"The manner by which fluid flows go from a laminar to a chaotic turbulent state is striking, and has significant biological, environmental and technological implications. As a result, a great deal of research effort has focused not only on studying transition to turbulence, but also on predicting and controlling its onset. To date, most of the advanced techniques for transition research have focused primarily on the ``pathways to turbulence"" in Newtonian, or simple, fluids. These efforts, however, exclude a major class of flows, namely complex and non-Newtonian fluids, which are at the core of the pharmaceutical industry, oil and gas, and plastic and paper-making processes. The proposed research addresses this gap: a framework for the simulations of the linear and non-linear stages of instability in two-fluid, non-Newtonian flows will be established, and will be used to characterise and control transition in two-phase non-Newtonian jets, a flow configuration ubiquitous in the above technologies. The subject of the fellowship is innovative as the dynamics of non-Newtonian jets are less explored relative to their Newtonian counterpart. The latter have been the subject of recent advances in stability and direct simulation techniques, some of which were developed by the applicant. These recently developed methods are key to the design, optimisation and control of non-Newtonian flows which have numerous industrial and commercial applications. Furthermore, predictive capabilities and design tools for other transitional flows will improve, since the study of stability of non-Newtonian jets can be translated to a host of other shear flows. The fellowship will translate the candidate's expertise in advanced instability methods from Newtonian to non-Newtonian flows, will further the candidate's academic career, and will foster intra-European scientific exchange, such as a cooperation between Imperial College London and Swedish Royal Institute of Technology."
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