Final Activity Report Summary - HSCN2005 (Helsinki winter school in cognitive neuroscience 2005) The HSCN2005 course had a multidisciplinary and multimethodological program into sound perception and cognition in humans. To this end, lectures on physiology, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuroscience were given by the leading experts in the field. In addition, tutorials on biophysical basics of electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were given.The lectures were thematically arranged as following:1. Theories in audition. Several influential theories on how perceive and organise the sound environment are introduced.2. Structure of the auditory system. The neural pathways from the ear to the brain are covered as well as the functional organisation of the auditory cortex and its interaction with higher brain areas.3. Attention and memory. The importance of voluntary and involuntary attention to the proper analysis of the sound environment is explained. Furthermore, auditory sensory memory functions in the absence of attention as well as their pathologies are addressed.4. Development and plasticity. Development of hearing is introduced from fetus up to the adulthood. Furthermore, functional changes in the brain due to learning and rehabilitation are addressed in the case of acquired and developmental disorders.5. Language. Perception and learning of language are addressed, ranging from the perception of phonetic structure to bilingualism. In addition, cases of deteriorated language functions are introduced.6. Music. Neurocognition of music is described in terms of musical expectations, musical expertise, and music-induced emotions.After the theory-based course, the students participated in a hands-on course arranged in Helsinki laboratories. During this part of the program, each participant had the opportunity to familiarise him/herself with one or two of the several methods available in the Helsinki region unfamiliar to him/her (fMRI, MEG, TMS, and OI.