Final Activity Report Summary - CASCADECARBOHYDRATES (Catalytic cascade reactions, generic technology for glycobiology) Attachment of monosaccharides to toxic drugs moderates the toxicity making them more useful and also extending their half-life. Additionally mammals have developed transporter systems to enable sugars to pass through cell membranes and this property can prove very useful in enabling drugs to pass through the blood brain barrier to treat diseases of the brain. This project focussed on developing new catalytic cascade reactions to access novel sugar chemistry and hence provide new tools for addressing important disease targets. Catalytic processes, by employing tiny amounts of transition metals to assemble complex products with minimal waste , deliver valuable 'green' or clean chemical processes. When they are combined with cascade processes their value is multiplied because the cascade allows the assembly of 3, 4, 5,.....n different chemicals in one reactor thus producing only one waste stream , minimising energy inputs and maximising the efficient use of manufacturing plant and operating personnel. The project succeeded in generating many new catalytic cascade processes involving the assembly of three-five different chemical building blocks and examples of these were evaluated against bacterial targets, sugar transporters and the blood brain barrier with encouraging results. The project's success reflects the skill and dedication and enthusiasm of Dr Sakee the Marie Curie Fellow from Thailand.