European Commission logo
English English
CORDIS - EU research results
Content archived on 2024-05-29

Coordinated accelerator research in Europe

Final Report Summary - CARE (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe)

The main objective of the CARE project was to generate a structured and integrated European area in the field of accelerator research and related R&D. A set of integrating activities involving the largest European infrastructure laboratories and their user communities active in accelerator R&D, including industrial partners, was established with the following general objectives:

1) To optimise the use of existing infrastructures for improving the European knowledge on accelerator physics:
a) by promoting a coherent and coordinated utilisation and development of infrastructures and to facilitate the access to accelerators and test facilities for carrying accelerator studies; and
b) by understanding accelerator operation and reliability issues.

2) To tackle new or state-of-the-art technologies in a more coordinated and collaborative approach:
a) by developing a coherent and coordinated accelerator R&D program in Europe and carrying out joint R&D projects allowing one to enhance the existing (or in construction) facilities provided by the research infrastructures;
b) by developing and testing advanced accelerator components;
c) by exploring and testing new ideas and concepts; more generally, by establishing a closer interaction between a large number of scientists;
d) by developing further and reinforcing the European expertise for the conception, design, development, construction and operation of new particle accelerators for high energy physics.

The framework of CARE successfully integrated the subjects, the infrastructures and the expertise. Studies on several types of used and planned accelerator were integrated, in line with the recommendation and priorities set forward in the European Committee for Future Accelerator (ECFA) report on the future of accelerator-based physics in Europe:
- electron linear accelerator and collider;
- neutrino (muon) beams;
- high-energy / high-intensity proton accelerators.

CARE included all the relevant infrastructures allowing one to develop an overall efficient R&D program for accelerators and establish the first step toward a pan-European distributed technological platform to carry research on accelerator. The proposed activities were articulated around:
- large scale facilities, including the existing or in construction state-of-the-art accelerators (CERN accelerator complex including LHC, DESY accelerator complex as well as those from LNF, RAL, PSI, GSI);
- large-scale accelerator test facilities (CTF at CERN, FLASH at DESY);
- specialised large and medium size infrastructures allowing one to develop and test specific accelerator concepts and components (LNF, RAL, PSI, CEA/Saclay, CNRS-IN2P3/Orsay).

Most European experts involved in the conception, design, development and construction of accelerator for particle physics have participated to the CARE project.

CARE was articulated around three Networking activities (NAs) and four Joint research activities (JRAs) including the most advanced scientific and technological developments relevant to accelerator research for particle physics.

The aim of the NAs was to foster and strengthen the European knowledge to evaluate and develop efficient and cost effective methods to produce intense and high-energy electron, proton, muon and neutrino beams as recommended by ECFA. They managed to establish the following:
- comparative studies on the various techniques, established collaborative;
- prioritised R&D programs aimed at improving the exiting infrastructures;
- technical roadmaps toward their longer-term evolution and the construction of new facilities of worldwide interest.

The four JRAs aimed at developing critical or beyond the state-of-the-art components and systems allowing one to upgrade the infrastructures. They included:
- SRF: the development of the superconducting cavity technology for the acceleration of electrons with gradient exceeding 35 MV/m and the development of the subsequent necessary superconducting RF technology.
- PHIN: an R&D program for improving the technology of photo-injectors, in particular to match the severe requirements necessary for demonstrating the two beam acceleration concepts, new generation light sources and novel acceleration technique.
- HIPPI: the integrated developments of normal and superconducting structures for the acceleration of very high-intensity proton beams as well as challenging beam chopping magnets.
- NED: the development and mastering of the technology for reaching very high magnetic field (>15 T) and high current densities (>1500 A/mm2).
The JRAs were closely connected and of extreme importance for the NAs.

The main outcomes of the project were the following:
- Considerably strengthened the European expertise and know-how in the field of accelerator R&D, far beyond the sole capacity of the largest research centres (such as CERN and DESY) to carry forefront accelerator R&D. This can be considered as a major EU added value.
- Helped many European institutes and universities for developing their competences on activities that are at (or beyond) the state-of-the-art technology in contact with the best experts in Europe. This collaborative effort can be viewed as a first step toward the long-term sustainability of accelerator R&D in Europe.
- Furthered the contact and the involvement of industry in R&D activities (12 companies have participated actively to the CARE activities).
- Established the basic development work allowing the future strategic decisions to be made on sound technological basis. CARE has provided several necessary technological inputs to ECFA and CERN council.
- Identified the common issues relevant to other fields, contacted these communities and proposed common activities.

CARE ensured the emergence of new ideas, new projects and new collaborations in a coordinated way and hence provided all the ingredients for the long-term sustainability of the collaborative effort in the field of accelerator research, which it initiated.

The main objectives of the first NA (coordination of studies and technical R&D for electron linear accelerators and colliders) was the coordination of R&D on electron accelerators on European level as well as evaluating the various technologies for improving the present infrastructures and defining a roadmap for future electron accelerators and colliders, including new techniques of acceleration.

The aim of the second NA (beams for European Neutrino Experiments) was to coordinate and integrate the activities of the accelerator and particle physics communities working together, in a worldwide context, towards achieving superior neutrino beam facilities for Europe. The final objectives were:
1) to establish a road map for upgrade of our present facility and the design and construction of new ones;
2) to assemble a community capable of sustaining the technical realisation and scientific exploitation of these facilities; and
3) to foster a sequence of carefully prioritized and coordinated initiatives capable to establish, propose and execute the R&D efforts necessary to achieve these goals.

The main objective of the third NA (coordination of studies and technical R&D for high-energy high-intensity hadron beams) was the evaluation of the various technologies for achieving hadron beams with energies and intensities above those currently at hand and the definition of a roadmap for the construction for a future hadron collider after the LHC.

The main objective of the first JRA (research and development on superconducting radio-frequency technology for accelerator application) was the research and development of the technique allowing the realization of superconducting cavities reaching high accelerating gradient (>35 MV/m) and lower RF losses (higher quality factor), including the realisation and tests of prototype cavities leading to the improvement of the FLASH facility for accelerator R&D. Conducting R&D on radio-frequency systems and components to improve the technical performance and reliability of superconducting RF linear accelerators while reducing cost, including the verification of design improvements on FLASH with high gradient cavities and beam.

The main objective of the second JRA (charge production with Photo-injectors) was to perform research and development on charge-production by interaction of laser pulse with material within RF field and improve or extend the existing infrastructures in order to fulfil the objectives. Also the coordination of work performed at various Institutes on photo-injectors.

Regarding the third JRA (high intensity pulsed proton injector), its main objective was the research and development of the technology for high intensity pulsed proton linear accelerators up to an energy of 200 MeV.

The fourth JRA (next European dipole) had the following objectives:
1) to promote the development of high performance Nb3Sn wire in collaboration with European industry;
2) to develop a parametric design of a large-aperture (up to 88 mm), high-field (up to 15 T) Nb3Sn dipole magnet; and
3) to execute a limited scientific program on heat transfer studies and insulation development, both directly related to Nb3Sn conductor technology.