The Council Directive "Urban Wastewater Treatment" [91/271/EEC], and very recently the Water Framework Directive [2000/60/EEC] have come to remind of the necessity of natural and energy saving appropriate treatment for the urban and domestic wastewater discharges with the objective of a "good ecological status" of European water by the year 2015. In this regard, the 5th Framework Programme has promoted research on the subject of urban and domestic wastewater treatment using appropriate treatment techniques. In particular, research projects have been launched, among others, on improvement of extensive treatment techniques to treat urban wastewater produced by agglomerations with less than 2000 PE, which have already a waste water collection network, but also must set up an appropriate treatment by the end of 2005."
Constructed wetlands" (CWs), one of the widely used extensive treatment techniques, are now standing as proper solutions for the treatment of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastewater in many part of the world due to their nutrient capturing capacity, simplicity, low construction, operation and maintenance cost, low energy demand and potential for creating biodiversity. Nowadays, vertical subsurface flow CWs with intermittent feeding are state-of-the-art in Europe. However, the larger surface area requirement (3-10 m2/PE) of the CWs to meet the specified quality objectives makes it sometimes impossible to set up these reed beds in small/medium communities, where land is at a premium. Therefore, several wetl and researchers have recently focused on optimisation of the design of CWs, on use of special substrates in CWs for enhanced nutrient removal, and also on the related pollutant retention mechanisms. In this context, the main objective of this proposed research is to quantify the effect of different natural and artificial substrates that are commercially available in the markets of Turkey, Austria and other.
Fields of science
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