil & Gas industries, which operating in Greece and the neighboring countries. The above mentioned mapping will help DRAXIS to evaluate the potential business market.
This exploitation plan will take into consideration the role of the geostrategic area of Northern Greece and Southern Balkans in terms of pipeline planning and fuel distribution. In short term perspective, the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP - offers a vast business opportunity to commercialize PIGWaves results.

Furthermore, there will be assessed all potential exploitation routes such as organized service solutions, individual supplies and consultation, even the possibility of PIGWaves application in water pipelines. All these market routes will be analysed and financially validated in order to determine DRAXIS business plan.

Exploitation Plans
Repsol is doing a continuous effort on research and development of new technologies to support and improve exploration and production activities all around the world. The Upstream Technology team considers this European project as a great opportunity to have a better insight on current subsea inspection technologies, and also discover potential innovative solutions aligned with key technology areas of the strategic plans for the company related to offshore developments. It was a very interesting project to collaborate with, the advantages of the overall system are promising for the near future, and/or each individual progress of consortium members’ technologies could be further developed and exploited by separately with different technological partners. Although significant advances were achieved during the project, probably, the level of maturity would not be enough to perform a field trial in our facilities without additional tests with the overall system in confined environments, especially to validate accurate results on oil&gas pipelines.


Conferences and Exhibitions

The PIGWaves results have been disseminated along many conferences and exhibitions. The most relevant are surmised next.
- Pigging Products & Services Association (PSSA) Conferences
− The PPSA is an international trade association serving the pipeline industry ‘To promote the knowledge of pigging and its related products and services by providing a channel of communication between the members themselves and with users and other interested parties.’
− The PPSA event’s calendar summarise the most important word wide pipeline events. The Pipeline Technology Conference has a particular interest to PIGWaves project and abstracts have been submitted to both the 9th and 10th conference.

-International Pipeline Conference
− The 9th Pipeline Technology Conference is the Europe's Leading Conference and Exhibition on New Pipeline Technologies. It will take place the 12-14th May 2014 at Estrel Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
o TWI submitted an abstract describing the main objectives and scope of PIGWaves project.
o The number of received abstracts exceeded the number of presentation time slots many times over. Therefore, the organisation was not able to include PIGWaves suggestion into the final program.
− The 10th Pipeline Technology Conference is the Europe's Leading Conference and Exhibition on New Pipeline Technologies. It will take place on the 8-10 June 2015 at Estrel Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
o For the second time, TWI submitted an abstract describing the main technology results and benefits of PIGWaves project. All received abstracts were reviewed within the PTC advisory committee and PIGWaves was accepted on the conference programme under the In Line Inspection section on the 9th June.
o The presented papers will be published in the conference proceedings and distributed to the conference attendees. Each speaker gets a presentation time of 20 minutes. All abstracts and papers will also be published in the abstract database.

-COMSOL conference. September 17th, 18th and 19th, 2014 at Churchill College, Cambridge, UK.
− The work presented at the COMSOL Conference goes a long way. Oral and poster presentations highlight achievements in multiphysics modelling and simulations using COMSOL. The published work is recognized by a worldwide audience that reaches over 150,000 people. PIGWaves modelling developed by COMSOL simulation software was shown in front of this audience with the aim of distributing the behavior and the opportunities of using Guided Waves for internal inspection. The novel concept of incorporating this technique on an inspection pig was published trough PIGWaves modelling results.
− TWI submitted an abstract describing the main ideas of PIGWaves project named ‘Internal in-line inspection of Pipelines using LRUT’. The abstract received the confirmation of acceptance of the paper.
− Papers as well as posters can be submitted to be presented at this event. In this case, a poster was submitted and GW propagation results were shown on the exhibition.

- Fixing problems in pipelines
− The technical Conference, Training Courses, and Exhibition took place between the 21st and 24th October, 2014 at Berlin, Germany. Proposals for papers and presentations were invited. Broad areas of interest will be treated as Inspection (internal and external) or Integrity assessment which include PIGWaves concept.
− This international conference and its accompanying exhibition will cover a wide range of issues concerning pipeline rehabilitation, ranging from the initial stages of evaluation of a pipeline's condition to the steps required to undertake rehabilitation of the structure to ensure its continued fitness-for-purpose and prolong its economic lifetime. The event is being planned not only to discuss the latest developments in the industry, but also to showcase some of the industry's latest achievements, and to provide an unmatched opportunity of both networking and learning.
− TWI submitted an abstract describing the main ideas of PIGWaves project named ‘Internal in-line inspection of Unpiggable Pipelines using LRUT’. The abstract received the confirmation of acceptance of the paper.
− The time allotted for the presentation was 30 minutes, which includes a period for discussion.
− PIGWaves paper and results were presented on Friday 24th October under ‘Inspection and Data’ topic by Ángela Angulo, TWI Ltd, Great Abington, UK.
− Many attendees from companies like ROSEN and Inspector systems showed their interest in PIGWaves system and in the use of Guided Waves for internal inspection.

− IEEE ICIT is one of the flagship yearly conferences of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, devoted to the dissemination of new ideas, research and works in progress within the fields of intelligent and computer control systems, robotics, factory communications and automation, flexible manufacturing, data acquisition and signal processing, vision systems, and power electronics.
− From IKH, Nikos Makris presented the paper entitled ‘Underwater Wireless In-Pipe Communications System’ on Tuesday 17th March at 14:30 on the Triana room of the Hotel Meliá Sevilla in Seville Spain.

- SubSea Expo
− SubSea Expo 2015 took place at Aberdeen AECC on 11-13th February 2015. TWI and Stirling Dynamics were present at the event as a project continuous networking and exploitation.
− For the first time, TWI Ltd had a stand at the exhibition. PIGWaves video and dissemination materials were shown at TWI's booth.
− This event was the ideal opportunity to see innovative technology in action, develop new business leads, make contacts and meet existing competitors and colleagues.
− Following the SubSea event, Stirling Dynamics have attended SubSea South West networking events in Bristol in order to meet industry operators and promote the PIGWaves project.

- ASSIST Workshop – ‘Stefan cel Mare’ University of Suceava, November 2014
− The aim of the workshop was to present the Complete PIGWaves System to a significant number of students and university teachers from the Faculty of Automation Control, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science in order to raise awareness of latest technology on the market.
− International Computers Contest for Students Hard & Soft - Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Suceava, May 2015
− The event has a focus on topics that require a close link between hardware and software in real world applications of computers and ICT.
− PIGWaves Project results will be presented by Cristian Spoiala – CTO, ASSIST SOFTWARE.

PIGWaves project logo
The logo of the project significantly contributes towards the dissemination of the system as it is the symbol that appears on every outcome of the project, from the website to press releases and advertisements. The logo is a powerful tool in the field of advertisement and visually-appealing logo helps at improving the presentation of the project in a given community. The PIGWaves logo has been selected in such a way to provide the project and the final system a unique personality. This task is also accompanied by the project’s acronym; however the effect of the logo is more pronounced in the communication of the project.

PIGWaves project logo Website
The PIGWaves website has been developed by IKH and it forms the basic communication platform between the consortium and any external interested entity. The PIGWaves website serves as the reference point for all those interested on the PIGWaves results, ie it is responsible for disseminating project results and for providing information related to the project. The website address that has been booked for the PIGWaves project is
During the course of the project, the website will be enriched with dissemination material by all the Consortium members. It is highlighted that the website consists of a public and private section, the private containing confidential information to the consortium. It should be noted that all the information presented in the public section of the website will receive the approval of the SMEs prior to the dissemination. The website will host links to the internal tools that will be developed throughout the PIGWaves project activities.
The PIGWaves webpage is accessible according to Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) guidelines of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). This means that disabled people cannot only perceive, understand, navigate, interact with the Web, but also they can contribute to the webpage. Web accessibility also benefits others, including older people with changing abilities due to aging. These features help towards maximizing the available audience for disseminating project’s results.

PIGWaves project logo Brochure
General information on the project has been summarised in a SOIMON Leaflet, which will be translated by project partners into their local languages and distributed during national conferences and seminars.
The project brochure has been transaled to Spanish.: ‘Servicio en línea de inspección interna para tuberías de crudo enterradas no piggeables utilizando ultrasonidos de largo alcance (LRUT) en segmentos de 50metros’.

PIGWaves project Video
As part of the project dissemination activities, a Video of PIGWaves validation trials was produced and uploaded on YouTube. For more information please refer to D9.2 – PIGWaves Video. This will be the official project video and will be used to engage potential companies which could be interested on either the product and its subsystems or in further developments This action will be taken not only during the course of the project but also in further investments of continuous product development.

Several events where PIGWaves has been presented have been advertised on the professional network LinkedIn.

PIGWaves video was uploaded in YouTube after the public presentation in SubSea Expo (

List of Websites:
More information can be found in the PIGWaves project website
For more information about the project contact:
Dr Slim Soua, Project coordinator
Granta Park, Great Abington
CB21 6AL
+44 (0) 1223 899000

Furthermore, project logo, diagrams or photographs illustrating and promoting the work of the project (including videos, etc…), as well as the list of all beneficiaries with the corresponding contact names can be submitted without any restriction.